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Community news

Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That panhole is see solution pan.?

Checkout all 2699 terms in the KarstBase Glossary of Karst and Cave Terms


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Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
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Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
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Your search for ljubljana (Keyword) returned 26 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 1 to 15 of 26
4. Internationaler Kongre fr Spelologie - Postojna, Ljubljana, Dubrovnik, September 1965., 1965,
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Trimmel, H.
[Slowenien]

4 Internationaler Kongre fr Spelologie - Postojna, Ljubljana, Dubrovnik, September 1965, 1965,
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Trimmel, H.

Der Hhlenrettungsdienst beim 4. Internationalen Kongre fr Spelologie in Laibach (Ljubljana) 1965., 1966,
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Morokutti, A.
[Slowenien, Hhlenrettung]

Larval development of a cavernicolous Serpulid Marifugia cavatica Absolon et Hrabe (Polychaeta, Sedentaria)., 1966,
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Matjasic Janez, Sket Boris.
Among material coming from Herzegovina some living trochoporae of the cave Serpulid Marifugia cavatica have been found. In the laboratory of the Biology Institute of Ljubljana the further development passing stages of metatrochophore and nectochaeta have been observed. The constitution of the trochophore is typical. The nectochaeta possesses three metamera and each of these has only one pair of setae. The nectochaeta once it gets attached to the bottom the neck and beginning of tentacles are beginning to develop. The tube, three paires of simple tentacles and the opercula are formed in further stages. For the period in which the tube is short and completely adherent, the animal reposes on the substratum with its dorsal side.

Der Hhlenrettungsdienst beim 4 Internationalen Kongre fr Spelologie in Laibach (Ljubljana) 1965, 1966,
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Morokutti, A.

Symposium ber die Vereinheitlichung von Feldforschungsmethoden fr Karstdenudation in Ljubljana, 1. - 5. September 1975., 1975,
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Fink, M. H.
[Slowenien]

Symposium ber die Vereinheitlichung von Feldforschungsmethoden fr Karstdenudation in Ljubljana, 1 - 5 September 1975, 1975,
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Fink, M. H.

The Discovery of Proteus-eggs (Proteus anguinus Laurenti, Amphibia) in seminatural Conditions., 1978,
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Sket Boris, Velkovrh Franci
Proteus-eggs were found for the first time in the nature, drifted out of a karstic spring. They were obtained from the Vir Spring al Sticna, 30 km ESE of Ljubljana. The hydrological and faunistical data indicate that Proteus lays its eggs also in "unsheltered", energetically rich groundwater habitats.

Phreatische Fauna in Ljubljansko polje (Ljubljana-Ebene, Jugoslavien); ihre oekologische Verteilung und zoogeographische Beziehungen., 1981,
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Sket Boris, Velkovrh Franci
The phreatic basin of Ljubljansko polje (polje = plain, field) recharges its water supply mainly from the Sava river-bed and at a few other locations where connections with karstic subterranean waters might exist and only up to 15% from precipitation. An important zone of infiltration in the river-bed is the bottom and not the bank which is to a large extent watertight due to organic debris (rests of Sphaerotilus e.g.). The main water-body moves about 10 m/day, there are however some local jets with far higher speeds. Yearly amplitudes of water temperatures are high near the river but in the centre of the plain only a couple of centigrades. Oxygen saturation is in the open river-water 100%, dropping to 40-60% just 1 m into the phreatic. True stygopsammal animals are represented here only by a few species and specimen in spite of the fact, that the interstices in the gravel are mostly filled with finer sediments. Remarkable is also the scarcity of Nematodes and the near absence of Acarina (compare with Danielopol 1976). Only a few specimen of the river benthos (Chironomidae, Tipulidae, Leuctra supp., Baets spp.) penetrate the interstitial water (compare with Ruffo 1961, Danielopol 1976) and only Naididae are more frequent there. However, many epigean animals occur in interstitial waters in the periodically flooded gravel-banks; one can explain this with oscillations of the water level. Some epigean animals (creno- and troglophilic) are quite regularly represented in the phreatic near the river, but have not been found in the river-bed. The distribution of phreatic species within the studied water-body seems to be controlled mainly by the presence of food supplies and the consequent competition among species. The same is true for the speed of the water current and some other factors which are less easily defined. The characteristics of the substratum as well as O2-saturation and other characteristics of the water seem to have little influence on the fauna. The energetically (food-) rich neighbourhood of the river is inhabited by a number of species in quite dense populations while the central parts of the phreatic water body exhibit a great poverty of species and of specimen. However, some species live here, which don't occur in the presence of larger food supplies and of greater competition (Niphargus serbicus). The higher current speed seems to prevent settlement of some species (Cyclopoida, Proasellus deminutus) while some are bound to such habitats (Proasellus vulgaris). Some species exhibit a high degree of euryvalency inside the stygopsephale habitats (Niphargus longidactylus e.g.), while some are highly specialized. Some of them form dense populations (comparatively dense even in energetically poor places) while others exhibit even in most favourable conditions very low densities (Niphargus jovanovici multipennatus). The present fauna is zoogeographically very diverse. Some species are distributed throughout Europe; some reach from Central Europe to the borders of Dinaride Karst (Bogidiella albertimagni) and some even penetrate it (Trichodrilus pragensis, Acanthocyclops kiefer). Bogidiella semidenticulata. Niphargus pectinicauda, Hadziella deminuta seem to be limited to the higher reaches of the Sava River. All of the above mentioned animals live regularly in interstitial waters and only sporadically in karstic hypogean waters. Niphargus stygius is here the only animal of a certainly karstic provenience; inside the plain it is limited to a completely special habitat. It is very likely that the entire Proasellus-deminutusgroup has developed in interstitial waters of larger plains which are in contact with karstic areas; some species penetrated from the plains into the karst rather than the reverse. To the contrary (judging from the distribution of the genera) karstic waters seem to be the cradle of Hauffenia and Hadziella. Such a sharp delimitation between cave- and interstitial fauna resp. in this area is very noteworthy. Both faunas live here in abundance and in close contact. It is very probable that particularly high competition and specialization of both faunas, caused by their richness and diversity, prevent mixing of species.

