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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

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That cohesion is shear resistance at zero normal stress. an equivalent term in rock mechanics is intrinsic shear strength.?

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Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
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Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
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Your search for lineaments (Keyword) returned 20 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 1 to 15 of 20
On the nature and significance of fracture traces and lineaments in carbonate and other terranes, 1976, Parizek R. P.

Lineaments and the Origin of Caves in the Cumberland Plateau of Alabama, 1977, Wilson, James R.

REMOTE-SENSING OF TECTONIC FABRIC CONTROLLING GROUNDWATER-FLOW IN DINARIC KARST, 1995, Kresic N. ,
Geological and hydrogeological remote sensing techniques can be applied very favorably to Dinaric karst in the Balkans, a well-known reference area for studies of karst phenomena. The elements that make karst terrain of the Dinarides suitable for remote sensing are geomorphologic characteristics, in particular the specific surface drainage and karst forms, the varying vegetation that most often reflects the existence of different geologic formations on the surface, and distinct tectonic features. Some of the world's largest springs, ponors (sinks), and dolines are controlled by fractures visible on both satellite images and aerial photographs. Lineaments represent fault zones, systems of close faults with similar strike, or large individual faults which all are young or show recently renewed activity. Their neotectonic character and major importance for karst groundwater flow are confirmed by numerous field investigations including water tracing, geophysical research, and drilling

Structure of northern Mount Sedom salt diapir (Israel) from cave evidence and surface morphology, 1996, Frumkin, A.

Mount Sedom salt diapir, at the south-western edge of the Dead Sea, is covered by a residual caprock, concealing its internal structure. Internal structure observed within karstic caves is correlated here to surface lineaments on top of the caprock. The structural evidence suggests that the northern part of the diapir consists of two salt walls rising from the east and the west. The border between the two walls is observed in caves along the northwestern part of the mountain. The layers are highly deformed along this border, while on both limbs the beds are relatively undeformed, dipping in different directions. The eastern limb comprises most of the width of the elongated northern part of the diapir.


Gypsum karstification in the Middle Miocene Fatha Formation, Mosul area, northern Iraq, 1997, Jassim Saad Z. , Jibril Antwanet S. , Numan Nazar M. S. ,
Karstified Middle Miocene sediments are widely exposed in northern Iraq particularly in the area surrounding the city of Mosul. The unit is dominated by gypsum and exposed in thirteen anticlinal structures within the investigated area of about 1600 square kilometers. Synclines, though containing the same sequence, are not karstified due to a Quaternary cover. Karst features were located from air photos: Over 4000 were recorded, the smallest detectable being two meters in diameter. The majority are sinkholes (dolines), developed in gypsum and manifested in the overlying collapsing limestone. They are singular, in lines or clusters. Shafts and karren are fewer in number and are usually developed in uncovered gypsum. Sinkholes are visibly located along fractures and at fracture intersections over gently inclined limestone beds overlying the gypsum. Two karst systems were identified, an active and recent system characteristic of all the anticlinal structures and an older (Pleistocene) fossil karst system characteristic of Alan, Ishkaft, Albu Saif and Hammam structures. The fossil karst system is preserved on remnant elevated old land surfaces and produces characteristic tight undulations in the limestone due to collapse inwards in sinkholes and elongated tunnels formed along a series of sinkholes. The fracture study of anticlinal structures reveals that the mean fracture density per area ranges between 4 and 8 (km/km2) and shows a unimodal character for most of the structures. However the distribution of karst in relation to fractures is bimodal for at least half of the structures with mean values ranging from 4.5 to 11 (km/km2). The fractures in the anticlines are thought to have formed due to folding but some are associated with major lineaments cross cutting the structures, which is reflected in the bimodality and the crude unimodal fracture/karst distribution. Karst features are related to the general fracture pattern but are more localized in densely fractured areas. Karst areas were also found to correlate with lower slope gradient and lower drainage density

Karst terraines in Iran - Examples from Lorestan, 1999, Ahmadipour, Mohammad Reza

In Iran karst terrain covers about 13% of the total area. The carbonate rocks belong to the Eocene, Oligocene-Miocene, Miocene, Jurassic and Cretaceous. Most of the carbonate rocks are developed in the basins of Mazindaran and Zagros. The carbonate rocks in the Zone of Zagros, due to the prevailing tectonic activities, have undergone more processes of karstification. About 56 % of all the springs originated from this zone. In Lorestan the Zagros zone consists of a series of parallel anticlines in which, due to the tectonic movements, the rocks have undergone folding and fracturing. The folding and fracturing have created rich ground water reservoirs. The carbonate rocks of Lorestan show all types of karst features such as karren, dolines and caves. The most developed karstic features are seen in the Bangeston group. Most of the springs are discharged either along the lineaments or at the intersection of the lineaments. The chemical analyses of the samples show that they are of bicarbonate type. The drinking water of the city of Khorramabad (capital of Lorestan) is supplied from the karstic springs. In this paper, the karst hydrology of two important regions of Lorestan are considered.


