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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That trace is a short length of wire with fasteners used for attaching ladders and ropes to an anchor [25].?

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Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
See all featured articles
Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
See all featured articles from other geoscience journals

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Your search for nerja (Keyword) returned 10 results for the whole karstbase:
The cave of Nerja (Malaga, Spain), 1994, Fras Jos Ramn Andrica
The history and the development of the cave of Nerja are here summarized. A short description of the cave with the main goals for the future are also reported.

Chemistry of the water in the Nerja Cave system (Andalusia, Spain)., 1995, Carrasco F, Andreo B, Benavente J. , Vadillo I.

CONTROL OF ENVIRONMENTAL PARAMETERS FOR MANAGEMENT AND CONSERVATION OF NERJA CAVE (MALAGA, SPAIN), 2002, Carrasco Francisco, Vadillo Iñ, Aki, Liñ, á, N Cristina, Andreo Bartolomé, , Durá, N Juan José,

The Nerja Cave receives on average more than 500,000 visitors per year. In order to know the possible impact in the underground environment by human visits, a monitoring network was installed since 1993, to control hourly several parameters. Also, since 1991 a hydrochemical control has been carried out in the drip water points of the cave and in the natural discharge points of the carbonate aquifer. This continuous record of physical-chemical parameters of drip water, its daily outflow, as well as temperature and relative humidity in the air, CO2 concentration and rock temperature shows the human influence. The main changes in environmental parameters are the following: 1. cave air temperature rises 0.2 °C by 1000 visitors/day; 2. a daily increase between 2 and 3 % in relative air humidity, reaching saturation on summer days; 3. CO2 concentration in air increases up to values between 500 and 700 ppm during low visitability periods and 10 times the background value during high visitability periods (2.800 ppm); 4. temperature of the rock rises between 0.02 °C and 0.15 °C/day, and (5) PCO2 of drip water also presents variations, increasing during the big influx of visits and decreasing the saturation index of carbonated minerals.


A record of Pleistocene climate from a stalactite, Nerja Cave, southern Spain., 2003, Jimenez De Cisneros C. , Caballero E. , Vera J. A. , Duran J. J. , Julia R.

Contribution of stable isotopes to the understanding of the unsaturated zone of a carbonate aquifer (Nerja Cave, southern Spain), 2006, Carrasco F, Andreo B, Linan C, Mudry J,
We analysed the stable isotopes (18O and 2H) of rainwater and drip water within a cave (Nerja Cave) located in the unsaturated zone of a carbonate aquifer. Rainfall is more abundant and presents lower isotopic content in winter, while the volume of drip water is greater and its isotopic content is lower in summer. The flow analysis of 18O through the unsaturated zone confirms the seasonal lag between rainfall and the appearance of drip water in the cave and reveals that the unsaturated zone of the aquifer, in the sector of the cave, behaves like an inertial system with a strong capability to modulate the input signal. To cite this article: F. Carrasco et al., C. R. Geoscience 338 (2006)

Carbon dioxide concentration in air within the Nerja Cave (Malaga, Andalusia, Spain), 2008, Lin C. , Vadillo I. And Carrasco F.
From 2001 to 2005 the CO2 concentration of the air in the interior and exterior of the Nerja Cave was studied and its relation with the air temperature and visitor number. The average annual CO2 concentration outside of the cave is 320 ppmv, whilst inside, the mean concentration increases to 525 ppmv during autumn and winter, and in the order of 750 ppmv during spring and summer. The temporal variation of CO2 content in the air of the cave is strongly influenced by its degree of natural ventilation which is, in turn, determined by the difference between external and internal air temperatures. During autumn, winter and spring, a positive correlation between the CO2 content of the air inside the cave and the temperature difference between the external and internal air was observed, such that when this difference increased, there was a higher level of CO2 within the cave. Then, the ventilation is high and CO2 levels are mainly of human origin. During summer, there was a negative correlation between CO2 and the temperature difference between the air outside and that inside the cave: when the temperature difference increases, the CO2 content within the cave is lower. At this time of the year, the renovation of the air is much slower due to the lower ventilation. A positive correlation between CO2 concentration of the air in the cave and the visitor number can only be observed during August, the month that receives the most visits throughout the year averaging 100,000.

Some applications of geochemical and isotopic techniques to hydrogeology of the caves after research in two sites (Nerja Cave-S Spain, and Fourbanne system-French Jura), 2008, Mudry J. , Andreo B. , Charmoille A. , Lin C. , Carrasco F.
Caves constitute privileged sampling spots to investigate the hydrochemical behaviour of infiltration, but the representative nature of samples can limit their reach. Taking this into account many results can be obtained from chemistry of water sampled in the caves. Carbonate tracers enable to reconstruct the history of drip water water, including rainfall and temperatures. Moreover, permanent drip waters prove durability of water stored in the unsaturated zone over the cave, and lags between rain inputs and drip output enable to evaluate transit time through the unsaturated zone. The comparison of input/output concentrations can also contribute to estimate the local water balance of the site.Finally, providing an access to the water table of the saturated zone, caves allow a calculation of mixing rates of infiltration water with water stored in the saturated zone.

