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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

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That thread is a natural hole through a rope, tape or wire can be passed to create an anchor [25].?

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Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
See all featured articles
Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
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Your search for localization (Keyword) returned 15 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 1 to 15 of 15
Developmental chronology and evolution of calcium storage and urate containing cells in Niphargus schellenbergi Karaman., 1975, Graf Franois, Michaut Philippe.
The intra-marsupial development of Niphargus schellenbergi is divided into three phases: within the chorion, embryonic intermoult and juvenile intermoult. The disappearance of the chorion divides the first phase from the second. A double exuviation exists between the last two. The chronology of the embryonic development and of the beginning of post-embryonic development is established. On hatching the juvenile N. schellenbergi has one pair of hepatopancreatic caeca. During the first post-embryonic intermoults the ventral hepatopancreatic caeca, posterior caeca and anterior caecum are formed. The relation between posterior caeca and the aorta is described. The study of calcium storage before moulting showed that calcareous concretions located in posterior caeca and midgut have the typical form, volume, quantity and distribution of the species. This calcium accumulation process occurs in the midgut following the first posternbryonic exuviation. It is only when the sixth exuviation is attained that storage in the posterior caeca is similar to the one in adults. The urate containing cells located at the lower face of the pericardial septum begin to accumulate urate spherules 15 days before hatching. They vary in form, volume, localization and composition, and so may be considered as storage sites for urate, pigments and various ions (P, K, Ca, S, Cl, Na, Mg) which are returned to circulation.

Comparative performances of non-visual food search in the hypogean cyprinid Phreatichthys andruzzii and in the epigean relative Barbus filamentosus, 1993, Berti Roberto, Masciarelli Luca
The anophthalmic hypogean cyprinid Phreatichthys andruzzii Vinciguerra shows a more efficient food searching behaviour than blinded specimens of the epigean species Barbus filamentosus Cuvier and Valenciennes. This difference seems to be related to a tendency to swim near the bottom of the aquarium and the behavioural stereotypes in food localization and intake. Both in P andruzzii and in the blinded B. filamentosus food search is guided by chemical stimulation. Other data indicate that mechanical stimulation could play an important role in the feeding behaviour of the hypogean form. The behavioural analogies in food localization between P andruzzii and the cave forms of the characid Astyanax fasciatus Cuvier are briefly discussed.

Conduit fragmentation, cave patterns, and the localization of karst ground water basins: the Appalachians as a test case., 2001, White W. B. , White E. L.
Because conduit systems in maturely developed karst aquifers have a low hydraulic resistance, aquifers drain easily and karst aquifers are subdivided into well-defined ground water basins. Ground water elevations arc highest at basin boundaries; lowest at the spring where the ground water is discharged. Parameters that control the type of conduit development are (1) the effective hydraulic gradient, (2) the focus of the drainage basin, and (3) the karstifiability of the bedrock. Moderate to highly effective hydraulic gradients permit the runaway process that leads to single conduit caves and well ordered branchwork systems. Low hydraulic gradients allow many alternate flow paths and thus a large degree of fuzziness in the basin boundaries. Low gradient ground water basins also tend to merge due to rising water tables during periods of high discharge. Focus is provided by geological constraints that optimize discharge at specific locations that can evolve into karst springs. Karstifiability is a measure of the bulk rate at which aquifer rocks will dissolve. Fine grained, pure limestones and shaley dolomites mark the opposite ends of the range. The cave surveys of the Appalachian Highlands provide a data base that can be used to classify the lateral arrangements of conduit systems and thus determine the relative importance of the factors defined above.

The small vertebrate fauna (Rodents, Insectivores, and Reptiles) of Šandalja 1A (Istria, Croatia), 2001, Aguilar Jeanpierre, Crochet Jeanyves, Michaux Jacques, Mihevc Andrej, Paunovič, Maja

Is described under the name of Šandalja 1A, a Lower to Middle Pleistocene fauna of small vertebrates including rodents, insectivores and reptiles. Extracted from a bone breccia found in 1999 in the Šandalja quarry near Pula, its accurate localization with respect to the previously known bone breccia of Šandalja 1 is not known. Nevertheless this dating - a Biharian age - is congruent with the younger age now advocated for the fauna of large mammals of Šandalja 1 and its associated chopper.


Conduit fragmentation, cave patterns, and the localization of karst ground water basins: the Appalachians as a test case, 2003, White W. B. , White E. L.

