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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That dye test is determination of direction and rate of flow of streams by marking them with dye at the infiltration area and then identifying and timing the reappearance of color at lower-lying springs, in river beds and elsewhere in a cave system [20]. synonyms: (french.) coloration; (german.) farbung, farbversuch; (greek.) chrostike ichnithetesis; (italian.) tracciamento con colorante; (russian.) method krasjascih, indikatorov; (spanish.) coloracion; (turkish.) boya deneyi; (yugoslavian.) bojenje, barvanje. see also tracer.?

Checkout all 2699 terms in the KarstBase Glossary of Karst and Cave Terms

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KarstBase a bibliography database in karst and cave science.

Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
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Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
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Your search for luminescent (Keyword) returned 15 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 1 to 15 of 15
Regional dolomitization of subtidal shelf carbonates: Burlington and Keokuk Formations (Mississippian), Iowa and Illinois, 1987,
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Harris David C. , Meyers William J. ,
Cathodoluminescent petrography of crinoidal limestones and dolomites from the Mississippian (Osagean) Burlington and Keokuk Formations in Iowa and Illinois has revealed a complex diagenetic history of calcite cementation, dolomitization, chertification and compaction. Dolomite occurs abundantly in subtidal, open-marine facies throughout the study area. Three luminescently and chemically distinct generations of dolomite can be recognized regionally. Dolomite I, the oldest generation, is luminescent, thinly zoned, and occurs mainly as a replacement of lime mud. Dolomite II has dull red unzoned luminescence, and occurs mainly as a replacement of dolomite I rhombs. Dolomite III is non-luminescent, and occurs as a syntaxial cement on, and replacement of, older dolomite I and II rhombs. Petrography of these dolomite generations, integrating calcite cement stratigraphy, chertification and compaction histories has established the diagenetic sequence. Dolomites I and II pre-date all calcite cements, most chert, intergranular compaction and styloites. Dolomite III precipitation occurred within the calcite cement sequence, after all chert, and after at least some stylolitization. The stratigraphic limit of these dolomites to rocks older than the St Louis Limestone (Meramecian) suggests that dolomitization took place before or during a regional mid-Meramecian subaerial unconformity. A single dolomitization model cannot reasonably explain all three generations of dolomite in the Burlington and Keokuk limestones. Petrographic and geochemical characteristics coupled with timing constraints suggest that dolomite I formed in a sea water-fresh water mixing zone associated with a meteoric groundwater system established beneath the pre-St Louis unconformity. Dolomite II and III may have formed from externally sourced warm brines that replaced precursor dolomite at shallow burial depths. These models therefore suggest that the required Mg for dolomite I was derived mainly from sea water, whereas that for dolomites II and III was derived mainly from precursor Burlington--Keokuk dolomites through replacement or pressure solution

Laser luminescent microzonal analysis: a new method for investigation of the alterations of the climate and solar activity during the Quaternary, 1987,
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Shopov Y. Y.