Some applications of geochemical and isotopic techniques to hydrogeology of the caves after research in two sites (Nerja Cave-S Spain, and Fourbanne system-French Jura), 2008, Mudry J. , Andreo B. , Charmoille A. , Lin C. , Carrasco F.

Caves constitute privileged sampling spots to investigate the hydrochemical behaviour of infiltration, but the representative nature of samples can limit their reach. Taking this into account many results can be obtained from chemistry of water sampled in the caves. Carbonate tracers enable to reconstruct the ‘history’ of drip water water, including rainfall and temperatures. Moreover, permanent drip waters prove durability of water stored in the unsaturated zone over the cave, and lags between rain inputs and drip output enable to evaluate transit time through the unsaturated zone. The comparison of input/output concentrations can also contribute to estimate the local water balance of the site.Finally, providing an access to the water table of the saturated zone, caves allow a calculation of mixing rates of infiltration water with water stored in the saturated zone.


Carbon dioxide concentration in air within the Nerja Cave (Malaga, Andalusia, Spain)., 2008, Lin C. , Vadillo I. , Carrasco F.

From 2001 to 2005 the CO2 concentration of the air in the interior and exterior of the Nerja Cave was studied and its relation with the air temperature and visitor number. The average annual CO2 concentration outside of the cave is 320 ppmv, whilst inside, the mean concentration increases to 525 ppmv during autumn and winter, and in the order of 750 ppmv during spring and summer. The temporal variation of CO2 content in the air of the cave is strongly influenced by its degree of natural ventilation which is, in turn, determined by the difference between external and internal air temperatures. During autumn, winter and spring, a positive correlation between the CO2 content of the air inside the cave and the temperature difference between the external and internal air was observed, such that when this difference increased, there was a higher level of CO2 within the cave. Then, the ventilation is high and CO2 levels are mainly of human origin. During summer, there was a negative correlation between CO2 and the temperature difference between the air outside and that inside the cave: when the temperature difference increases, the CO2 content within the cave is lower. At this time of the year, the renovation of the air is much slower due to the lower ventilation. A positive correlation between CO2 concentration of the air in the cave and the visitor number can only be observed during August, the month that receives the most visits throughout the year averaging 100,000.


Hydrogeological and Environmental Investigations in Karst Systems, 2014,

Karst is the result of climatic and geohydrological processes, mainly in carbonate and evaporite rocks, during geological periods of Earth history. Dissolution of these rock formations over time has generated karst aquifers and environments of significant water and mineral resources. In addition, beautiful landscapes have been created which constitute natural parks, geosites, and caves. Due to their origin and nature, karstified areas require investigation with special techniques and methodology. International collaboration and discussions on advances in karst research are necessary to promote Karst Science. The International Symposium on Karst Aquifers is one of the worldwide events held periodically to specifically address karst environments. The symposium constitutes an ongoing international forum for scientific discussion on the progress made in research in karst environments. The first and second symposiums were organized in Nerja (near Malaga, Spain), in 1999 and 2002; the third and fourth symposiums were held in Malaga city in 2006 and 2010. The 5th International Symposium on Karst Aquifers (ISKA5) occurred in Malaga on during October 14–16, 2014. It was organized by the Centre of Hydrogeology University of Málaga (CEHIUMA) and the Spanish Geological Survey (IGME), in cooperation with UNESCO and the International Association of Hydrogeologists (IAH) Karst Commission. More than 100 contributions were received from 30 countries on five continents. Presentations made during the symposium and published in this book are a compendium of 70 of these manuscripts. Papers submitted by April 2014, were peer-reviewed and subsequently accepted by the Scientific Committee. Contributions are grouped into five sections:

• Methods Utilized to Study Karst Aquifers.

• Karst Hydrogeology.

• Mining and Engineering in Karst media.

• Karst Cavities.

• Karst Geomorphology and Landscape.

A large part of the contributions, 30 %, is related to Methods Utilized to Study Karst Aquifers. Several issues are addressed: methods for groundwater recharge assessment, dye tracer and stable isotope applications, analysis of hydrodynamic data and hydrochemistry, among others. Most contributions, 40 %, however, are on Karst Hydrogeology. These are primarily in connection with various topics such as numerical modeling in karst, floods, karst groundwater flow, protection of karst aquifers or pollution, and vulnerability in karst. Five percent of the published papers deal with Mining and Engineering in Karst Media. These papers are about tunnels, hydrogeological risks, and karst risk assessment in mining and civil engineering. Another section concerning Karst Cavities encompasses 15 % of the contributions. These chapters deal with corrosion and speleogenetic processes, speleothems, CO2 sources, the global carbon cycle in endokarst, and the study of past climate. Karst Geomorphology and Landscape constitutes the remaining 10 % of the contributions. These papers are related to karst features, wetlands, hypogene speleogenesis, geodiversity, and karstic geosites. The results of project work performed by karst specialists worldwide are described in the book. Included in it are experiences from pilot sites, methodologies, monitoring, and data analyses in various climatic, geological, and hydrogeological contexts. Material presented may be utilized for activities such as teaching and technical-professional applications particularly as they apply to the increasingly multidisciplinary nature of karst studies. Information provided may also be useful to decisions makers in making critical decisions regarding development in karst regions. Scientists and engineers and many of the lay public interested in karst environments will benefit from the contents


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