Because conduit systems in maturely developed karst aquifers have a low hydraulic resistance, aquifers drain easily and karst aquifers are subdivided into well-defined ground water basins. Ground water elevations are highest at basin boundaries; lowest at the spring where the ground water is discharged. Parameters that control the type of conduit development are (1) the effective hydraulic gradient, (2) the focus of the drainage basin, and (3) the karstifiability of the bedrock. Moderate to highly effective hydraulic gradients permit the runaway process that leads to single conduit caves and well ordered branchwork systems. Low hydraulic gradients allow many alternate flow paths and thus a large degree of fuzziness in the basin boundaries. Low gradient ground water basins also tend to merge due to rising water tables during periods of high discharge. Focus is provided by geological constraints that optimize discharge at specific locations that can evolve into karst springs. Karstifiability is a measure of the bulk rate at which aquifer rocks will dissolve. Fine grained, pure limestones and shaley dolomites mark the opposite ends of the range. The cave surveys of the Appalachian Highlands provide a data base that can be used to classify the lateral arrangements of conduit systems and thus determine the relative importance of the factors defined above.


Localization of saturated karst aquifer with magnetic resonance sounding and resistivity imagery, 2003, Vouillamoz J. M. , Legchenko A. , Albouy Y. , Bakalowicz M. , Baltassat J. M. , Alfares W. ,
To answer one of the main questions of hydrogeologists implementing boreholes or working on pollution questions in a karst environment-i.e., where is the ground water?-numerous tools including geophysics are used. However, the contribution of geophysics differs from one method to the other. The magnetic resonance sounding (MRS) method has the advantage of direct detection of ground water over other geophysical methods. Eight MRSs were implemented over a known karst conduit explored and mapped by speleologists to estimate the MRS ability to localize ground water. Two direct current resistivity imageries (DC-2D imagery) were also implemented to check their capability to map a known cave. We found that the MRS is a useful tool to locate ground water in karst as soon as the quantity of water is enough to be detected. The threshold quantity is a function of depth and it was estimated by forward modeling to propose a support graph to hydrogeologists. The measured MRS's signals could be used to calculate transmissivity and permeability estimators. These estimators were used to map and to draw a cross section of the case study site, which underline accurately the known karst conduit location and depth. We also found that the DC-2D imagery could underline the karst structures: It was able to detect the known cave through its associated faults. We prepared a computer simulation to check the depth of such a cave to induce resistivity anomaly which could be measured in similar conditions

Lakes and springs of the Near-Ol'khom area (Baikal): tectonic control of their localization and water composition, 2005, Sklyarova Olgaa. , Sklyarov Eugenev. , Fedorovsky Valentines.

Karst groundwater protection: First application of a Pan-European Approach to vulnerability, hazard and risk mapping in the Sierra de Libar (Southern Spain), 2006, Andreo B, Goldscheider N, Vadillo I, Vias Jm, Neukum C, Sinreich M, Jimenez P, Brechenmacher J, Carrasco F, Hotzl H, Perles Mj, Zwahlen F,
The European COST action 620 proposed a comprehensive approach to karst groundwater protection, comprising methods of intrinsic and specific vulnerability mapping, validation of vulnerability maps, hazard and risk mapping. This paper presents the first application of all components of this Pan-European Approach to the Sierra de Libar, a karst hydrogeology system in Andalusia, Spain. The intrinsic vulnerability maps take into account the hydrogeological characteristics of the area but are independent from specific contaminant properties. Two specific vulnerability maps were prepared for faecal coliforrns and BTEX These maps take into account the specific properties of these two groups of contaminants and their interaction with the karst hydrogeological system. The vulnerability assessment was validated by means of tracing tests, hydrological, hydrochemical and isotope methods. The hazard map shows the localization of potential contamination sources resulting from human activities, and evaluates those according to their dangerousness. The risk of groundwater contamination depends on the hazards and the vulnerability of the aquifer system. The risk map for the Sierra de Libar was thus created by overlaying the hazard and vulnerability maps. (C) 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved