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Smith T. M. , Dorobek S. L. ,
The Lower Mississippian Mission Canyon Formation of central to southwestern Montana was deposited under dominantly semiarid to arid climatic conditions during Osagean to early Meramecian times. Following deposition, a pronounced climatic shift to more humid conditions occurred during middle Meramecian times. This climatic change is indicated by extensive, post-depositional karst fabrics and in the stable isotopic composition of early, meteoric calcite cements and diagenetically altered sediments. Early meteoric calcite cement in Mission Canyon limestones is generally nonluminescent and fills intergranular and fenestral porosity. Petrographic data indicate that this cement formed during intermittent subaerial exposure of the Mission Canyon platform during Osagean times. This initial generation of meteoric calcite cement has deltaO-18 values from -8.1 to -2.6 parts per thousand PDB. These data, and the oxygen isotopic values from nonluminescent skeletal grains and micrite in host limestone indicate that Osagean meteoric water may have had deltaO-18 values as low as -6.0 parts per thousand SMOW. A second generation of petrographically similar, but isotopically distinct, calcite cement fills biomolds and porosity within solution-collapse breccias in the Mission Canyon Formation. This cement generation postdates earlier nonluminescent Osagean calcite cement and is volumetrically most abundant near the top of the Mission Canyon Formation. DeltaO-18 values from these cements and from nonluminescent lime mudstone clasts and matrix in solution collapse breccias range from -13.8 to -8.2 parts per thousand PDB. These data indicate that Meramecian meteoric water may have had deltaO-18 values as low as - 12.0 parts per thousand. However, a higher-temperature burial overprint on the deltaO-18 values of the calcite cement cannot be ruled out. The more positive deltaO-18 values of the Osagean calcite components probably indicate warm and arid conditions during short-term [10(4)(?) yr) subaerial exposure along intraformational sequence and parasequence boundaries. The more negative deltaO-18 values from Meramecian calcite components and the extensive karst associated with the post-Mission Canyon unconformity may have developed because of cooler and more humid climatic conditions and possible rain-out effects during middle Meramecian times. A dramatic shift towards cooler and more humid climatic conditions may be coincident with the onset of major continental glaciation in the Early Carboniferous. The post-Mission Canyon unconformity has been attributed to a major fall in sea level that may have glacio-eustatic origins. Growth of continental glaciers during a time of global cooling would have caused migration of polar fronts further toward the paleoequator. These polar fronts in turn, would have pushed moist, mid-latitude weather systems toward the paleoequator, resulting in cooler, more humid conditions in low-latitude settings during ''icehouse'' times

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Satterley A. K. , Marshall J. D. , Fairchild I. J. ,
The Wilde Kirche reef complex (Early-Late Rhaetian) grew as an isolated carbonate structure within the shallow Kossen Basin. At the Triassic/Jurassic boundary a single brief(c. 10-50 ka) period of subaerial exposure occurred. The preserved karst profile (70 m thick) displays a vadose zone, enhanced dissolution at a possible palaeo-watertable (5-15m below the exposure surface), and a freshwater phreatic zone. Karst porosity was predominantly biomouldic. primary cavities and biomoulds were enlarged and interconnected in the freshwater phreatic zone; cavity networks developed preferentially in patch reef facies. Resubmegence of the reef complex allowed minor modification of the palaeokarst surface by sea floor dissolution and Fe-Mn crust deposition on a sediment-starved passive margin. Fibrous calcite (FC), radiaxial fibrous calcite (RFC) and fascicular optic calcite (FOC) cements preserved as low Mg calcite (LMC) are abundant in primary and karst dissolution cavities. FC cement is restricted to primary porosity, particularly as a synsedimentary cement at the windward reef margin. FC, RFC and FOC contain microdolomite inclusions and show patchy non-/bright cathodoluminescence. delta(18)O values ofnon-luminescent portions (interpreted as near original) are -1.16 to -1.82 parts per thousand (close to the inferred delta(18)O of calcite precipitated from Late Triassic sea water). delta(13)C values are constant ( to .2 parts per thousand). These observations suggest FC, RFC and FOC were originally marine high Mg calcite (HMC) precipitates, and that the bulk of porosity occlusion occurred not in the karst environment but in the marine environment during and after marine transgression. The HMC to LMC transition may have occurred in contact with meteoric water only in the case of FC cement. The most altered (brightly luminescent) portions of RFC/FOC cements yield delta(18)O = -2.44 to -5.8 parts per thousand, suggesting HMC to LMC alteration at up to 34 degrees C, in the shallow burial environment at depths of 180-250 m. Abundant equant cements with delta(18)O = -4.1 to -7.1 parts per thousand show crisp, uniform or zoned dull luminescence. They are interpreted as unaltered cements precipitated at 33-36 degrees C at 200-290 m burial depth, from marine-derived fluids under a slightly enhanced geothermal gradient. Fluids carrying the equant cements may have induced the HMC to LMC transition in the fibrous cements

