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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That travertine terraces is terraces and related forms covered or composed of carbonates precipitated from water. such precipitation is usually from saturated bicarbonate waters (as from karst) when they enter a zone of turbulent flow [20]. synonyms: (french.) terrasse de travertin; (german.) travertin-terrabe; (greek.) anavathmos travertinou; (italian.) spianata di travertino; (spanish.) terrazas travertinicas; (turkish.) sutasi tracalari; (yugoslavian.) slapovi. see also constructive waterfall.?

Checkout all 2699 terms in the KarstBase Glossary of Karst and Cave Terms

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Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
See all featured articles
Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
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Your search for moss (Keyword) returned 29 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 1 to 15 of 29
The Caverns of Mossdale Scar, Wharfdale, Yorkshire, 1947, Leakey R. D.

The Mossdale Problem [Yorkshire], 1950, Myers J. O.

On mosses that, under influence of electrical lights inside the Hungarian and Czechoslovakian caves, penetrate underground., 1964, Boros A.
The introduction of electrical illumination into different caves makes the intrusion of some mosses and ferns into such depths of the caves possible which at previous occasions (i. e. before the installation of electrical light) were found sterile of these plants. Investigations of two caves in Czechoslovakia and 4 caves in Hungary revealed the presence of mosses thriving deep inside of these caves making use of the artificial illumination.

Mossdale Caverns [Grassington, Yorkshire], 1965, Grandison N.

The world of plants in caves of Lillafured (Hungary)., 1965, Verseghy Klara
The vegetation of the Forrs and Istvn caves at Lillafured in Hungary is composed of algae, micro- and macrofungi and mosses. The algae in both caves are represented by unicellular Cyanophyta and Chlorophyta with small species numbers. The macrofungi are Coprinus and Polyporacea spp. while it was impossible to identify the microfungi. The moss flora is richly developed and it can be supposed to represent a secondary vegetation at the artificially illuminated places of the caves. In Forrs cave 7, and in Istvn cave 15 different mosses were found, only 3 of which proved to be common to both caves: Rhynchostegium murale, Eucladium verticillatum and Pohlia sp. A rare and interesting species: Fissidens minutulus occurred at several localities in Forrs cave.

On cave living Mosses., 1966, Vajda Laszlo
Among the mosses collected by Dr. K. Verseghy in the caves of the environment of Lillafured Eucladium verticillatum (E.) Br. Eur. was found which had some peculiar bulbillae composed of two to many cells on the ends of the filaments. They may represent special reproductive organs as yet unknown in this genus. None of the mosses living in the caves developed sex organs.

The Lampen-Moss flora of the BeatusHohle and comparison with other European caves., 1967, Bernasconi Reno
The Bryological flora on the lamps of the St- Beatus Hohle is analysed. A statistic comparison of lampenflora from other 18 European caves shows the composition and the type of this flora is related to the humidity and to the difference in substratum. Ten species can be referred to as typical flora of show caves.

GEOCHEMICAL MAPPING OF CARBONATE TERRAINS, 1991, Pirc S. , Mcneal J. M. , Lenarcic T. , Prohic E. , Svrkota R. ,
Surface drainage samples, the usual media employed in mapping national territories, cannot be used for the geochemical mapping of carbonate terrains because of the absence of a regular surface-drainage pattern on karst. Suitable sampling media have been studied in Yugoslavia, one-third of which consists of karst terrain. Sampling designs for the work were based on analysis of variance techniques. During initial investigations of various sampling materials in northwest Yugoslavia sediment and aquatic moss from karst springs, along with soil, were established as the most appropriate media. Modified sampling procedures were then carefully applied along the entire Yugoslav karst belt, which includes terrains of contrasting topography, climate, pedology and vegetation. The studies indicate that climate and relief do not systematically influence the geochemical composition of soil. Regional and local variability was assessed for 21 chemical elements and the feasibility of producing stable regional geochemical maps was determined for a number of elements on the basis of sampling aquatic moss and sediment from karst springs and soil

The phototropic phytospeleothems of Moss Palace, Mole Creek, Tasmania, 1992, Lichon, Michael J.

In Moss Palace, the presence of unusual speleothems further justifies the conservation of Dogs Head Hill karst at Mole Creek, Tasmania. A "symbiotic" carbonate deposition and growth of the moss Distichophyllum microcarpum results in phototropic phytospeleothems, in the form of fan-shaped erratics.