Influence of depositional setting and sedimentary fabric on mechanical layer evolution in carbonate aquifers, 2006, Graham Wall Brita R. ,
Carbonate aquifers in fold-thrust belt settings often have low-matrix porosity and permeability, and thus groundwater flow pathways depend on high porosity and permeability fracture and fault zones. Methods from sedimentology and structural geology are combined to understand the evolution of fracture controlled flow pathways and determine their spatial distribution. Through this process bed-parallel pressure-solution surfaces (PS1) are identified as a fracture type which influences fragmentation in peritidal and basinal carbonate, and upon shearing provides a major flow pathway in fold-thrust belt carbonate aquifers. Through stratigraphic analysis and fracture mapping, depositional setting is determined to play a critical role in PS1 localization and spacing where peritidal strata have closer spaced and less laterally continuous PS1 than basinal strata. In the peritidal platform facies, units with planar lamination have bed-parallel pressure-solution seams along mudstone laminae. In contrast, burrowed units of peritidal strata have solution seams with irregular and anastamosing geometries. Laminated units with closely spaced bed-parallel solution seams are more fragmented than bioturbated units with anastamosing solution seams. In the deeper-water depositional environment, pelagic settling and turbidity currents are the dominant sedimentation processes, resulting in laterally continuous deposits relative to the peritidal platform environment. To quantify the fracture patterns in the basinal environment, mechanical layer thickness values were measured from regions of low to high bed dip. The results define a trend in which mechanical layer thickness decreases as layer dip increases. A conceptual model is presented that emphasizes the link between sedimentary and structural fabric for the peritidal and basinal environments, where solution seams localize in mud-rich intervals, and the resulting pressure-solution surface geometry is influenced by sedimentary geometry (i.e., stacked fining upward cycles, burrows, planar laminations). In both facies types, laterally continuous PS1 can behave as mechanical layer boundaries. As layer-parallel slip increases to accommodate shear strain in the fold-thrust belt, more PS1 behave as mechanical layer boundaries

Characteristics of discharge at Rose and Gellért Hills, Budapest, Hungary, 2008, Erõ, Ss Anita, Má, Dlszõ, Nyi Judit, Csoma Anita É, .

This study focuses on the discharge characteristics of the Buda Thermal Karst (Budapest, Hungary) found at the Rose and Gellért Hills. The Buda Thermal Karst is a recently active hydrothermal karst system in the heart of Budapest. Studying this unique hydrogeologic system is thus a challenge because of the human impact effects. The research approach is based on the concept of hydrological system analysis (Engelen and Kloosterman 1996), which means that the flow system geometry and recharge-discharge features must correlate when the influence of man on the flow regimes of an area is negligible. Therefore the flow system geometry could be deduced from the evaluation of manifestations of flowing groundwater. To achieve this archival hydrogeologic data and recent observations were used. Based on the localization of springs, collections of archival temperature and chemical data, as well as recent observations, conceptual models were established for the discharge in the Rose Hill and Gellért Hill areas. The observations indicate different discharge characteristics for the two study areas.


Location, Location, Location! Lava Caves on Mars for Habitat, Resources, and the Search for Life, 2010, Boston, Penelope J.

Over the course of humanity's history as a species, the use of caves, rock shelters, and other natural geological features has played an important role in our survival and cultural development. We suggest that the use of such natural features in future human exploration of Mars and Earth's moon could be a timely and practical solution to a number of potential dilemmas presented by the extreme and challenging nature of the environments on these bodies. Lava tubes, other caves, cavities, and canyon overhangs that are being identified on other planets are sites of intense scientific interest for geology, atmospheric climate records, and potentially biology. They may offer easier subsurface access for direct exploration and drilling, and could provide extractable minerals, gases, and ices. In the past few years, examples of such structures on Mars, the Moon, and potentially other bodies have increasingly come to light. Thus, the real estate is out there waiting for us to modify it for our exploration missions. The present Martian surface environment is extremely cold, dry, chemically active, and high in both ultraviolet and ionizing radiation. Galactic Cosmic Radiation (GCR) and episodic waves of high energy particles from solar proton events (SPE) necessitate the provision of robust radiation protection for habitats, workspaces, vehicles, and personal space suits. The mass penalty of providing this is a major driver in our consideration of the use of natural rock mass for radiation protection for habitats and workspaces, arguably the most massive components of an integrated human exploration equipment suite. Planetary protection considerations emerging from recent studies advocate a localization and zoning of degrees of human impact, much like that being implemented in the Antarctic as Special Regions. Containment of the primary human habitation and work activities within the confines of a subsurface habitat are highly consistent with these new approaches to Planetary Protection forward contamination. To begin to think about caves in the extraterrestrial exploration context, we have developed the notion of a complete, functioning subsurface habitat system. A suite of relatively low technology modifications to caves to improve habitability and safety are suggested. This system can integrate a spectrum of missions from both robotic precursors to human expeditionary missions and ultimately colonization.


The initial stages of cave formation: Beyond the one-dimensional paradigm, 2011, Szymczak Piotr, Ladd Anthony J. C.