Comparison of annual luminescent and visible laminae in stalagmites, 1997,
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Genty D, Baker A, Barnes W,
Polished sections of stalagmites from France and Belgium were examined using UV excitation and natural light in order to examine their annual growth laminae. The most prominent luminescence occurs in the dark compact laminae; this would signify that both types form at the end of Autumn or the beginning of Winter when soil organic matter is flushed into the cave. Under UV excitation, and at a weaker magnification, white porous calcite fabric is found to be much more luminescent than the dark compact one. These results could be due either to optical effects associated with porosity or to the higher luminescence of dark compact laminae

Comparaison entre les lamines luminescentes et les lamines visibles annuelles de stalagmites, 1997,
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Genty D, Baker A, Barnes W,
ResumeLes sections polies de plusieurs stalagmites provenant de France et de Belgique ont ete observees apres une excitation en lumiere ultraviolette (LTV) et en lumiere naturelle pour etudier les lamines annuelles luminescentes et visibles. La luminescence la plus forte se trouve dans les lamines sombres et compactes, ce qui signifierait que ces deux types de lamines se formeraient a la fin de l'automne et au debut de l'hiver, lorsqu'il y a une brusque augmentation du debit et un apport important de matiere organique. Sous excitation laser UV, la calcite blanche et poreuse est beaucoup plus luminescente que la calcite sombre et compacte. Cette luminescence est soit, liee a la porosite, soit a la presence de lamines sombres et compactes plus luminescentes.AbstractPolished sections of stalagmites from France and Belgium were examined using UV excitation and natural light in order to examine their annual growth laminae. The most prominent luminescence occurs in the dark compact laminae, this would signify that both types form at the end of Autumn or the beginning of Winter when soil organic matter is flushed into the cave. Under UV excitation, and at a weaker magnification, white porous calcite fabric is found to be much more luminescent than the dark compact one. These results could be due either to optical effects associated with porosity or to the higher luminescence of dark compact laminae

Drip flow variations under a stalactite of the Pere Noel cave (Belgium). Evidence of seasonal variations and air pressure constraints, 1998,
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Genty D, Deflandre G,
The study of drip rate and seepage water electrical conductivity (hereafter called conductivity) under one stalactite in the Pere Noel cave (Belgium), with data produced from an automatic station since 1991, demonstrates several previously unobserved features: (1) measurement of drop volume shows that, for 94% of the time series, drop volume is constant (= 0.14 ml), but when discharge exceeds 48.2 drips min(-1), drop volume decreases, probably because of secondary drop formation; (2) the interannual drip rate variation is correlated to the annual water excess and its correlant, rainfall (R-2 = 0.98; exponential model); this result introduces a new improvement in the understanding of the previously investigated relationships between stalagmite annual laminae thickness and mean annual rainfall; (3) the drip rate shows a well marked seasonality: it increases abruptly in late fall or early winter and decreases slowly during spring, summer and fall. Increased discharge is accompanied by an increase in conductivity, which suggests that the flushed water is more mineralized and was stored in the karst aquifer for several months; (4) superimposed on these seasonal variations, there are two kinds of flow regimes which are driven by the atmospheric pressure: (i) a 'wiggles regime', whose duration is 1-7 days in length and which is inversely proportional to the air pressure wiggles; it is explained by either a ''shut-off faucet'' process due to the rock formation stress, or to a change in the two-phases flow component proportions (air/water); (ii) an 'unstable regime' characterized by abrupt switches (<2 h) or oscillations with variable periodicities, from a few minutes to a few hours. These occur when the drip rate reaches a threshold (i.e. 240 drops 10 min(-1)); the chaotic behaviour of this phenomenon is discussed. (C) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved

