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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That fluorapatite is a cave mineral - ca5(po4)3f [11].?

Checkout all 2699 terms in the KarstBase Glossary of Karst and Cave Terms

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Browse Speleogenesis Issues:

KarstBase a bibliography database in karst and cave science.

Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
See all featured articles
Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
See all featured articles from other geoscience journals

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Your search for major-element (Keyword) returned 7 results for the whole karstbase:
Palaeoenvironment of lateritic bauxites with vertical and lateral differentiation, 1983, Valeton Ida,
Formation of lateritic bauxites of the type described in this paper occurs world-wide in Cretaceous and Tertiary coastal plains. The bauxites form elongate belts, sometimes hundreds of kilometres long, parallel to Lower Tertiary shorelines in India and South America and their distribution is not related to a particular mineralogical composition of the parent rock. The lateral movement of the major elements Al, Si, Fe, Ti is dependent on a high level and flow of groundwater. Varying efficiency of subsurface drainage produces lateral facies variations. Interfingering of marine and continental facies indicate a sea-land transition zone where the type of sediments also varies with minor tectonic movements or sea-level changes. A typical sediment association is found in India, Africa, South and North America. It consists of (i) red beds rich in detrital and dissolved material of reworked laterites, (ii) lacustrine sediments and hypersaline precipitates, (iii) lignites intercalated with marine clays, layers of siderite, pyrite, marcasite and jarosite, and (iv) marine chemical sediments rich in oolitic iron ores or glauconite. A model is developed to account for element distributions in lateritic bauxites in terms of groundwater levels and flow. Finally it is shown that many high-level bauxites are formed in coastal plains and that they are subsequently uplifted to their present altitude

Four areas with different styles of fenglin (tower and cone karst) are investigated using morphometric techniques in the Shuicheng area of Guizhou Province. The karsts were formed in the Neogene and were uplifted during the Quaternary, to present elevations of about 1800 m. Measurements were made of the characteristics of 745 cones using maps and aerial photographs supplemented by field investigations. The karst cones are found to be of almost constant slope angle (45-degrees to 47-degrees) regardless of structure, but with a tendency for slightly lower slopes to occur where the carbonates have impure interbeds. Although generally symmetrical in plan, elongation of both cones and intervening depressions appears controlled by major elements of the structure and the general slope of the topography. Spatial analysis shows the cones to be relatively uniformly distributed in three of the four cases studied. Morphometric evidence points strongly to parallel slope evolution of cones. A model is offered of landscape evolution in which sequential development occurs through stages of karst-tableland with dolines to fencong-depression to fenglin-depression and finally to fenglin-plain. Geological control becomes less influential as this development proceeds, with the smaller and more widely spaced cones of the later stages becoming increasingly symmetrical in form

EPMA and XRF characterization of therapeutic cave aerosol particles and their deposition in the respiratory system, 2002, Alfoldy B, Torok S, Balashazy I, Hofmann W, Winklerheil R,
Cave therapy is an efficient therapeutic method to cure asthma, but the exact healing effect has not yet been clarified. This study was motivated by the basic assumption that aerosols may play a key role in cave therapy. Aerosol particles were collected in a therapeutic cave in Budapest, Hungary (Szemlohegyi cave) at different locations arranged for the therapeutic treatment. Samples were further analysed by EPMA and XRF for chemical composition and morphology, determining the particle number distribution and classifying them according to their elemental composition. Three particle classes were determined based on major element concentrations: aluminosilicate, quartz and calcium carbonate. The combination of single-particle EPMA and XRF resulted in relevant chemical information that could be used further for lung deposition modelling, namely the diameter and the number distribution to calculate the deposition probability, and the concentration of the element within a particle class necessary for the estimation of the deposited dose. The final results for the health effect study are the deposition efficiencies and deposition patterns of inhaled cave aerosols. The results of the stochastic deposition model showed that roughly 41% of the inhaled particles are deposited in the lung. From this amount, around 39% are deposited within airway generations 6-15, which is the most infected area in an asthmatic lung. The explanation of the healing effects might be based on the presented dose calculations. Copyright (C) 2002 John Wiley Sons, Ltd