LIMESTONE WEATHERING IN EASTERN AUSTRALIA .1. EROSION RATES, 1995, Smith D. I. , Greenaway M. A. , Moses C. , Spate A. P. ,
A traversing microerosion meter (MEM) was used to measure the rates of surface weathering of limestones in southeastern Australia. There were two groups of MEM sites installed in 1978/9. The aim of the experimental design for the first type, the 13 sites at Cooleman Plain and Yarrangobilly Caves, was to obtain erosion rates for limestones of similar lithology exposed under comparable climate conditions. The sites were positioned to measure erosion over a range of microsolutional forms and with exposure to differing forms of erosion, i.e. subaerial, subsoil and instream. The second set, at Ginninderra close to Canberra, consists of nine limestone slabs of differing lithology, collected from different locations but exposed under identical climatic conditions. The number of individual measurement points at each MEM site varied from 24 to 68. There were major differences in erosion rates between subaerial bedrock and instream sites at Yarrangobilly and Cooleman Plain, but no evidence of differential erosion across the micro-forms. There were differences in the weathering rate for bedrock sites, due to climatic differences, and between the limestone lithologies exposed at Ginninderra. The average rate of erosion for the subaerial bedrock sites at Cooleman Plain and Yarrangobilly over the 13 years was 0.013 mm a(-1) and at Ginninderra 0.006 mm a(-1). At some of the sites microflora (lichens and mosses) caused problems for field measurement. The weathering processes that contribute to the surface lowering are discussed in the accompanying paper by Moses ef al

Lecania pusilla, a new bryophilous lichen from the Trieste Karst, 1996, Tretiach M. ,
Lecania pusilla Tretiach sp. nov. is described from the Trieste Karst, where it was collected twice on epilithic mosses in protected overhangs. The new species is characterized by simple or uniseptate spores, pruinose apothecia, and Bacidia-type asci; it has a reduced, granular thallus with no lichen substances. (C) 1996 The British Lichen Society

Physical Mechanisms of River Waterfall Tufa (Travertine) Formation, 2001, Zhang David Dian, Zhang Yingjun, Zhu An, Cheng Xing,
Waterfall tufa is widely distributed around the world, especially in tropical and subtropical karst areas. In these areas river water is generally supersaturated with respect to calcite, and the precipitation occurs mainly at waterfall and cascade sites. Development of waterfall tufa has been described as simply being the result of water turbulence. We believe, however, that three physical effects can lead to tufa deposition at waterfall sites: aeration, jet-flow, and low-pressure effects. The three physical effects are induced by two basic changes in the water: an accelerated flow velocity, and enlargement of the air-water interface area. These two changes increase the rate of CO2 outgassing and the SIc, so that a high degree of supersaturation is achieved, which then induces calcite precipitation. These 'waterfall effects' have been simulated in laboratory and field experiments, and each of them can accelerate, or trigger, calcite precipitation. Field measurements of river water chemistry also show that tufa deposition occurred only at waterfall sites. In these experiments and observations, waterfall effects play the most important role in triggering and accelerating CO2 outgassing rates. Field and laboratory observations indicate that plants and evaporation also play important roles in tufa formation. Growth of algae and mosses on tufa surfaces can provide substrates for calcite nucleation and can trap detrital calcite, accelerating tufa deposition. However, the prerequisite for such deposition at waterfall sites is a high degree of supersaturation in river water, which is mainly caused by waterfall effects. Evaporation can lead to supersaturation in sprays and thin water films at a waterfall site and cause the precipitation of dissolved CaCO3, but the amount of such deposition is relatively small

Morphogenesis of the Garlika Shaft in conditions of the contact karst, 2001, Baron, Ivo

The Garlika Shaft is located in at about 2 km long W-E depression in southern part of the Silica Plateau (the Slovak Karst Biosphere Reservation, Slovak Republic). The origin of the Garlika shaft is different than most of the other shafts of the Slovak Karst plateaus. Formerly a sinkhole of an ephemeral stream has developed to the shaft due to several factors. A thin water film corrosion and a wall water stream corrosion extended the former fissure. Then, after the stream decrease, thin water film corrosion and a tectonic breccia crumbling has modelled the deeper parts of the shaft. The entrance part of the shaft has been influenced with frost weathering, corrosion of the condensed water and corrosive action of lichens, moss and rotting organic detritus.