Hydrotermalni puvod jeskyni v Ceskem krasu: nove paradigma, 1999, Suchy V. , Zeman A.

The caves developed in Lower Paleozoic carbonate rocks of the Bohemian Karst are interpreted as a result of a hydrothermal dissolution. The main evidence includes 1) a close spatial link of the caves to hydrothermal calcite veins, 2) a variety of distinctive dissolution forms indicative of non-gravitational hydrodynamics, and 3) presence of specific, exotic precipitates within the caves. Moreover, most of the features typical of the caves of the Bohemian Karst can be readily compared to those of the Zbrasov Caves of Moravia that have been known for long as a typical example of hydrothermal caves. The origin of at least some hydrothermal caves in the Bohemian Karst and elsewhere in the Czech Republic could have been tied to the circulation of warm fluids along active tectonic lineaments. A line of indirect evidence indicates that in the Bohemian Massif, transient pulses of fluid activity that were responsible for the origin of hydrothermal caves may have occurred since Tertiary period.


Geochemical study of calcite veins in the Silurian and Devonian of the Barrandian Basin (Czech Republic): evidence for widespread post-Variscan fluid flow in the central part of the Bohemian Massif, 2000, Suchy V. , Heijlen W. , Sykorova I. , Muchez Ph. , Dobes P. , Hladikova J. , Jackova I. , Safanda J. , Zeman A.

Carbonate fracture cements in limestones have been investigated by fluid inclusion and stable isotope analysis to provide insight into fluid evolution and deformation conditions of the Barrandian Basin (Silurian–Devonian) of the Czech Republic. The fractures strike generally north–south and appear to postdate major Variscan deformation. The most common fracture cement is calcite that is locally accompanied by quartz, natural bitumen, dolomite, Mn-oxides and fluorite. Three successive generations of fracture-filling calcite cements are distinguished based on their petrographical and geochemical characteristics. The oldest calcite cements (Stage 1) are moderate to dull brown cathodoluminescent, Fe-rich and exhibit intense cleavage, subgrain development and other features characteristic of tectonic deformation. Less tectonically deformed, variable luminescent Fe-poor calcite corresponds to a paragenetically younger Stage 2 cement. First melting temperatures, Te, of two-phase aqueous inclusions in Stages 1 and 2 calcites are often around 2208C, suggesting that precipitation of the cements occurred from H2O–NaCl fluids. The melting temperature, Tm, has values between 0 and 25.88C, corresponding to a low salinity between 0 and 8.9 eq. wt% NaCl. Homogenization temperatures, Th, from calcite cements are interpreted to indicate precipitation at about 708C or less. No distinction could be made between the calcite of Stages 1 and 2 based on their fluid inclusion characteristics. In some Stage 2 cements, inclusions of highly saline (up to 23 eq. wt% NaCl) brines appear to coexist with low-salinity inclusions. The low salinity fluid possibly contains Na-, K-, Mg- and Ca-chlorides. The high salinity fluid has a H2O–NaCl–CaCl2 composition. Blue-to-yellow-green fluorescing hydrocarbon inclusions composed of medium to higher API gravity oils are also identified in some Stages 1 and 2 calcite cements. Stage 1 and 2 calcites have d 18O values between 213.2‰ and 27.2‰ PDB. The lower range of the calculated d 18O values of the ambient fluids (23.5‰ to 1 2.7‰ SMOW) indicate precipitation of these cements from deeply circulating meteoric waters. The presence of petroleum hydrocarbon inclusions in some samples is interpreted to reflect partial mixing with deeper basinal fluids. The paragenetically youngest Stage 3 calcite cement has only been encountered in a fewveins.These calcites are characterised by an intensely zoned luminescence pattern, with bright yellow and non-luminescent zones. Inclusions of Mn-oxides and siliceous sinters are commonly associated with Stage 3 calcite, which is interpreted to have precipitated from shallower meteoric waters. Regional structural analysis revealed that the calcite veins of the Barrandian basin belong to a large-scale system of north–south-trending lineaments that run through the territory of the Czech Republic. The veins probably reflect episodes of fluid migration that occurred along these lineaments during late stages of the Variscan orogeny


Remote Sensing and GIS-Based Analysis of Cave Development in the Suoimuoi Catchment (Son La - NW Vietnam), 2002, Hung, L. Q. , Dinh, N. Q. , Batelaan, O. , Tam, V. T. , Lagrou, D.
Integration of remotely sensed imagery with ground surveys is a promising method in cave development studies. In this research a methodology was set up in which a variety of remote sensing and GIS techniques support cave analysis in the tropical karst area of the Suoimuoi catchment, NW Vietnam. In order to extract the maximum information from different remotely sensed data, the hue invariant IHS transformation was applied to integrate Landsat multispectral channels with the high resolution Landsat 7 ETM panchromatic channel. The resulting fused image was used, after enhancement, to visually and digitally extract lineaments. Aerial photos evaluated the extracted lineaments. Based on lineament density indices a fracture zone favorable for cave development is defined. The distance between caves and faults was investigated as well as the correspondence between the cave occurrence and the fracture zone.