Variations in stalagmite luminescence laminae structure at Poole's Cavern, England, AD 1910{}1996: calibration of a palaeoprecipitation proxy, 1999,
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Baker A, Proctor Cj, Barnes Wl,
Duplicate records of variations in the structure of stalagmite annual luminescence laminae are investi gated for the period ad 1910 to 1996 for Poole's Cavern, Buxton, central England. For the two stalagmites, 88% of the years have luminescence laminae that exhibit a near sinusoidal shape with no structural variations. However 10 laminae (12% of total) exhibit a double band structure; these are demonstrated to occur in years with high monthly or daily mean precipitation. It is suggested that high intensity (.60 mm d- 1) and high quantity (.250 mm per month) of precipitation may flush luminescent organic material onto the stalagmites from either the soil or groundwater zones and generate a double lamina. However, not all precipitation events generated double laminae. High-intensity events in summer were ineffective due to a soil moisture deficit and/or interception by the woodland canopy. High-rainfall months (.250 mm) failed to generate double laminae when preceded by two or more months of greater than 150 mm, suggesting exhaustion of the organic acid supply can occur. When compared to monthly precipitation data for Buxton, laminae shape and the percentage of double laminae of the Poole's Cavern stalagmites are best explained by a centre-weighted running mean of the preceding six to seven months' precipitation. The palaeoclimate potential of structural variations in stalagmite luminescence laminae is discussed

Speleothems and climate: a special issue of The Holocene, 1999,
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Lauritzen Stein Erik, Lundberg Joyce,
Speleothems (cave dripstones) are formed as a part of the meteoric water cycle and therefore vari ations in their growth rate and composition reflect environmental changes on the land surface above the cave. Since they are continental deposits, and possess a remarkably accurate dating potential, using TIMS U-series techniques, speleothems are important palaeoclimatic archives for the terrestrial environment, complementing the marine and ice-core records. The climatic proxies that can be deciphered from speleothems are growth rate, stable isotope composition (d18O, d13C), organic (humic) matter and trace element composition, as well as luminescent laminae, which may display annual rhythms. The nine papers in this special issue ofThe Holocene present the latest results in palaeoclimatic analysis from speleothems

Diagenetic History of Pipe Creek Jr. Reef, Silurian, North-Central Indiana, U.S.A, 2000,
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Simo J. A. , Lehmann Patrick J. ,
Calcite cements in the Silurian (Ludlovian) Pipe Creek Jr. Reef, north-central Indiana, are compositionally zoned with characteristic minor-element concentrations and stable-isotope signatures, and were precipitated in different diagenetic environments. Superposition and crosscutting relationships allow us to group cement zones and to relate them to the sequence stratigraphic evolution of the reef. Pipe Creek Jr. Reef grew in normal marine waters, with the reef top high (greater than 50 m) above the platform floor. Flank facies are volumetrically important and are preserved largely as limestone, in contrast to most dolomitized Silurian reefs in the midcontinent. Syndepositional marine cements fill primary porosity and synsedimentary fractures and are interlayered with marine internal sediment. Now low-magnesium calcite, their isotopic compositions are similar to those of depositional grains and cements estimated to have precipitated from Ludlovian sea waters. Depositional porosity was reduced by 75% by the precipitation of these syndepositional cements, which stabilized the steeply dipping flank slope. Postdepositional, clear calcite cements are interpreted as shallow-phreatic and burial cements on the basis of their relationship to periods of karstification and fracturing. Shallow-phreatic cements, with concentric cathodoluminescent (CL) zonation, precipitated in primary pores and are postdated by fractures and caves filled with Middle Devonian sandstone. CL zonal boundaries are sharp, and some, near a major stratigraphic unconformity, show evidence of dissolution. The volumetric abundance of the individual CL zones varies in the reef, indicating a complex superposition of waters of varying chemistry and rock-water interaction that are probably related to relative sea-level changes. This important aspect of the reef stratigraphy is recorded only by the diagenetic succession, because evidence of earlier sea-level changes is removed by a major later regional unconformity. Burial cements are the youngest diagenetic feature recognized, and they rest conformably or unconformably over older cements. They exhibit both concentric CL zonation and sectoral zoning, they are ferroan to nonferroan, and they contain thin sulfide zones along growth-band boundaries. Their isotopic compositions do not overlap with shallow-phreatic or marine cement values. Degraded oil postdates burial cements, and is composed of the same sterane class as the Devonian-age Antrim Shale, the probable source rock. This source contrasts with that of reef reservoirs in the Michigan Basin, where Silurian strata are commonly the hydrocarbon source