Environmentally acceptable effect of hydrogen peroxide on cave “lamp-flora”, calcite speleothems and limestones, 2003, Faimon J, Stelcl J, Kubesova S, Zimak J,
Mosses, algae, and cyanobacteria (lamp-flora) colonize illuminated areas in show caves. This biota is commonly removed by a sodium hypochlorite solution. Because chlorine and other deleterious compounds are released into a cave environment during lamp-flora cleansing, hydrogen peroxide was tested as an alternative agent. In a multidisciplinary study conducted in the Katerinska Cave (Moravian Karst, Czech Republic), 12 algae- and cyanobacteria taxons and 19 moss taxons were detected. The threshold hydrogen peroxide concentration for the destruction of this lamp-flora was found to be 15 vol.%. Based on laboratory experiments in stirred batch reactors, the dissolution rates of limestones and calcite speleothems in water were determined as 3.77 x 10-3 and 1.81 x 10-3 mol m-2 h-1, respectively. In the 15% peroxide solution, the limestone and speleothem dissolution rates were one order of magnitude higher, 2.00 x 10-2 and 2.21 x 10-2 mol m-2 h-1, respectively. So, the peroxide solution was recognised to attack carbonates somewhat more aggressively than karst water. In order to prevent the potential corrosion of limestone and speleothems, the reaching of preliminary peroxide saturation with respect to calcite is recommended, for example, by adding of few limestone fragments into the solution at least 10 h prior to its application

Grottes et karsts dEurope centrale dans les Encyclopdies franaises du XVIIIe sicle, 2006, Gauchon Christophe
Central European caves and karsts in French Encyclopaedias of xviiith century - The xviiith century, and especially the second half, was a time of great progress in natural history and, more particularly, in the knowledge of caves, and this interest for caves appeared in several Encyclopaedias published in that time. At the very end of xviith century, several dictionaries of History or Geography [Baudrand, Moreri] were printed in France. Their aim was to give a wide panorama of the whole human knowledge. After 1750, D. Diderot and J. dAlembert began the publishing of the great Encyclopaedia, or reasoned dictionary of sciences, arts and technology [1751-1765]. More than just a dictionary, this major opus of the Enlightenments purposed to criticize all the old knowledges, with the intention of rebuilding by the reason a new understanding of the world. As it was considered disrespectful towards church, Jesuits published another Encyclopaedia, the Dictionnaire de Trvoux . Then, at the end of xviiith century, Panckoucke published the huge Methodical Encyclopaedia , with three volumes for modern Geography and five for physical Geography . So, dozens and dozens of caves all over the world were described in these dictionaries and Encyclopaedias, and here well try to expose what is about central Europe. The articles about regional geography (Istria, Alps) were often reduced to historical relations or to very poor lists of geographical names. Before the publishing of the last Encyclopaedia of the century, travellers relations seemed unknown by the authors of the dictionaries. The methodical Encyclopaedia showed a clear progress with, for instance, two articles about Croatia: the article river Cettina described several phenomena of karstic hydrology; or the article Biocova dealt with the ice-caves of the Mont-Mossor. It seems that Dictionaries and encyclopaedias had better information about caves of France or Germany where fossilized bones had been discovered. Some caves of the Mediterranean countries were also well known, because of the mythological or biblical traditions; numerous references to Timavo spring were based only on ancient roman geographers. But what about the caves of central Europe? The cave of Retelstein in Styria and the cave of Ribar (Hungary) were described in the great Encyclopaedia, and the article Cave gave a long list in which we find a short mention of the caves of Postojna and Podpec (Slovenia). But the longest articles were about Cirknitz Lake: all the dictionaries gave a large place to this famous place for hunting, fishing and ploughing , as repeated Moreri or Baudrand who looked at this phenomenon as a wonder. In the great Encyclopaedia, the description was much more accurate and tried to explain the working of the lake in the surroundings: the sink holes and the resurgences were well identified. These accurate descriptions of Cirknitz Lake stand in strong contrast with the short mentions of Postojna, which is still supposed to be two milles long As to Recca of San Canzian, this place never appeared in French dictionaries and Encyclopaedias of the xviiith century: Skocjan seemed completely unknown But these various spots were described without any connection among them. If the authors of the Encyclopaedias wanted to break definitively with all the superstitions from old ages, they were not yet able to understand the meaning of what we call karstic landscapes . On this point, the age of Enlightenments appears as a time of transition. Now, articles about Carniole (former name for main part of Slovenia) show an interesting evolution of the authors points of view. Masson de Morvilliers in the Methodical Encyclopaedia (modern Geography) explained that this country contains many noteworthy caves . And in the volume v of physical Geography [1828], the article about Zirknitz Lake ended with this interesting remark: The whole range of surrounding mountains is composed with porous limestone in which rain and snow-melting waters enter () The whole country, from north borders of Carniola to the shores of Adriatic Sea, and from the caves of Planina to the Timavo Springs, is full with streams suddenly issued from the ground and pointing out a subterranean current, which is logically to link with the working of Zirknitz Lake. So, with the help of these Encyclopaedias, we may have a good survey of the erudite geography of Karst in xviiith century and we can understand the basis on which the knowledge would get positive progress during the xixth one.

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