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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That soilcover is a layer of soil material covering bedrock [16].?

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Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
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Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
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Your search for mars (Keyword) returned 46 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 1 to 15 of 46
The Discovery, Exploration and Scientific Investigation of the Wellington Caves, New South Wales, 1963, Lane Edward A. , Richards Aola M.

Although research has been unable to establish a definite date of discovery for the limestone caves at Wellington, New South Wales, documentary evidence has placed it as 1828. The actual discovery could have been made earlier by soldiers or convicts from the Wellington Settlement, which dated from 1823. Whether the aborigines knew of the cave's existence before 1828 is uncertain, but likely, as in 1830 they referred to them as "Mulwang". A number of very small limestone caves were also discovered about the same time in the nearby Molong area. The Bungonia Caves, in the Marulan district near Goulburn, were first written about a short time later. On all the evidence available at present, the Wellington Caves can be considered to be the first of any size discovered on the mainland of Australia. The Wellington Caves are situated in a low, limestone outcrop about six miles south by road from the present town of Wellington, and approximately 190 miles west-north-west of Sydney. They are at an altitude of 1000 feet, about half a mile from the present bed of the Bell River, a tributary of the Macquarie River. One large cave and several small caves exist in the outcrop, and range in size from simple shafts to passages 200 to 300 feet long. Mining for phosphate has been carried out, resulting in extensive galleries, often unstable, at several levels. Two caves have been lit by electricity for the tourist trades; the Cathedral Cave, 400 feet long, maximum width 100 feet, and up to 50 feet high; and the smaller Gaden Cave. The Cathedral Cave contains what is believed to be the largest stalagmite in the world, "The Altar", which stands on a flat floor, is 100 feet round the base and almost touches the roof about 40 feet above. It appears that the name Cathedral was not applied to the cave until this century. The original names were "The Great Cave", "The Large Cave" or "The Main Cave". The Altar was named by Thomas Mitchell in 1830. See map of cave and Plate. Extensive Pleistocene bone deposits - a veritable mine of bone fragments - were found in 1830, and have been studied by palaeontologists almost continually ever since. These bone deposits introduced to the world the extinct marsupials of Australia, and have a special importance in view of the peculiar features of the living fauna of the continent. The names of many famous explorers and scientists are associated with this history, among the most prominent being Sir Thomas Mitchell and Sir Richard Owen. Anderson (1933) gives a brief outline of why the Wellington Caves fossil bone beds so rapidly attracted world-wide interest. During the 18th and early 19th Century, the great palaeontologist, Baron Georges Cuvier, and others, supposed that the earth had suffered a series of catastrophic changes in prehistoric times. As a result of each of these, the animals living in a certain area were destroyed, the area being repopulated from isolated portions of the earth that had escaped the catastrophe. The Bilical Deluge was believed to have been the most recent. Darwin, during the voyage of the Beagle around the world (1832-37), was struck by the abundance of Pleistocene mammalian fossils in South America, and also by the fact that, while these differed from living forms, and were in part of gigantic dimensions, they were closely related to present-day forms in that continent. Darwin's theory of descent with modification did not reconcile with the ideas of Cuvier and others. As the living mammalian fauna of Australia was even more distinctive than that of South America, it was a matter of importance and excitement to discover the nature of the mammals which had lived in Australia in the late Tertiary and Pleistocene.


A Check on the Radiocarbon Dating of Dessicated Thylacine (Marsupial "Wolf") and Dog Tissue From Thylacine Hole, Nullarbor Region, Western Australia, 1971, Merrilees, D.

A "modern" (180 + or - 76 years B.P.) radiocarbon date (N.S.W. 42) on dessicated rabbit flesh from Thylacine Hole (N63) suggests that dates N.S.W. 28c (4,650 + or - 153 radiocarbon years B.P.) on thylacine flesh and hair and N.S.W. 30 (2,200 + or - 96 radiocarbon years B.P.) on dog (dingo) flesh from the same cave are reliable within limits discussed.


Resemblances Between the Extinct "Cave Goat" (Eutheria, Bovidae) of the Balearic Islands and Phalangeroid Marsupials, 1971, Merrilees, D.