Formation of dolomite mottling in Middle Triassic ramp carbonates (Southern Hungary), 2000,
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Torok A. ,
The Middle Triassic carbonates of the Villany Mountains were deposited on a homoclinal carbonate ramp. Many of the carbonates from the 700 m-thick sequence show partial or complete dolomitization. The present paper describes dolomites that occur in a limestone unit as irregular mottles and as pore- and fracture-filling cements. Replacement-type scattered dolomite rhombs in the mottles having inclusion-rich, very dull luminescent cores and limpid non-luminescent outer zones represent the initial phase of dolomitization. The isotopic composition of these dolomites (delta(13)C = .30 parts per thousand VPDB, delta(18)O = -3.60 parts per thousand VPDB) is similar to that of the calcitic micrite (delta(13)C = .6 parts per thousand VPDB, delta(18)O = -4.00 parts per thousand VPDB) indicating that no external fluids were introduced during dolomite formation. The elevated Sr content of the micrites implies that sediment was originally aragonite or high-Mg calcite. Dolomitization took place in the burial realm from a 'marine' pore-fluid in a partly closed system. Later fracture-related saddle dolomite reflects elevated formation temperatures and increasing burial. Five calcites were identified. Multiple generations of calcite-filled fractures were formed during burial diagenesis generally having dull or no luminescence (delta(13)C = .80 parts per thousand VPDB, delta(18)O = -6.40 parts per thousand VPDB). The latest phase calcites are related to karst formation, having a very negative isotopic composition (delta(13)C = -5.0 to -7.2 parts per thousand VPDB and delta(18)O approximate to -7.44 parts per thousand VPDB). The karst-related processes include dissolution, calcite precipitation and partial replacement of dolomites by complex zoned bright yellow calcite. The timing of dolomitization is uncertain, but the first phase took place in a partly closed system prior to stylolite formation. Late-stage saddle dolomites were precipitated during maximum burial in the Cretaceous. The dissolution of dolomites and karst-related calcite replacement was not earlier than Late Cretaceous. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved

Geochemical study of calcite veins in the Silurian and Devonian of the Barrandian Basin (Czech Republic): evidence for widespread post-Variscan fluid flow in the central part of the Bohemian Massif, 2000,
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Suchy V. , Heijlen W. , Sykorova I. , Muchez Ph. , Dobes P. , Hladikova J. , Jackova I. , Safanda J. , Zeman A.

Carbonate fracture cements in limestones have been investigated by fluid inclusion and stable isotope analysis to provide insight into fluid evolution and deformation conditions of the Barrandian Basin (Silurian–Devonian) of the Czech Republic. The fractures strike generally north–south and appear to postdate major Variscan deformation. The most common fracture cement is calcite that is locally accompanied by quartz, natural bitumen, dolomite, Mn-oxides and fluorite. Three successive generations of fracture-filling calcite cements are distinguished based on their petrographical and geochemical characteristics. The oldest calcite cements (Stage 1) are moderate to dull brown cathodoluminescent, Fe-rich and exhibit intense cleavage, subgrain development and other features characteristic of tectonic deformation. Less tectonically deformed, variable luminescent Fe-poor calcite corresponds to a paragenetically younger Stage 2 cement. First melting temperatures, Te, of two-phase aqueous inclusions in Stages 1 and 2 calcites are often around 2208C, suggesting that precipitation of the cements occurred from H2O–NaCl fluids. The melting temperature, Tm, has values between 0 and 25.88C, corresponding to a low salinity between 0 and 8.9 eq. wt% NaCl. Homogenization temperatures, Th, from calcite cements are interpreted to indicate precipitation at about 708C or less. No distinction could be made between the calcite of Stages 1 and 2 based on their fluid inclusion characteristics. In some Stage 2 cements, inclusions of highly saline (up to 23 eq. wt% NaCl) brines appear to coexist with low-salinity inclusions. The low salinity fluid possibly contains Na-, K-, Mg- and Ca-chlorides. The high salinity fluid has a H2O–NaCl–CaCl2 composition. Blue-to-yellow-green fluorescing hydrocarbon inclusions composed of medium to higher API gravity oils are also identified in some Stages 1 and 2 calcite cements. Stage 1 and 2 calcites have d 18O values between 213.2‰ and 27.2‰ PDB. The lower range of the calculated d 18O values of the ambient fluids (23.5‰ to 1 2.7‰ SMOW) indicate precipitation of these cements from deeply circulating meteoric waters. The presence of petroleum hydrocarbon inclusions in some samples is interpreted to reflect partial mixing with deeper basinal fluids. The paragenetically youngest Stage 3 calcite cement has only been encountered in a fewveins.These calcites are characterised by an intensely zoned luminescence pattern, with bright yellow and non-luminescent zones. Inclusions of Mn-oxides and siliceous sinters are commonly associated with Stage 3 calcite, which is interpreted to have precipitated from shallower meteoric waters. Regional structural analysis revealed that the calcite veins of the Barrandian basin belong to a large-scale system of north–south-trending lineaments that run through the territory of the Czech Republic. The veins probably reflect episodes of fluid migration that occurred along these lineaments during late stages of the Variscan orogeny

