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Enviroscan Ukrainian Institute of Speleology and Karstology

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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That sulfate is a mineral compound characterized by the sulfate radical so4 2-. anhydrous sulfates, such as barite, baso4, have divalent cations linked to the sulfate radical; hydrous and basic sulfates, such as gypsum, caso4.2h2o, contain water molecules [1].?

Checkout all 2699 terms in the KarstBase Glossary of Karst and Cave Terms

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KarstBase a bibliography database in karst and cave science.

Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
See all featured articles
Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
See all featured articles from other geoscience journals

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Your search for netherlands (Keyword) returned 10 results for the whole karstbase:
Dated co-occurrence of Homo erectus and Gigantopithecus from Tham Khuyen Cave, Vietnam, 1996,
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Ciochon R, Long Vt, Larick R, Gonzalez L, Grun R, Devos J, Yonge C, Taylor L, Yoshida H, Reagan M,
Tham Khuyen Cave (Lang Son Province, northern Vietnam) is one of the more significant sites to yield fossil vertebrates In east Asia, During the mid-1960s, excavation in a suite of deposits produced important hominoid dental remains of middle Pleistocene age, We undertake more rigorous analyses of these sediments to understand the fluvial dynamics of Pleistocene cave infilling as they determine how skeletal elements accumulate within Tham Khuyen and other east Asian sites, Uranium/thorium series analysis of speleothems brackets the Pleistocene chronology for breaching, infilling, and exhuming the regional paleokarst, Clast analysis indicates sedimentary constituents, Including hominoid teeth and cranial fragments, accumulated from very short distances and under low fluvial energy, Electron spin resonance analysis of vertebrate tooth enamel and sediments shows that the main fossil-bearing suite (S1-S3) was deposited about 475 thousand years ago, Among the hominoid teeth excavated from S1-S3, some represent Homo erectus and Gigantopithecus blacki, Criteria are defined to differentiate these teeth from more numerous Pongo pygmaeus elements, The dated cooccurrence of Homo erectus and Gigantopithecus blacki at Tham Khuyen helps to establish the long co-existence of these two species throughout east Asia during the Early and Middle Pleistocene

The slope movements within the Mondores graben (Drome, France); the interaction between geology, hydrology and typology, 2000,
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Bogaard Ta, Antoine P, Desvarreux P, Giraud A, Van Asch Twj,
The Mondores graben in the south-eastern French Alps is an uncommon structural feature, which originates in a complex polyphasic tectonic evolution. In contrast with its immediate surroundings, with hardly any huge landslides, the Mondores graben is characterised by various types of landslides. A huge sagging caused part of the limestone cliff to subside some 50 m within 50 years. Two recent mud flows that occurred were considered a potential threat to some inhabited places downstream. The hydrologic aspects of the Boulc-Mondores landslide resemble the geology: infiltration (and karst input?) in the rock-sliding zone and exfiltration in the marls resulting in slumps and mud flows. The mass movement interactions could be explained by a structural geology analysis with geodetic monitoring using different techniques. It is also shown that hydrochemistry as well as geophysical surveys are of importance in unravelling the hydrologic systems and the geological subsurface structures. The present paper aims at explaining the geological control of the different slides in view of estimating their potential danger. Understanding the geological structure and its evolution therefore is a necessary prerequisite. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved

Modelling of speleothems failure in the Hotton cave (Belgium). Is the failure earthquake induced?, 2001,
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Cadorin Jf, Jongmans D, Plumier A, Camelbeeck T, Delaby S, Quinif Y,
To provide quantitative information on the ground acceleration necessary to break speleothems, laboratory measurements on samples of stalagmite have been performed to study their failure in bending. Due to their high natural frequencies, speleothems can be considered as rigid bodies to seismic strong ground motion. Using this simple hypothesis and the determined mechanical properties (a minimum value of 0.4 MPa for the tensile failure stress has been considered), modelling indicates that horizontal acceleration ranging from 0.3 m/s(2) to 100 m/s(2) (0.03 to 10g) are necessary to break 35 broken speleothems of the Hotton cave for which the geometrical parameters have been determined. Thus, at the present time, a strong discrepancy exists between the peak accelerations observed during earthquakes and most of the calculated values necessary to break speleothems. One of the future research efforts will be to understand the reasons of the defined behaviour. It appears fundamental to perform measurements on in situ speleothems