The influence of bedding planes on the development of karst caves (in Slovenian and with an English summary and abstract), PhD thesis, 1996,
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Knez, M.

There have been much less researchers looking for the initial water ways in karst along the bedding-planes than those who deduced the origin of cave channels from tectonic structures. The aim of my research was to focus scientific attention on the sphere where the answers within the sedimentology might be expected. The study identified that the basic idea of bedding-plane importance at the initiation of cave channels was correct but also, that the interrelation is different from how it had been supposed. Single lithological, petrological or stratigraphical parameters of the inception are only partly known, or merely guessed. My research threw light on the problem of initial channels met in Velika dolina in Skocjanske jame. Cave passages, or their fragments and other traces of the underground karstification do not appear scattered at random on the walls but they are obviously gathered along a small number of so-called bedding-planes.
The basic working method was to locate the phreatic channels or their fragments, to sample and microscope those parts of the layers adjacent to a bedding-plane. Somewhere a whole layer was considered. Other methods were: regional distribution of caves, photographing, inventarisation and classification of speleogens and complexometry, the latter providing the purity of limestones.
The original channels are practically gathered along only three formative bedding-planes (out of 62 measured); their close vicinity differs from the others in several important properties: typically damaged rock, higher level of calcium carbonate, smaller porosity and others. Consequently the mentioned concordance cannot possibly be only apparent.
From the lithological point of view, I got neither substantial argument nor explanation for selective karstification. However, it was identified that at least in respect of a concrete example from Velika dolina, the inception started along interbedded slides that without doubt pushed the beds aside leaving an interval.


Did the Argonauts of Greek myth go underground in the Slovene karst?, 1998,
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Shaw Trevor R. , Macqueen James G.

Lazius's maps of Carniola, the first of which was printed in 1545, have a note at Vrhnika, where the Ljubljanica rises from its subterranean course, saying that the Argonauts of the Greek golden fleece myth went underground there on their way from the Black Sea to the Adriatic. The original Greek sources describe only a surface route, either following a branch of the Sava running west to the sea, or requiring their ship to be carried overland for this part of the journey. Elsewhere, though, it was said that fish pass from one sea to the other by underground channels. The subterranean variant of the Argonaut story has not been traced before Lazius, though he may have got the idea from another mapmaker, Hirschvogel, who had lived in Ljubljana. Münster's map of 1550 implies the existence of an underground river between Vrhnika and the Mirna river in Istria, but it does not associate it with the Argonaut story. The idea seems to have arisen just when maps were showing that hills formed a barrier between the east-flowing Sava and the rivers of the Adriatic basin, and when the existence of caves and underground rivers was becoming more widely known.