Cadmium and zinc adsorption maxima of geochemically anomalous soils (Oxisols) in Jamaica, 2003, Davies Be, Vaughan J, Lalor Gc, Vutchkov M,
Soil samples were collected from a Miocene limestone area of Jamaica (Manchester Parish) where unusual accumulations of Cd and other metals have been described previously. The source of the metals is natural (geological). The soils are aluminous Oxisols and, geochemically, are closely similar to local karst bauxite deposits. For comparison a karst bauxite sample was collected from Alabama (USA) and an Ultisol sample from South Carolina (USA). All the Jamaican soils were in the pH range neutral to slightly alkaline and CaCO3 contents ranged from 1.3 to 23.1 %. Mean total Cd = 102.5 mg/kg (range 13.6-191.8 mg/kg) and mean Zn = 362.6 (range = 125.8-683.3) mg/kg. These values are higher than world averages. The mean readily exchangeable Cd was 0.05 (range 0.01-0.15) mmol/kg and for Zn mean = 0.02 (range 0.01-0.02) mmol/kg. Adsorption data were obtained experimentally and modelled using the Langmuir isotherm. For the Manchester soils the mean Cd adsorption maximum was 9.15 (range 2.26-32.0) mmol/kg; the values were higher than the karst bauxite sample (0.08 mmol/kg) or the Ultisol (0.08 mmol/kg). Reliable Zn isotherms were not obtained for all soils; for three Manchester soils the mean Zn sorption maximum was 2.99 mmol/kg compared with 3.13 mmol/kg for Cd in the same three soils. Mean Al and Fe values are 38.7% Al2O3 and 17.7% Fe2O3 compared with the Ultisol (14.5% Al2O3,11.3% Fe2O3) and the bauxite (52.6% Al2O3, 0.7%Fe2O3). Interpretation of the major element values and the known mineralogy of the soils implies that the high adsorption maxima of the Manchester soils can best be explained by their calcareous nature. It is concluded that the Manchester soils have ample adsorption capacity to trap any incoming Cd or Zn solutes

Heterogeneity of parent rocks and its constraints on geochemical criteria in weathering crusts of carbonate rocks, 2004, Wang S. J. , Feng Z. G. ,
Owing to the low contents of their acid-insoluble components, carbonate rocks tend to decrease sharply in volume in association with the formation of weathering crust. The formation of a 1 m-thick weathering crust would usually consume more than ten meters to several tens of meters of thickness of parent rocks. The knowledge of how to identify the homogeneity of parent rocks is essential to understand the formation mechanism of weathering crust in karst regions. especially that of thick-layered red weathering crust. In this work the grain-size analyses have demonstrated that the three profiles studied are the residual weathering crust of carbonate rocks and further showed that there objectively exists the, heterogeneity of parent rocks in the three studied weathering crusts. The heterogeneity of parent rocks can also be. reflected in geochemical parameters of major elements, just as the characteristics of frequency plot of pain-size distribution. Conservative trace element ratios Zr/Hf and Nb/Ta are proven to be unsuitable for tracing the heterogeneity of parent rocks of weathering crust, but its geochemical mechanism is unclear. The authors strongly suggest in this paper that the identification of the homogeneity of parent rocks of weathering crust in karst regions is of prime necessity