Karst Springs of Alashtar, Iran, 2003, Ahmadipour, Mohamad Reza

Alashtar area is situated in the western part of Iran. The Jurassic Cretaceous dolomitic limestone covers most of the area. There are 5 karstic springs named as Amir, Chenare, Zaz, Honam and Papi. All the springs except the Papi emerge from the Jurassic-Cretaceous limestone.The Papi Spring discharges at the contact of the Jurassic-Cretaceous and the Marly limestone of Eocene age. The springs show variation of discharge during the different periods. Faults and the lineaments are the main avenues for the emergence of the springs. The springs are responsible for the rivers in the plain. The fractures are classified as thrust and normal faults. The faults are mostly formed at the junction of the surrounding carbonate rocks which give a graben structure to the plain. The springs have an important role in recharging the plain. It is due to the fractures and the springs that the plain aquifer has a high potential of water. The discharge of some of the wells is more than 60 l/s.The discharge of the springs varies considerably during the year. Out of these, the Amir , Chenare and Honam springs are considered as permanent springs. The annual discharge of the springs is 111 MCM. The hydrochemical analyses of the springs show that all of them are of carbonate type.


Intrinsic vulnerability assessment of the south-eastern Murge (Apulia, southern Italy), 2004, Marsico A. , Giuliano G. , Pennetta L. , Vurro M. ,
Maps of areas with different vulnerability degrees are an integral part of environmental protection and management policies. It is difficult to assess the intrinsic vulnerability of karst areas since the stage and type of karst structure development and its related underground discharge behaviour are not easy to determine. Therefore, some improvements, which take into account dolines, eaves and superficial lineament arrangement, have been integrated into the SIN-TACS R5 method and applied to a karst area of the southeastern Murge (Apulia, southern Italy). The proposed approach integrates the SINTACS model giving more weight to morphological and structural data; in particular the following parameters have been modified: depth to groundwater, effective infiltration action, unsaturated zone attenuation capacity and soil/overburden attenuation capacity. Effective hydro-geological and impacting situations are also arranged using superficial lineaments and karst density. In order to verify the reliability of the modified procedure, a comparison is made with the original SINTACS R5 index evaluated in the same area. The results of both SINTACS index maps are compared with karst and structural features identified in the area and with groundwater nitrate concentrations recorded in wells. The best fitting SINTACS map is then overlaid by the layout of potential pollution centres providing a complete map of the pollution risk in the area

Study of cavernous underground conduits in Nam La (Northwest Vietnam) by an integrative approach, 2005, Tam V. T. , De Smedt F. , Batelaan O. , Hung L. Q. , Dassargues A. ,
This paper presents the result of an investigation of underground conduits, which connect the swallow holes and the resurgence of a blind river in the tropical, highly karstified limestone Nam La catchment in the NW of Vietnam. The Nam La River disappears underground in several swallow holes near the outlet of the catchment. In the rainy season this results in flooding upstream of the sinkholes. A hypothesis is that the Nam La River resurges at a large cavern spring 4.5 km east of the catchment outlet. A multi-thematic study of the possible connections between the swallow holes and the resurgence was carried out to investigate the geological structure, tectonics, cave structure analysis and discharge time series. The existence of the underground conduits was also tested and proven by tracer experiments. On the basis of a lineament analysis the location of the underground conduits were predicted. A remote sensing derived lineament-length density map was used to track routes from the swallow holes to the resurgence, having the shortest length but highest lineament density. This resulted in a plan-view prediction of underground conduits that matches with the cave and fault development. The functioning of the conduits was further explained by analysing flooding records of a nearby doline, which turns out to act as a temporary storage reservoir mitigating flooding of the catchment outlet area

UNDERGROUND RIVER NETWORK MODELLING FROM LINEAMENTS AND FRACTURE TRACES BY MEANS OF REMOTE SENSING AND GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEM, 2005, Eko Haryono, Agung Dwi Nurcahyo, Totok Gunawan, Taufik Heri Purwanto,
The present paper aims at developing GIS application on underground river network modeling from lineaments and fracture traces. Lineaments and fracture traces are extracted from panchromatic aerial photograph. The lineaments and fracture traces are then used as network data in GIS modeling by mean of Arc View 3.2 Network Analyst. Four parameters were used to generate the network topology, namely a) length b) azimuth and c). Width of aligned surface valley corresponds to lineaments and fracture traces and d) the number of intersection of the lineaments. The underground river network resulted from GIS modeling is generally in line with the network predicted by previous works. Though the result is not fully verified due to the paucity of the underground river map, it suggests that there is a promising application of GIS modeling in prospecting groundwater prospecting in karst areas

