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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

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That recipient is a vessel receiving liquids in volume measurements [16].?

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Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
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Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
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Your search for karst landscape evolution (Keyword) returned 8 results for the whole karstbase:
Some notes about landscape evolution in the Trieste Karst. Reading of the topographic maps time series (map 1:25000 "Poggioreale del Carso", foglio 40a iiso) , 1998, Castiglioni, Benedetta

Three editions (1915, 1926, 1962) of the same topographic map - 1:25,000 scale - were analysed in order to obtain some information about karst landscape evolution during the present century. Both natural and human landscape were observed, expecially landforms, vegetation and soil use. The analysis gives prominence in particular to progressive forest growing. Two main difficulties were met in this analysis. First, the scale 1:25,000 is not very suitable for looking at the extremely fragmented karst plateau landscape. Second, the comparison between the three maps is not always possible because they are drafted with different mapping techniques.


Karst landscape evolution, 2003, Kaufmann, G.

We present results of a numerical study of karst denudation on limestone plateaux. The landscape evolution model used incorporates not only long-range fluvial processes and short-range hill-slope processes, but also large-scale chemical dissolution of limestone surfaces. The relative efficiencies of fluvial and chemical processes are of equal importance to the landscape evolution of a plateau dropping to sea level along an escarpment. While fluvial processes have an impact confined to river channels, the karst denudation process is more uniform, removing material also from the plateau surface. The combined effect of both processes results in a landscape evolution almost twice as effective as the purely erosional evolution of an insoluble landscape.


Weathering, geomorphic work, and karst landscape evolution in the Cave City groundwater basin. Mammoth Cave, Kentucky., 2005, Groves ? , Meiman J.

Weathering, geomorphic work, and karst landscape evolution in the Cave City groundwater basin, Mammoth Cave, Kentucky, 2005, Groves C. , Meiman J. ,
Following the pioneering work of Wolman and Miller [Wolman, M.G., Miller, J.P., 1960. Magnitude and frequency of forces in geomorphic processes. J. Geol., 68, 54-74.] in evaluation of geomorphic work and the frequencies and magnitudes of forces that drive it, a large number of quantitative studies have focused on the evolution of fluvial systems and transport of elastic sediment. Less attention has been given to understanding frequencies and magnitudes of processes in rock weathering, including investigation of rates at which solutes are removed from landscapes under various flow distributions as an analog to Wolman and Miller's [Wolman, M.G., Miller, J.P., 1960. Magnitude and frequency of forces in geomorphic processes. J. Geol., 68, 54-74.] concept of geomorphic work. In this work, we use I year of high-resolution flow and chemical data to examine the work done in landscape evolution within and at the outlet of Kentucky's Cave City Basin, a well-developed karst landscape/aquifer system that drains about 25 km(2). We consider both removal of solutes contributing to landscape denudation based on calcium mass flux as well as predicted dissolution rates of the conduit walls at the outlet of this basin based on limestone dissolution kinetics. Intense, short-duration events dominate. Storms that filled the Logsdon River conduit occurred < 5% of the year but were responsible for 38% of the dissolved load leaving the system and from 63% to 100% of conduit growth for various scenarios of sediment influence. Landscape denudation is a linear function of the amount of water moving through the system, but conduit growth rates, and thus rates of recharge area evolution from fluvial to karst surface landscapes, depend both on the amount of water available and the distribution of precipitation. © 2004 Published by Elsevier B.V

Modle dvolution de paysages, application aux karsts en cockpit de Jamaque, 2007, Fleurant Cyril , Tucker Gregory, Viles Heather
LANDSCAPE EVOLUTION MODEL, EXAMPLE OF COCKPIT KARST TERRAINS, JAMAICA. A model of cockpit karst landscape evolution is presented. After explaining implementation of dissolution processes of limestone in the landscape evolution model CHILD, we develop a model of limestone denudation based on epikarst theory processes. The model takes into account an anisotropic dissolution in space and time according to what is observed in reality or described by scenarios of cockpit karst landscape evolution. This model requires a fractures network to take into account subsurface flow. Then, dissolution and thus fractures widening are computed and show a positive feedback between dissolution and flow. The relation between subcutaneous dissolution of fractures and denudation of the topography is introduced by means of an empirical equation associated with epikarst processes: the denudation is taken to be proportional to the dissolution in the subcutaneous zone. Simulated cockpit karst terrains are compared with real landscapes by means of morphometric criteria. Results of the model are very close to reality which hence confirms the importance of anisotropic dissolution processes and above all could be a numerical validation of the epikarst processes to describe cockpit karst genesis.