Recent active faults in Belgian Ardenne revealed in Rochefort Karstic network (Namur Province, Belgium), 2001,
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Vandycke S. , Quinif Y. ,
This paper presents observations of recent faulting activity in the karstic network of the Rochefort Cave (Namur Province, Belgium, Europe). The principal recent tectonic features are bedding planes reactivated as normal faults, neo-formatted normal faults in calcite flowstone, fresh scaling, extensional features, fallen blocks and displacement of karstic tube. The seismotectonic aspect is expanded by the presence of fallen blocks where normally the cavity must be very stable and in equilibrium. Three main N 070degrees fault planes and a minor one affect, at a decimetre scale, the karst features and morphology. The faults are still active because recent fresh scaling and fallen blocks are observable. The breaking of Holocene soda straw stalactites and displacements of artificial features observed since the beginning of the tourist activity, in the last century, also suggest very recent reactivation of these faults. This recent faulting can be correlated to present-day tectonic activity, already evidenced by earthquakes in the neighbouring area. Therefore, karstic caves are favourable sites for the observation and the quantification of recent tectonic activity because they constitute a 3-D framework, protected from erosion. Fault planes with this recent faulting present slickensides. Thus a quantitative analysis in term of stress inversion, with the help of striated faults, has permitted to reconstruct the stress tensor responsible for the brittle deformation. The principal NW-SE extension (sigma(3) horizontal) is nearly perpendicular to that of the present regional stress as illustrated by the analysis of the last strong regional earthquake (Roermond, The Netherlands) in 1992. During the Meso-Cenozoic, the main stress tectonics recorded in this part of the European platform is similar to the present one with a NE-SW direction of extension. The discrepancy between the regional stress field and the local stress in the Rochefort cave can be the result of the inversion of the sigma(2) and sigma(3) axes of the stress ellipsoid due to its symmetry or of a local modification at the ground surface of the crustal stress field as it has been already observed in active zones

A Middle Pleistocene Age and Biogeography for the extinct Rodent Megalomys curazensis from Curaçao, Netherlands Antilles., 2002,
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Mcfarlane, D. A. And Lundberg, J.

Carbon isotope exchange rate of DIC in karst groundwater, 2003,
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Gonfiantini R. , Zuppi G. M. ,
The kinetics of isotopic exchange between dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) of groundwater and calcite of the matrix of karst aquifers of Cyrenaica, Libya, can, be deduced from C-13 and C-14 data. The aquifers are mostly confined, and the majority of the wells do not show any occurrence of modem recharge: in 1976-1980, in fact, the tritium content was below 1 tritium unit (TU) in most sites. Assuming that the isotopic exchange takes place through a first order reaction such as 14 C radioactive decay, it can be shown that a linear correlation occurs between lnA and ln(delta(M) - delta - epsilon(p)), where A is the C-14 activity, delta(M) and delta are the C-13 contents of matrix calcite and DIC, respectively, and epsilon(p) is the C-13 enrichment in CaCO3 precipitation. The slope of the correlation provides the half-life of the isotopic exchange process. For Cyrenaica karst groundwater, a half-life of about 11,000 years is obtained, i.e. about double that of C-14 radioactive decay. The isotopic exchange kinetics also depends on the ratio between groundwater volume and the calcite surface exposed to the exchange process. Thus, other aquifers will show different exchange half-life values. The Cretaceous chalk aquifers of the Paris Basin, France and Lagerdorf, Germany give a half-life of about 4000 years, much shorter than that of Cyrenaica, which may be due to the high porosity, i.e. to the large surface available for the isotope exchange process. The Berkshire Chalk aquifer, UK, gives a half-life of about 10,000 years. Much higher half-lives, above 20,000 years, are obtained for two sandy aquifers in Flevoland, The Netherlands, and Texas, USA, which could be explained by the low CaCO3 content of the aquifer matrix. The highest half-life value, about 40,000 years, is obtained in an artesian limestone aquifer in Florida, USA. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved

Bacterial dynamics in spring water of alpine karst aquifers indicates the presence of stable autochthonous microbial endokarst communities, 2005,
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Farnleitner Ah, Wilhartitz I, Ryzinska G, Kirschner Akt, Stadler H, Burtscher Mm, Hornek R, Szewzyk U, Herndl G, Mach Rl,
Spring water of two alpine karst aquifers differing in hydrogeology but of nearby catchments were investigated for their bacterial population dynamics. Dolomite karst aquifer spring 1 (DKAS 1) represents a dolomitic-limestone karst aquifer spring showing high average water residence time and relative constant flow. Limestone karst aquifer spring 2 (LKAS 2) constitutes a typical limestone karst aquifer spring with a dynamic hydrological regime and discharge. Dolomite karst aquifer spring 1 yielded constantly lower cell counts and biomasses (median of 15 x 10(6) cells l(-1) and 0.22 mu g C l(-1)) as the LKAS 2 (median of 63 x 10(6) cells l(-1) and 1.1 mu g C l(-1)) and distribution of morphotypes and mean cell volumes was also different between the considered systems, indicating the influence of hydrogeology on microbial spring water quality. Molecular bacterial V3 16S-rDNA profiles revealed remarkable constancy within each spring water throughout the investigation period. Time course analysis of a flood event in LKAS 2 further supported the trend of the temporal constancy of the microbial community. Except for one case, retrieval of partial and full length 16S rDNA gene sequences from the relative constant DKAS 1 revealed similarities to presently known sequences between 80% to 96%, supporting the discreteness of the microbial populations. The gathered results provide first evidence for the presence of autochthonous microbial endokarst communities (AMEC). Recovery of AMEC may be considered of relevance for the understanding of alpine karst aquifer biogeochemistry and ecology, which is of interest as many alpine and mountainous karst springs are important water resources throughout the world

