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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That underflow is deep phreatic flow within an aquifer, along flow lines that are largely unrelated to the more obvious flow at higher levels. underflow drainage may be slower than that in shallower systems, and may travel towards more distant and/or unrelated springs [9].?

Checkout all 2699 terms in the KarstBase Glossary of Karst and Cave Terms

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KarstBase a bibliography database in karst and cave science.

Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
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Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
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Your search for ladder (Keyword) returned 10 results for the whole karstbase:
Some Notes on Ropes and Rope Ladders, 1952, Railton C. L.

The Design and Construction of Flexible Metal Ladder, 1963, Lord H.

Caving Ladder Construction under the Epoxy Resin Process, 1968, Ackland E. F. D.

Optimum Lengths for Caving Ladders and Ropes, 1979, Hindle Brian P.

Symposium on Techniques and Equipment - Ladders and Lifelines - A Biased Viewpoint, 1982, Elliot Dave

A Metallurgical Examination of a severely corroded section of Caving Ladder, 1983, Irwin D. J. , Reid S.

Physical response of a karst drainage basin to flood pulses: Example of the Devil's Icebox cave system (Missouri, USA), 1998, Halihan T. , Wicks C. M. , Engeln J. F. ,
In karst aquifers, water moves from the recharge area (sinkhole plains and swallets) to the discharge area (springs), traveling kilometers through the groundwater system in a period of hems to days. Transit rimes through karst aquifers are a function of the conduit geometry and connectedness, intensity and duration of the recharge event, and antecedent soil moisture. Often many of these factors are unknown or difficult to quantify. Therefore, predicting the response of a karst basin to recharge is difficult. Numerous researchers have attempted to understand the response of a karst basin, but a good understanding of whether the response is dependent on local features or regional effects is currently lacking. From April 1994 to May 1995, flood pulse hydrographs from a karst aquifer with well-developed and well-documented conduits (Devil's Icebox cave system) were obtained from a gaging station near the spring of the karst basin. Data were also collected from within the conduit system in an attempt to determine whether flow was locally controlled by constrictions in the conduits. Based on an application of Bernoulli's equation, analyses of the changes in kinetic head and potential head over time indicated local control during storm events. The observed sediment patterns and water level variations also support localized flow control during storm events. A numerical model of the constrictions was rested and reproduced the responses observed at the spring during initial periods of storm events. The model illustrated that the constricted flow was very sensitive to recharge. It also illustrated the transition from local control due to constriction to regional controls due to the aquifer matrix. (C) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V

The show cave at "Gran Caverna de Santo Tomás" (Pinar del Rio province, Cuba), 2005, Parise Mario, Valdes Suarez Manuel

At Gran Caverna de Santo Tom_s, one of the longest karst system of Cuba, a part of the cave is exploited since 1994 as show cave. It corresponds to the sixth level (out of the total of seven) of the complex karst system, which lowest part is still active today, being the present course of Arroyo Santo Tom_s. Even with the difficulties related to great distance from the main tourist routes of the island, Gran Caverna de Santo Tom_s was visited in the last 10 years by a significant number of tourists and scientists, due to its remarkable variety of karst landscape, at the surface as well as within the cave, and the important archaeological discoveries therein carried out. Management of the show cave is a good example of low-impact effect of tourism in a karst cave, as many features point out. Among these, the limited number of visitors allowed for each group, the choice in using only wooden ladders and passages to reach the cave entrance, and the adoption of rechargeable electrical light (without realizing any fixed light system in the cave). Gran Caverna de Santo Tom_s, therefore, has a high potentiality for becoming one of the best location in the Caribbean to develop an ecological sustainable tourism and, at the same time, due to its size and length, to allow international and Cuban cavers and scientists to continue carrying out speleological and karst research.