The solutional origin of limestone caves was recognized over a century ago, but the short penetration length of an undersaturated solution made it seem impossible for long conduits to develop. This is contradicted by field observations, where extended conduits, sometimes several kilometers long, are found in karst environments. However, a sharp drop in the dissolution rate of CaCO3 near saturation provides a mechanism for much deeper penetration of reactant. The notion of a “kinetic trigger” – a sudden change in rate constant over a narrow concentration range – has become a widely accepted paradigm in speleogenesis modeling. However, it is based on one-dimensional models for the fluid and solute transport inside the fracture, assuming that the dissolution front is planar in the direction perpendicular to the flow. Here we show that this assumption is incorrect; a planar dissolution front in an entirely uniform fracture is unstable to infinitesimal perturbations and inevitably breaks up into highly localized regions of dissolution. This provides an alternative mechanism for cave formation, even in the absence of a kinetic trigger. Our results suggest that there is an inherent wavelength to the erosion pattern in dissolving fractures, which depends on the reaction rate and flow rate, but is independent of the initial roughness. In contrast to one-dimensional models, two-dimensional simulations indicate that there is only a weak dependence of the breakthrough time on kinetic order; localization of the flow tends to keep the undersaturation in the dissolution front above the threshold for non-linear kinetics.

Research Highlights
- A kinetic trigger is not a prerequisite for limestone cave formation. - The added spatial dimension has a larger impact on breakthrough times than a kinetic trigger. - Planar dissolution front in a fracture is unstable to infinitesimal perturbations. - The most unstable wavelength depends on reaction kinetics and flow rate. - The instability leads to the formation of rapidly advancing, wormhole-like channels.


Geochemical/isotopic evolution of Pb-Zn deposits in the Central and Eastern Taurides, Turkey, 2011, Hanilci N. , Ozturk H.

The Central and Eastern Taurides contain numerous carbonate-hosted Pb-Zn deposits, mainly in Devonian and Permian dolomitized reefal-stramatolitic limestones, and in massive Jurassic limestones. We present and compare new fluid inclusion and isotopic data from these ore deposits, and propose for the first time a Mississippi Valley-type (MVT) mode of origin for them. Fluid inclusion studies reveal that the ore fluids were highly saline (13-26% NaCl equiv.), chloride-rich (CaCl2) brines, and have average homogenization temperatures of 112°C, 174.5°C, and 211°C for the Celal Dag, Delikkaya, and Ayrakl deposits, respectively. Furthermore, the ?34S values of carbonate-hosted Pb-Zn deposits in the Central and Eastern Taurides vary between -5.4‰ and +13.70‰. This indicates a possible source of sulphur from both organic compounds and crustal materials. In contrast, stable sulphur isotope data (average ?34S -0.15‰) for the Cadrkaya deposit, which is related to a late Eocene-Oligocene (?) granodioritic intrusion, indicates a magmatic source. The lead isotope ratios of galena for all investigated deposits are heterogeneous. In particular, with the exception of the Sucat district, all deposits in the Eastern (Delikkaya, Ayrakl, Denizovas, Cadrkaya) and Central (Katranbasi, Kucuksu) Taurides have high radiogenic lead isotope values (206Pb/204Pb between 19.058 and 18.622; 207Pb/204Pb between 16.058 and 15.568; and 208Pb/204Pb between 39.869 and 38.748), typical of the upper continental crust and orogenic belts. Fluid inclusion, stable sulphur, and radiogenic lead isotope studies indicate that carbonate-hosted metal deposits in the Eastern (except for the Cadrkaya deposit) and the Central Taurides are similar to MVT Pb-Zn deposits described elsewhere. The primary MVT deposits are associated with the Late Cretaceous-Palaeocene closure of the Tethyan Ocean, and formed during the transition from an extensional to a compressional regime. Palaeogene nappes that typically limit the exposure of ore bodies indicate a pre-Palaeocene age of ore formation. Host rock lithology, ore mineralogy, fluid inclusion, and sulphur + lead isotope data indicate that the metals were most probably leached from a crustal source such as clastic rocks or a crystalline massif, and transported by chloride-rich hydrothermal solutions to the site of deposition. Localization of the ore deposits on autochthonous basement highs indicates long-term basinal fluid migration, characteristic of MVT depositional processes. The primary MVT ores were oxidized in the Miocene, resulting in deposition of Zn-carbonate and Pb-sulphate-carbonate during karstification. The ores underwent multiple cycles of oxidation and, in places, were re-deposited to form clastic deposits. Modified deposits resemble the 'wall-rock replacement' and the 'residual and karst fill' of non-sulphide zinc deposits and are predominantly composed of smithsonite