Spatial heterogeneity of the soil cover in the Yucatan karst: Comparison of Mayan, WRB, and numerical classifications, 2005,
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Bautista F, Azgarrido S, Castillogonzalez M, Zinck Ja,
In karstic areas, geopedologic information integrating soil and relief features, especially concerning short-distance variability, is usually scarce. The aim of this paper was to compare soil classes in the Yucatan karst using the Mayan soil nomenclature, the World Reference Base for Soil Resources (WRB), numerical soil classification (NSC), and geostatistics. The landscape is a flat-to-slightly-undulating karstic plain. Soil properties were determined at 54 sampling points on a regular grid covering an area of 1350 m(2). Six indigenous soil classes were identified on the basis of the terrain position, topsoil color, stoniness, rockiness. rock type. and soil depth. Five WRB soil units were recognized belonging mainly to Leptosols. Furthermore, six NSC groups were determined mainly on the basis of organic matter and stoniness. Soil organic material and texture explained 57% of the variation of the soil cover. An isotropic model of organic carbon shows a range of 39 m

Pleistocene speleothems of Mallorca: implications for palaeoclimate and carbonate diagenesis in mixing zones, 2006,
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Csoma Ae, Goldstein Rh, Pomar L,
The Pleistocene speleothems of Sa Bassa Blanca cave, Mallorca, are excellent indicators of palaeoclimate variations, and are samples that allow evaluation of the products and processes of mixing-zone diagenesis in an open-water cave system. Integrated stratigraphic, petrographic and geochemical data from a horizontal core of speleothem identified two main origins for speleothem precipitates: meteoric-marine mixing zone and meteoric-vadose zone. Mixing-zone precipitates formed at and just below the water-air interface of cave pools during interglacial times, when the cave was flooded as a result of highstand sea-level. Mixing-zone precipitates include bladed and dendritic high-Mg calcite, microporous-bladed calcite with variable Mg content, and acicular aragonite; their presence suggests that calcium-carbonate cementation is significant in the studied mixing-zone system. Fluid inclusion salinities, delta(13)C and delta(18)O compositions of the mixing-zone precipitates suggest that mixing ratio was not the primary control on whether precipitation or dissolution occurred, rather, the proximity to the water table and degassing of CO2 at the interface, were the major controls on precipitation. Thus, simple two-end-member mixing models may apply only in mixing zones well below the water table. Meteoric-vadose speleothems include calcite and high-Mg calcite with columnar and bladed morphologies. Vadose speleothems precipitated during glacial stages when sea level was lower than present. Progressive increase in delta(13)C and delta(18)O of the vadose speleothems resulted from cooling temperatures and more positive seawater delta(18)O associated with glacial buildup. Such covariation could be considered as a valid alternative to models predicting invariant delta(18)O and highly variable delta(13)C in meteoric calcite. Glacio-eustatic oscillations of sea-level are recorded as alternating vadose and mixing-zone speleothems. Short-term climatic variations are recorded as alternating aragonite and calcite speleothems precipitated in the mixing zone. Fluid-inclusion and stable-isotope data suggest that aragonite, as opposed to calcite, precipitated during times of reduced meteoric recharge

Karst Sinkholes Stability Assessment in Cheria Area, NE Algeria, 2013,
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Yacine Azizi, Med. Ridha Menani, Med Laid Hemila, Abderahmane Boumezbeur


Karst; Rock Mass Rating (RMR);Sinkhole collapse; Tebessa This research work deals with the problem of karst sinkhole collapse occurring in the last few years in Cheria area (NE Algeria). This newly revealed phenomenon is of a major constrain in land use planning and urbanization, it has become necessary to locate and assess the stability of these underground features before any planning operation. Several exploration methods for the localization of underground cavities have been considered. Geological survey, discontinuity analysis, resistivity survey [ground penetrating radar has not been used as most of the Mio-Plio-Quaternary filling deposit covering Eocene limestone contains clay layers which limits the applicability of the method (Roth et al. in Eng Geol 65:225–232, 2002)] and borehole drilling were undertaken in order to locate underground cavities and assess their depth, geometry, dimensions, etc. Laboratory testing and field work were also undertaken in order to determine both intact rock and rock mass properties. All the rock mechanics testing and measurement were undertaken according to the ISRM recommendations. It has been found that under imposed loading, the stability of the karst cavities depends on the geo-mechanical parameters (RMR, Rock Mass Rating; GSI, Geological Strength Index; E, Young modulus) of the host rock as well as the depth and dimensions of the gallery. It increases with RMR, GSI, E and depth and decreases as the cavity becomes wider. Furthermore, the calculation results show that a ratio (roof thickness to gallery width) of 0.3 and more indicate, a stable conditions. The results obtained in this work allow identifying and assessing the stability of underground karst cavities. The methodology followed in this paper can be taken as a road map in the establishment of a hazard map related to the studied phenomenon. This map will be a useful tool for the future urban extension planning in Cheria area.

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