Information on the extinct "cave goat" (Myotragus balearicus Bate 1909) of the Balearic Islands is reviewed. Abundant remains of Myotragus balearicus are known from various deposits of late Quaternary (including Regent) ages. It had only a single pair of lower incisors, in this respect resembling Australian herbivorous marsupials, especially the bare nosed wombats.


Phascolarctos (Marsupialia, Vombatoidea) and an Associated Fossil Fauna From Koala Cave Near Yanchep, Western Australia, 1972, Archer, M.

A recently discovered fossil fauna from Koala Cave (Yn 118), Yanchep, Western Australia, contains the marsupials Sthenurus brownei, Potorous platyops, Phascolarctos sp., Perameles sp., Vombatus sp., and a large snake. The fauna is in some respects comparable with the Mammoth Cave and Labyrinth Cave faunas of the Cape Leeuwin-Cape Naturaliste region.


Developmental chronology and evolution of calcium storage and urate containing cells in Niphargus schellenbergi Karaman., 1975, Graf Franois, Michaut Philippe.
The intra-marsupial development of Niphargus schellenbergi is divided into three phases: within the chorion, embryonic intermoult and juvenile intermoult. The disappearance of the chorion divides the first phase from the second. A double exuviation exists between the last two. The chronology of the embryonic development and of the beginning of post-embryonic development is established. On hatching the juvenile N. schellenbergi has one pair of hepatopancreatic caeca. During the first post-embryonic intermoults the ventral hepatopancreatic caeca, posterior caeca and anterior caecum are formed. The relation between posterior caeca and the aorta is described. The study of calcium storage before moulting showed that calcareous concretions located in posterior caeca and midgut have the typical form, volume, quantity and distribution of the species. This calcium accumulation process occurs in the midgut following the first posternbryonic exuviation. It is only when the sixth exuviation is attained that storage in the posterior caeca is similar to the one in adults. The urate containing cells located at the lower face of the pericardial septum begin to accumulate urate spherules 15 days before hatching. They vary in form, volume, localization and composition, and so may be considered as storage sites for urate, pigments and various ions (P, K, Ca, S, Cl, Na, Mg) which are returned to circulation.

Observations on the biology of Stenasellus virei (Crustacea Isopoda Asellota of subterranean waters), 1975, Magniez Guy
St. virei has been bred in the laboratory for many years (1960-1974). Most of the St.v.hussoni were captured in karstic waters, near the Moulis subterranean laboratory. Some St.v.virei from the Padirac sink-hole; St.v.buchneri from Cantabrian caves; St.v.boui and St.v.virei from phreatic waters; and St.buili and St.breuili have also been bred. Since Stenasellids are unable to swim, very low aquariums are used, with a bed of cave clay, some calcareous stones, dead wood and dead elm tree leaves. Little depth of water is necessary. Stenasellus was originally carnivorous, being able to capture and devour living prey, such as Chironomid larvae, but the populations of cave waters have developed a different diet: silt, guano, plant remains..., because they have been often insulated from their original phreatic biocenosis. Nevertheless, the existence of cannibalism among them points out that the predatory behaviour has not completely disappeared. Adult St.virei can be fed with Cerophyl. Some observations on the burrowing activity and on the reactions to light, temperature and salt water have been made. All postmarsupial molts of Stenasellus occur in two steps (isopodian molts). The intramolt is extremely long (from 83 h 30 mi for the first molt of the free young), to 8-12 days, for the adult male and female, 14 days for female reproductive molts and 16-21 days for the molts of aged or senile individuals). The intermolts last from 2 1/2 months (first intermolt of the free young), to 9-12 months (non-reproductive ones of the adult) and 12-18 months (average: 15-16), for reproductive 9 intermolts. The normal lifespan of karstic subspecies of St.virei and related species must be estimated as 12 years (males) and 15 years (females). All these values are 10-20 times longer than these of an epigean Asellid of the same size (Asellus aquaticus). The reproductive cycle has been studied. The adult female is larger than the male. There is no precopulatory pairing ("nuptial ride"d 6-7 years or more, fur the female. In the juvenile male, the morphogenesis of I and Il pleopods takes place normally on intermolts 4-9 and lasts 3 years or more. On intermolt 10, it seems that the male is able to mate.