Cyclic sedimentation in Brazilian caves: Mechanisms and palaeoenvironmental significance, 2009, Auler Augusto S. , Smart Peter L, Wang Xianfeng, Piló, Luí, S B. , Edwards Lawrence, Cheng Hai

Caves associated with doline slopes in the tectonically stable area of eastern Brazil display remarkable sequences of clastic sediment intercalated with calcite layers. Sediment erosion has also occurred allowing access to formerly sediment-filled passages. The palaeoenvironmental meaning and chronology of these three processes (i.e. clastic sediment input, clastic sediment erosion, and speleothem precipitation) were studied in both semi-arid Campo Formoso and sub-humid Lagoa Santa areas through 230Th dating and stratigraphical analyses. The dry climate of the Campo Formoso area prevents speleothem deposition at present, but soil erosion results in valley aggradation and cave infilling. Growth periods of speleothems and travertines in this area have allowed the recognition of recurrent past phases of increased humidity correlated with wet conditions recorded in southeastern Brazil speleothem calcite. At the Lagoa Santa area there is limited speleothem precipitation and sediment input at present. However, sediment entrainment is actively exhuming speleothems and exposing cave passages. Sediment erosion inside caves in the area is interpreted as being due to intermediate climatic conditions, not wet enough to favour speleothem deposition and not too dry to allow doline slope erosion and sediment transport into caves.
Due to the low rates of denudation and isostatic rebound inherent to tectonically stable areas, cave passages will remain within the range of sediment infill and erosion for a much longer time than in tectonically active areas spanning, in average, at least three full glacial–interglacial cycles. As uplift proceeds, cave passages will be decoupled from the doline bottom and no longer will be affected by erosion or infilling episodes. Sediment filled passages in many caves in the Lagoa Santa region are relict features that display ancient clastic and chemical precipitation. The three processes described above have occurred throughout the life history of the caves, resulting in complex sediment assemblages that can, however, show significant intra- and inter-site variations.


Role of sediment in speleogenesis; sedimentation and paragenesis, 2011, Farrant Andrew R. , Smart Peter L.

Although the effects of sedimentation in caves have been recognised for many years, its role in speleogenesis is frequently overlooked. Influxes of sediment into a cave system fundamentally alter the way cave passages develop, either by alluviation in a vadose environment, forcing lateral corrosion and the development of notches, or by upwards dissolution in a phreatic environment through a process known as paragenesis. Sediment influxes affect the hydrological functioning of a karst aquifer by changing the way conduits behave and subsequently develop both in plan and long section.

Here we give an overview of the mechanisms of cave sedimentation and describe how the process of alluviation and paragenesis affect speleogenesis. A characteristic suite of meso- and micro-scale dissolutional features can be used to recognise paragenetic development, which is reviewed here. In a vadose environment these include alluvial notches, whilst in a phreatic environment, half tubes, anastomoses and pendants, bedrock fins and paragenetic dissolution ramps result. Using these to identify phases of sedimentation and paragenesis is crucial for reconstructing denudation chronologies from cave deposits. We suggest that sedimentation and paragenesis are most likely to occur in certain geomorphological situations, such as ice marginal and periglacial environments, beneath thick residual soils and where rivers can transport fluvial sediment into a cave, either via stream sinks or back-flooding.


FLANK MARGIN CAVES ON A PASSIVE CONTINENTAL MARGIN: NARACOORTE AND OTHER SOUTHERN AUSTRALIAN EXAMPLES, 2013, White Susan

 

Flank margin caves (FMC) have been predominantly described on carbonate islands such as in the Bahamas or the Marianas, using the Island Karst Model. This model has been used to explain karst development on young carbonate islands with poorly cemented eolianites, which differ substantially from continental karst, formed in well cemented limestones. Karst on continental margins especially the southern Australian coast, are not in well cemented telogenic rocks but in highly porous, highly permeable marine and eolian calcarenites. The gradual uplift over the past 50 Ma of the southern edge of the continent has resulted in Flank Margin Caves which formed in a coastal setting, being positioned significantly further inland and reflect the neotectonics of the Southern Australian passive continental margin rather than solely the Pleistocene glacio/eustatic sealevel fluctuations. The inter-relationship of tectonic setting, the distinctive characteristics of FMC and the speleogenesis of coastal karst assists in the understanding of the karst landscape evolution of significant karst areas of southern Australia.


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