Hydrogeochemical balance sheet of natural and anthropogenic impacts onto Orleans valley karstic network performed with major elements : the 'dynamic confinement' model quantification, 2006, Le Borgne Francois, Treuil Michel, Joron Jean Louis, Lepiller Michel,
The Orleans valley aquifer comprises both the alluvia of the Loire river and its underlying calcareous stratum. This aquifer is fed by river recharge, thanks to a substantial karstic network in its calcareous part. The main outlets of the aquifer are the Loiret springs, including the famous 'le Bouillon' spring. As a result, entries and exits of Orleans valley watertable make a natural observatory, allowing study of the transit of the chemical species inside the aquifer. Since 1997, this natural observatory has been improved with the installation of 52 piezometers (37 in the alluvial aquifer and 15 in the carbonate aquifer) within an alluvial quarry located in the middle of Orleans valley. Tracer experiments, carried out in this extended observatory, have shown that the porous calcareous and alluvial part of the aquifer constitute a 'dynamically confined system'. As a result, the hydrochemical input of the porous domain of the aquifer to the karstic flow must be negligible. The aim of this study is to confirm this theory with the use of major elements as large-scale temporal and spatial tracers of these exchanges. At 'le Bouillon' karstic spring, the Na, K, Mg2, Cl- and SO42- concentrations are closely correlated to those of the Loire river if a 3-4 day time lag is considered. This indicates a quasi-conservative transit of these elements in the karst. Conversely, calcite dissolution accompanying the organic matter biodegradation induces significant enrichments in Ca2, HCO3- and NO3- (mean annual concentrations of which are, respectively, 27.0, 87.8 and 4.9 mg.L-1 in the Loire river and 37.3, 127 et 7.3 mg.L-1 at 'le Bouillon' spring). After fertiliser spreading, the alluvial waters are highly enriched in NO3-, Cl-, SO42- (respectively 67.2, 24.0, 57.5 mg.L-1) compared to the Loire river (respectively 5.5, 12.7, 17.5 mg.L-1). The anthropogenic input is insignificant for Na, of which the average concentration in the alluvial watershed (11.7 mg.L-1) remains close to the Loire river (12.9 mg.L-1). The alluvial watershed is depleted in K (1.3 mg.L-1) with respect to the Loire river (3.7 mg.L-1) and correlatively enriched in Mg2 (17.0 mg.L-1 against 5.0 mg.L-1). High major element concentrations are measured in several calcareous piezometers confirming that vertical flows occur between the alluvial and calcareous parts of the aquifer. Furthermore, enrichment heterogeneity in those two strata is induced by a dynamic redistribution, with no significant leaching of anthropogenic inputs which were previously homogeneously spread. This redistribution is pulsed by ascents of the Loire river, impacts of which on the watershed are clearly identified on Mg/K-Na/K diagrams showing a main K {leftrightarrows} Mg exchange between Loire water and clays minerals. Taking into account average K and Mg concentrations in the different parts of Orleans valley's watershed, the volume of porous aquifer water brought to the karstic network flow mean estimated is 2.4 % of the total volume which transits between the Loire and the 'le Bouillon' spring, showing the dynamic confining action of the aquifer porous domain. Taking into account more precisely seasonal river Loire and spring composition variation, these inputs can be more precisely established : 1.6% during winter and 1.2% during summer at 'Le Bouillon' spring; 2.4% during winter and 3.9% during summer at 'La Pie' spring. But such a weak global contribution of the porous domain accounts for 10% nitrate composition of the karstic springs. Seasonal spring nitrate composition balance is clearly explained by 60% river Loire, 30 % organic matter oxydation - carbonate dissolution and 10% porous domain inputs during winter, and 30% river Loire, 60% organic matter, - carbonate dissolution and 10% porous domain inputs. Same calcium mass balance calculations point out the necessity of CO2 winter complementary input by local rain fall penetrations

Geochemical and statistical evidence of recharge, mixing, and controls on spring discharge in an eogenetic karst aquifer, 2009, Moore Paul J. , Martin Jonathan B. , Screaton Elizabeth J.

Information about sources of recharge, distributions of flow paths, and the extent of water–rock reactions in karst aquifers commonly result from monitoring spring chemistry and discharge. To investigate the relationship between spring characteristics and the complexities of karst aquifers, we couple variations in surface- and groundwater chemistry to physical conditions including river stage, precipitation, and  evapotranspiration (ET) within a sink-rise system through a 6-km portion of the Upper Floridan aquifer (UFA) in north-central Florida. Principal component analysis (PCA) of time series major-element compositions suggests that at least three sources of water affect spring discharge, including allogenic recharge into a swallet, diffuse recharge through a thin vadose zone, and water upwelling from deep within the aquifer. The deep-water source exerts the strongest influence on water chemistry by providing a majority of Na+, Mg2+, K+, Cl, and SO2 4 to the system. Anomalously high temperature at one of several monitoring wells reflects vertical flow of about 1 m/year. Mass-balance calculations suggest diffuse recharge and deep-water upwelling can provide up to 50% of the spring discharge; however, their contributions depend on head gradients between the conduit and surrounding aquifer matrix, which are influenced
by variations in precipitation, ET, and river stage. Our results indicate that upwelling from deep flow paths may provide significant contributions of water to spring discharge, and that monitoring only springs limits interpretations of karst systems by masking critical components of the aquifer, such as water sources and flow paths. These results also suggest the matrix in eogenetic aquifers is a major pathway for flow even in a system dominated by conduits.

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