An interstitial Asellid from Ebro basin (Spain): Proasellus lescherae n.sp. (Crustacea, Isopoda, Asellota)., 1978, Henry Jean Paul, Magniez Guy
Proasellus lescherae n.sp. is a little, interstitial species, living in the underflow of Rio Guadalope Basin (a tributary of Ebro River). It is related to the water-slaters of the underground waters of the Pyreneo-cantabrigian region (the phyletic line of ProaselIus spelaeus Racovitza). The mean size of the reproductive females is very small (2,9 mm) and the brood contains only 6-10 eggs. Nevertheless, the size of the eggs and intramarsupial larval stages are the same as in epigean or hypogean species of the genus, which reach a larger adult size.

Alpine Karst of the Scapegoat-Bob Marshall Wilderness and Adjoining Areas, North-Central Montana, 1979, Campbell, Newell

Abstract: Darwin and Diprotodon: The Wellington Cave Fossils and the Law of Succession IN: Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales 104, 1980 for 1979:265-272, 1981, Dugan, Kathleen G.

The fossils from Wellington Caves, some of them 'giant', are well known to Australian speleologists, finds of importance for the study of Australian fauna from early discovered caves. What I think we did not appreciate was that the Wellington 'bones' have a place in the world history of science of significance also, the theme of this paper. Many of you will have watched the BBC-TV series on 'The Voyage of the Beagle'; much was made of the importance to Darwin in developing his theory of evolution of the fossils he found in southern South America. There fossils of giant relatives of sloths, llamas and armadillos helped to make clear to him the notion of the geological succession of life, a basic part of his theory along with the idea of natural selection to which the finches and the tortoises of the Galapagos Islands proved crucial. However it seems that Darwin was previously aware of the similar significance of the Wellington Caves bones for the law of succession from Charles Lyell's Principles of Geology which quotes William Clift's identifications of dasyures, wombats and kangaroos amongst them. The fact that these recently extinct animals were closely related to the distinctive modern marsupial fauna of Australia counted much against earlier conceptions such as Cuvier's catastrophic theory or Buckland's ideas of successive divine creations within a short time span. Watchers of the TV series will remember the devious role played by the palaeontologist, Sir Richard Owen, in organising public opposition to Darwin at the famous Oxford meeting of the British Association for the Advancement of Science. This article relates the series of rearguard actions of Owen to maintain that there was a fossil elephant component in the ancient Australian fauna, damaging to Darwinism. But the growing evidence from Australia, not all of it from caves, of course, finally extinguished this red herring, started by that doctrinaire N.S.W. colonial, the Reverend John Dunmore Lang.


Essai sur l'analyse des cavits kars-tiques du massif de Marseilleveyre et des archipels de Riou et du Frioul (Marseille), 1983, Blanc J. J. , Monteau R.
ESSAY ON THE ANALYSIS OF THE KARSTIC CAVES OF THE MASSIF DE MARSEILLEVEYRE AND OF THE RIOU-FRIOUL ARCHIPELAGOS, MARSEILLE, FRANCE - Statistical analysis and numeric treatment about the karstic caves of the Marseilleveyre Massif and Riou-Frioul archipelagos. We deal with the relationships between the lithology of consolidated speleothems, geologic framework, jointing intensity, morphology and mechanical phenomena (decompression and neotectonic actions).

Formes de relief pseudokarstiques sur Mars, 1985, Battistini, R.
PSEUDOKARST LANDFORMS ON MARS - There are many morphologic features on Mars looking like karstic features, principally in aeolian, glacio-eolian and volcanic formations: etch-pitted terrain, sinkholes aligned along fractures, sinuous alignments of large cavities similar to megadolines, etc. Some of these features are probably collapse features, and some others probably thermokarstic features but it is difficult to understand exactly the process of their genesis, in some cases very different from the process of terrestrial morphologic features. We may evoke the possibility of an underground karst on Mars.