Influence of solar luminosity over geomagnetic and climatic cycles as derived from speleothems, 2004,
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Ford Derek Clifford, Georgiev Leonid, Georgieva Desislava, Sanabria Michael, Shopov Yavor, Stoykova Diana, Tsankov Ludmil
We observed cycles presented in a luminescent solar insolation proxy record from a speleothem from Jewel Cave, South Dakota, US. We found cycles of orbital precession with periods of 23 and 19 ka and of obliquity of 41 ka and many others from non- orbital origin in this sample. We determined the Solar origin of the cycles with durations of 11500, 4400, 3950, 2770, 2500, 2090, 1960, 1670, 1460, 1280, 1195, 1145, 1034, 935, 835, 750 and 610 years. It was done by their detection both in proxy records of speleothem luminescence, D14C and the intensity of the geomagnetic dipole. It is well known that the main variations in the last two records are produced by the solar wind. The most intensive cycle discovered in this record has duration of 11.5 ka. It is not of orbital origin. It was found previously to be the most intensive cycle in the D14C calibration record and has been interpreted to be of terrestrial origin because "it is too strong to be of solar origin". Our studies suggest that it should be a solar cycle modulating the geomagnetic field and 14C reversed production as the other solar cycles do.

Activators of luminescence in speleothems as source of major mistakes in interpretation of luminescent paleoclimatic records, 2004,
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Yavor Shopov
This work summarizes the main results of the operation of the International Program "Luminescence of Cave Minerals" of the commission on Physical Chemistry and Hydrogeology of Karst of UIS of UNESCO in the field of activators of speleothem luminescence. It discusses Activators of Luminescence in Speleothems as a source of major mistakes in the interpretation of luminescent paleoclimatic records. It demonstrates the existence of 6 types of luminescence of speleothems and cave minerals in dependence of the type of the luminescence center and its incorporation in the mineral. 24 different activators of photoluminescence of speleothem calcite and 11 of aragonite are studied. This paper demonstrates that it is impossible to produce reliable Paleotemperature or Past Precipitation records from luminescence of speleothems without establishing the organic origin of the entire luminescence of the particular sample.

Measurement of luminescent banding in speleothems: some techniques and limitations, 2012,
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Crowell Bryan E. , White William B.

Speleothems, especially flowstone and cylindrical stalagmites, exhibit phosphorescence which is often banded on the scale of a few tens of micrometers. The luminescence bands are paleoclimatic records with a very high temporal resolution. A technique has been developed using a laser source and a high resolution Raman spectrometer with microscope and computer-controlled translation stage for both luminescence profiles and luminescence spectroscopy. Luminescence intensity could be measured as a function of traverse distance with a spatial resolution of 2 – 3 μm. Potential sources of error include loss of intensity due to radiation damage by the laser beam, irregularities, cracks, and inclusions on the polished speleothem surface, and defocusing of the beam along the traverse path.

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