Stable isotopes as natural tracers of the karst recharge to the tertiary clastic aquifers: a case study of southern part of Ljubljana marsh , 1998,
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Pezdič, Jož, E,

The main purpose of the research was to determine the recharge and storage of groundwater at the southern part of Ljubljana marsh where tertiary aquifers are filled mainly with karst water. Stable isotopes of hydrogen, oxygen and carbon in water or in dissolved species, as well as tritium content in water and precipitation were used as natural tracers to follow the recharge and discharge of surface streams and aquifers. Together with hydrogeological and other chemical evidence they provide useful information about water mass transport, storage, refilling of aquifers and mixing of groundwater. In the aquifers, springs and surface river water d18O varied from -9,65 to -8,82 š while dD has the range from -67,4 to -61,2 š. Tritium activities are measured from 1,6 to 13,4 T.U.. Long term averages (n = 13 years) for d18O (dD) in Ljubljana is -8,73 (-60,6) š and tritium content is 17,5 T.U.. The mean temperature in Ljubljana is 10,03ºC and average years precipitation amount is 1332 mm. Years 1992-93 have been characterised by low tritium content in precipitation (8,2 for 1992 and 10,6 for 1993) and so important for investigation. The average mean meteoric line for the last 14 years is defined as dD=8,188xd18O+10,66. Temperature correlation vs. oxygen is: d18O=0,254xt-10,78. The above database is discussed in order to evaluate thesis about karst influence on the recharge and storage of clastic sediment aquifers in the Iška delta sediment structure.


MEDICAL SURVEY OF THE STAFF WORKING IN THE ŠKOCJAN CAVES, SLOVENIA , 2002,
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Debevec Gerjevič, Vanja

The cave microclimate is distinguished by many parameters that could underlie some physiological changes in human body when exposed for an extended period of time. Beside temperature, air-flow, the absence of sunlight and humidity, which vary according to the location and structure of the underground space, radon radiation is present as well. Park Škocjanske jame, Slovenia, has been performing a regular and continuous monitoring of radon and its daughter products for about five years now. All measurements are done by the Institute for Occupational Safety, Ljubljana. The accurate evidence of time spent in the cave is kept for every member of the staff. This enables us to combine the data with radon concentration and determine the maximum dose of radiation that one has received during one year working period. According to national regulation and law, stated by National Health Inspector and Ministry of Health, a regular medical survey has been established. Detailed medical exams are performed each year or less frequently in order to prevent health problems. Blood tests enable us to observe radiation impact. In the following work a short overview of microclimates impacts will be presented as health and risk factors.


TEMPERATURE MONITORING IN ŠKOCJANSKE JAME CAVES, 2002,
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Kranjc Andrej, Opara Bogdan

In 1884 J. Marinitsch started to measure and note down the data of temperature in the Škocjanske jame caves and nearby. The results for the period 1886-1914 are recorded in the "Höhlenbuch". During the year 1928 detailed microclimatic measurements are performed simultaneously on the surface and underground. In the years 1960-1962 the members of the Ljubljana University have carried on the meteorological observations in the cave and specially in the collapse doline Velika dolina. In 1992 Karst Research Institute started to monitor the temperatures. Later on 5 temperature recorders were placed into different parts of the cave. The results of the two years (May 1997 - May 1999) were analysed and are presented in this paper. Although the annual mean values are rather similar (10.6° and 10.1°C), there is a great amplitude between the monthly mean values (1.6° to 17.3°). The absolute temperatures range between -1.5° and 21.9°C. The most important factors are distance from the entrance, and the vertical position. The comparison between temperatures of the Reka river and the air temperatures bears an important correlation. Previous results of this short period already show that the part of Škocjanske jame, where the Reka river is flowing, is an extremely dynamic cave and the visitors cannot have much impact on it's meteorology.


Anthron Society (Postojna 1889 - 1911), the beginning of organised speleology in Slovenia, 2002,
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Kranjc, Andrej

In the middle of the 19th century caving and speleological activities were well developed in Kranjska (Carniola) already. F. Kraus took an interest in our karst by 1878. In 1879 he founded "Verein für Höhlenkunde" and a year later "Karst Comité". Soon afterwards he wanted to set up a branch of "Verein" at Postojna. In Planina he had 50 future members already. In summer of 1889 some villagers of Veliki Otok near Postojna discovered the entrance to so-called Otoška jama, making a part of Postojnska jama system. The dispute about the ownership and how to share the income of Postojnska jama aroused. And soon afterwards in Postojna the club Anthron was founded - a reaction to this discovery. Anthron was an exclusive club with limited number of members who must live in Postojna - and majority were members of Postojnska jama Cave (Managing) Commission. The Anthron members discovered an important part of Postojnska jama system, explored caves nearby and helped the best known speleologists of that time such as Kraus, Martel, Perko and Putick. When Speleological club was set up in Ljubljana and Perko announced the foundation of Speleological Institute at Postojna, the club Anthron was dismissed. Thus the documents prove that continuous organised speleological activity started in Slovenia in 1889.


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