Le karst du massif des Calanques (Marseille Cassis), 1988, Blanc J. J. , Monjeau R.
THE KARST OF THE CALANQUES massif - Description of karstic morphology in relation to lithology and tectonic framework; actual hydrography. Sedimentary analysis applied to speleothems (calcitic deposits, hardened silts with rubefaction, upper stalagmitic layers, eolianites). Relations with some recent tectonic mechanisms. Hydrogeology: marine resurgences, subterranean rivers (Port-Miou and Le Bestouan).

Surface locations of potential aquifer ecosystem on Mars, 1991, Trego Kent D. ,

PALUSTRINE CARBONATES AND THE FLORIDA EVERGLADES - TOWARDS AN EXPOSURE INDEX FOR THE FRESH-WATER ENVIRONMENT, 1992, Platt N. H. , Wright V. P. ,
Palustrine carbonates are shallow fresh-water deposits showing evidence of subaqueous deposition and subaerial exposure. These facies are common in the geological record. The intensity of modification is highly variable depending on the climate and the length of emergence. Palustrine limestones have previously been interpreted as marginal lacustrine deposits from fluctuating, low-salinity carbonate lakes, but several problems remain with existing facies models: 1) palustrine carbonates possess a lacustrine biota but commonly display fabrics similar to those of calcretes and peritidal carbonates; 2) the co-occurrence of calcrete horizons and karst-like cavities is somewhat unusual and appears to indicate contemporaneous carbonate precipitation and dissolution in the vadose zone; 3) the dominance of gray colors indicates water-saturation, apparently inconsistent with the evidence for strong desiccation overprint; 4) profundal lake deposits are generally absent from palustrine sequences, and sublittoral facies commonly make up only a small proportion of total thicknesses; 5) no good modem analogue has been identified for the palustrine environment. Analogy with the Florida Everglades suggests a re-interpretation of palustrine limestones, not as pedogenically modified lake margin facies but as the deposits of extensive, very shallow carbonate marshes. The distribution of environments in the Everglades is determined by the local hydrology, reflecting the control of seasonal water-level fluctuations and topography. Climate and topography were the main controls on deposition of ancient palustrine carbonates. As in peritidal sequences, aggradational cycles are capped by a range of lithologies (evaporites, desiccation and microkarst breccias, calcretes, lignite or coal horizons etc.), permitting interpretation of the climate. Careful analysis of lateral facies variations may permit reconstruction of subtle topography. Consideration of the Florida Everglades as a modem analogue for the palustrine environment has suggested the development of an exposure index for fresh-water carbonates

POLYGENETIC ORIGIN OF HRAD-VALLIS REGION OF MARS, 1992, Dehon Ra,
Hrad Vallis is located in the transition zone between Elysium Mons and Utopia Planitia. Near its origin, at the northern edge of Elysium lavas, Hrad Vallis is characterized by a low-sinuousity channel within a north-northwest-trending, broad, flat-floored valley. A nearby flat-floored valley is parallel to the Hrad trend and parallel to elongate depressions, fissures, and faults in the region. An apparent hierarchy of landforms provides insight into the origin of the features associated with Hrad Vallis. The sequence leading to the development of Hrad Vallis consists of the following (1) formation of isolated depressions as either karst depressions or thermokarst valleys along faults and fissures in response to circulating ground water; (2) expansion of depressions along structural trends to coalesce as composite valleys, and (3) incision of a channel on the floor of Hrad valley by continued discharge of water from the subsurface after its initial formation by nonfluvial processes. Mud flows, polygonally fractured terrain, and chaotic terrain near the head of the major valleys suggest thixotropic behavior of saturated, clay-rich materials. An extended period of time is indicated during which freely circulating water existed on id beneath the surface of Mars. Karst and thermokarst processes imply very different climatic regimes and different host materials. The presence of karst topography implies extensive deposition of carbonates or other soluble rocks, whereas the presence of thermokarst basins implies the existence of porous, water/ice-saturated clastic or volcaniclastic materials

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