ORIGIN AND STRUCTURAL AND STRATIGRAPHIC CONTROL OF CAVES, ?TOCAS? AND ROCK SHELTERS OF IPEÚNA AND ITIRAPINA (SP, 2005, Luiz Felipe Brandini Ribeiro, Fabio. R. Souza Cruz, Marli. Carina. Siqueira. Ribeiro, Daniel. Frnç, Oso. Godoy

Focus on this topic, although they usually concentrate on limestone caves; few papers have been written about the speleogenesis of non-limestone caves (pseudokarst) The present paper was designed to describe the structural control of caves and rock shelters in the regions of Itaqueri da Serra, Ipeúna, São Pedro and neighboring areas. The caves in the region have basically been formed in the sandstone of the Botucatu Formation, with rare occurrences in other rocks, with speleogenesis resulting from the percolation of water and ceiling collapse. In this study the following caves were studied: Fazendão, Paredão, Boca do Sapo, and the Abrigo da Glóra (in the Itirapina mountain range), as well as the rock shelters Roncador (Analândia), Santo Urbano (Corumbataí), Rochedo (Itirapina), and Abrigo da Chuva (Itirapina), and the ?tocas? Toca do Ninho, Toca do Bauru, Toca do Morcego (Itirapina). The methodology used was the identification of the faults and fractures, as well as of the orientation of the central passages, and the identification of the speleothems associated with the fractures. The records were made in the form of rosettes and sterograms of the faults. The majority of the caves reveal faults, fractures and large discontinuities (rifled fault planes) with a North-Northeast (N30) orientation; some of the ?tocas? reveal main passages oriented to the West/Northwest (N270-285). These trends were correlated with the lineaments of a regional nature. The regional orientations NE and NNE are controlled by the NE lineament which represents the reactivation of the Areado fault, underlying the basin of the Paraná River. The reactivation may have given rise to this fault; evidence has been found in the basin of the Paraná River and in the region of Analândia and São Carlos. The NW orientation of the larger caves and some of the ?tocas? is linked to stratigraphic control (crossed stratification is common in the area). Some of the caves also have an extension to the northeast, a direction which may be correlated to neotectonic events.


Seismic geomorphology of Palaeozoic collapse features in the Fort Worth Basin (USA), 2007, Sullivan E. C. , Marfurt K. J. , Blumentritt C. , Ammerman M. ,
Modern multi-trace geometric attributes produce three-dimensional volumes that can facilitate the recognition of karst geomorphology by avoiding the need to pre-interpret irregular horizons and by enhancing subseismic lateral variations in reflectivity. These geometric attributes include the well-established coherence technology, coupled with recent developments in spectrally limited estimates of volumetric curvature. Coherence measures lateral changes in waveform, and as such, is often sensitive to joints, small faults, sinkholes and collapse features. The many components of reflector curvature, including the most negative, most positive, Gaussian curvature and related shape indices (e.g. valleys, saddles, domes), are complimentary to coherence measures. Short wavelength estimates of curvature will illuminate small-scale lineaments while longer wavelength estimates of curvature illuminate more subtle flexures and compaction features. We show the results of applying a variety of multi-trace geometric attributes to a three-dimensional seismic volume from the Fort Worth Basin, where a collapse system extends vertically some 800m from the Ordovician Ellenburger carbonates through the dominantly siliciclastic Mississippian-- Pennsylvanian interval. The collapse features in our data set appear as rounded, sinkhole-like appearances on time and horizon slices in the Pennsylvanian Marble Falls Limestones and the Ellenburger horizon displays features that can be interpreted as cockpit karst, dolines and frying pan valleys. Although a variety of palaeocave breccia facies in core and image logs indicate that the Ellenburger surface has been karsted, these breccias are not confined to the mega collapse features visible in seismic. The large (up to 700 m diameter) collapse chimneys can be shown in multi-spectral curvature attributes to have elongate rhombohedral shapes associated with intersections of Pennsylvanian age, field-scale to basin-scale, basement lineaments and faults. Isochores indicate greatest tectonic growth on faults from Mississippian until early Pennsylvanian, coincident with thickest fill of collapse features. Thus we interpret the origin of the chimneys to be primarily tectonic. The multi-trace geometric attributes permit better imaging of the three-dimensional shapes of the collapse features, provide better constraints on timing of their formation, allow us to begin to separate karst processes from tectonic processes and provide a means of predicting most likely locations of fluid movement along faults

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