Das Gamslcher-Kolowrat-Salzburgerschacht-System (1339/1), 2006, Zehetner G. , Zagler G. , Klappacher W.
Untersberg (subgroup 1339 in the Austrian Cave Register), south of the regional capital of Salzburg, is a cave-rich limestone massif in the border region between Salzburg and Bavaria. Beneath the highest peaks of the Salzburg region the 'Geiereck' (1807 m) and the 'Salburger Hochthron' (1853 m) lie the entrances to the cave system described here. The caves 'Kolowrathhle' and 'Gamslcher' belong to the earliest discovered caves in Untersberg. After an entrance to the 'Kolowrathhle' was blasted through the steep crossing of the 'Nebel' rift, the caves experienced a rush of tourists and can therefore be described as the oldest show caves in the Salzburg region. In 1876 a steep path, the 'Dopplersteig', was struck through the rock wall known as the 'Dopplerwand', allowing easier access to the 'Gamslcher', which are visible from far away. It has been told that a large repository of cave-bear bones was found in the 'Gamslcher'; a repository that stretched into the 'Kolowrathhle'. The 'Salzburgerschacht', was explored in 1935 by Gustave Abel and his companions with rope ladders to a depth of 170 m. At the time it was known as the deepest vertical cave in the Salzburg region. In the middle of 1970, an international expedition (Belgians, Germans, Poles and local Austrians) successfully explored the 'Salzburgerschacht' to a depth of 606 m. Further exploration of the 'Gamslcher' took place in 1979. In the same year, explorers found a path joining the 'Kolowrathhle' with the 'Gamslcher'. Between 1979 and 1992, the Gamslcher-Kolowrat System was explored and surveyed to a length of 17,524 m. In 2004, a young group of cavers following G. Zagler found the long-awaited connection between the Gamslcher-Kolowrat system and the 'Salzburgerschacht'. The total length of the Gamslcher-Kolowrat-Salzburgerschacht-System is now known to be 25,244 m and its vertical difference grew to 790 m.



The Na Javorce Cave is located in the Bohemian Karst, Czech Republic, near the Karlštejn castle, about 25 km SW of Prague. The cave was discovered as a result of extensive exploration including cave digging and widely employed capping of narrow sections. Exploration in the cave has already lasted 20 years. The cave is fitted with several hundred meters of fixed and rope ladders and several small fixed bridges across intra-cave chasms. Access to the remote parts of the cave is difficult because of long narrow crawl passages and deep and narrow vertical sections. The Na Javorce Cave became the deepest cave discovered to date in Bohemia with the discovery of its deepest part containing a lake in 2010. The cave was formed in vertically dipping layers of Lower Devonian limestone; it is 1,723 m long and 129 m deep, of which 9 m is permanently flooded (data as of December 2012). The cave is polygenetic, with several clearly separable evolutionary stages. Cavities discovered to date were mostly formed along the tectonic structures of two main systems. One of these systems is represented by vertical faults of generally N-S strike, which are frequently accompanied by vein hydrothermal calcite with crystal cavities. The second fault system is represented by moderately inclined faults (dip 27 to 45°, dip direction to the W). Smaller tube-like passages of phreatic morphology connect the larger cavities developed along the two above-mentioned systems. The fluid inclusion data obtained for calcite developed along both fault systems in combination with C and O stable isotope studies indicate that the hydrothermal calcite was deposited from moderately saline fluids (0.5 to 8.7 wt. % NaCl equiv.) in the temperature range from 58 to 98 °C. The fluids were NaCl-type basinal fluids, probably derived from the deeper clastic horizons of the Barrandian sedimentary sequence. The age of the hydrothermal processes is unknown; geologically it is delimited by the Permian and Paleogene. The hydrothermal cavities are small compared to cavities formed during the later stages of karstification. The majority of the known cavities were probably formed by corrosion by floodwater derived from an adjacent river. This process was initiated during the Late Oligocene to Early Miocene, as was confirmed by typical assemblage of heavy minerals identical in the surface river sediments and in clastic cave sediments. The morphology of most cavities is phreatic or epiphreatic, with only local development of leveled roof sections (“Laugdecken”). The phreatic evolution of the cave is probably continuing into the present in its deepest permanently flooded part, which exhibits a water level close to that of the adjacent Berounka River. Nevertheless, the chemistry of the cave lake differs from that of the river water. The cave hosts all the usual types of cave decoration (including locally abundant erratics). The most interesting speleothem type is cryogenic cave carbonate, which was formed during freezing of water in relation to the presence of permafrost during the Glacial period. The occurrence of cryogenic cave carbonate here indicates that the permafrost of the Last Glacial period penetrated to a depth of at least 65 m below the surface.

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