Fluid migration and porosity evolution in the Buda Hills, Hungary – selected examples from Triassic and Paleogene carbonate rocks/Dissertation submitted to the Ph.D. program for Geology and Geophysics at the Ph.D. School of Earth Sciences, Eötvös Lor, 2011, Poros, Zsófia

Porosity evolution of carbonates in the Buda Hills was the subject of this research. The aim was to provide an analogue for carbonate reservoirs that underwent multiphase diagenesis. Two major porosity types were recognized: 1) micro-porosity of powdered Triassic dolomites 2) cavernous and fracture porosity represented by the famous hypogenic cave system, hosted by Triassic and Paleogene carbonates. Powderization of dolomite is a general phenomenon in the Buda Hills, where its areal extent is exceptionally large compared to similar occurrences elsewhere in the world. Geochemistry and mineralogy of the dolomite remained constant throughout the disintegration. Powderization is absent at places where the Triassic dolomites are partially calcitized as a result of karst related dedolomitization. Since powderization was controlled by surface related processes and no geochemical changes were associated with it, disintegration of dolomite is interpreted as the result of sub-recent physical weathering, supposedly related to frost action.

Hypogenic caves are found along older calcite-barite-fluorite-sulphide veins, pointing to the fact that young cave-forming fluids migrated along the same fractures as the older mineralizing fluids did. Predominantly NNW–SSE strike of fractures concludes a latest Early Miocene maximum age for the fracture-filling minerals. Vein-calcite contains coeval primary, HC-bearing- and aqueous inclusions indicating that also HCs have migrated together with the mineralizing fluids. The coexistence of aqueous and HC inclusions permitted to establish the entrapment temperature (80°C) and pressure (85 bar) of the fluid and thus also the thickness of sediments, having been eroded since latest Early Miocene times, was calculated (800 m). Low salinity of the fluids (<1.7 NaCl eq. wt%) implies that HC-bearing fluids were diluted by regional karst water. Fluid inclusion studies also revealed that aggressive gases (e.g. CO2, H2S) were associated with HCs and that these gases may have played a role in dissolution of the carbonates. Based on the location of the paleo- and recent HC indications, identical migration pathways were reconstructed for both systems. It was proved that HC-bearing fluids have migrated northwestward from the basin east to the Buda Hills from the Miocene on. Due to the uplift related intensification of groundwater circulation, the proportion of hydrothermal fluids has diminished in favour of cold meteoric fluids. Establishment of the actual porosity of the Buda Karst initiated in Miocene times and earlier diagenetic history of the carbonates affected only the powderization of dolomite, and it had no direct effect on the localization of hypogenic caves.


Karst Sinkholes Stability Assessment in Cheria Area, NE Algeria, 2013, Yacine Azizi, Med. Ridha Menani, Med Laid Hemila, Abderahmane Boumezbeur

 

Karst; Rock Mass Rating (RMR);Sinkhole collapse; Tebessa This research work deals with the problem of karst sinkhole collapse occurring in the last few years in Cheria area (NE Algeria). This newly revealed phenomenon is of a major constrain in land use planning and urbanization, it has become necessary to locate and assess the stability of these underground features before any planning operation. Several exploration methods for the localization of underground cavities have been considered. Geological survey, discontinuity analysis, resistivity survey [ground penetrating radar has not been used as most of the Mio-Plio-Quaternary filling deposit covering Eocene limestone contains clay layers which limits the applicability of the method (Roth et al. in Eng Geol 65:225–232, 2002)] and borehole drilling were undertaken in order to locate underground cavities and assess their depth, geometry, dimensions, etc. Laboratory testing and field work were also undertaken in order to determine both intact rock and rock mass properties. All the rock mechanics testing and measurement were undertaken according to the ISRM recommendations. It has been found that under imposed loading, the stability of the karst cavities depends on the geo-mechanical parameters (RMR, Rock Mass Rating; GSI, Geological Strength Index; E, Young modulus) of the host rock as well as the depth and dimensions of the gallery. It increases with RMR, GSI, E and depth and decreases as the cavity becomes wider. Furthermore, the calculation results show that a ratio (roof thickness to gallery width) of 0.3 and more indicate, a stable conditions. The results obtained in this work allow identifying and assessing the stability of underground karst cavities. The methodology followed in this paper can be taken as a road map in the establishment of a hazard map related to the studied phenomenon. This map will be a useful tool for the future urban extension planning in Cheria area.


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