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Enviroscan Ukrainian Institute of Speleology and Karstology

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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That basin, settling is a basin used for the settling out of solids from suspension [16].?

Checkout all 2699 terms in the KarstBase Glossary of Karst and Cave Terms

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KarstBase a bibliography database in karst and cave science.

Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
See all featured articles
Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
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Your search for new-zealand (Keyword) returned 13 results for the whole karstbase:
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Gunn J. ,

The role of the subcutaneous zone in karst hydrology, 1983,
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Williams Paul W. ,
The subcutaneous zone is the upper weathered layer of rock beneath the soil, but above the permanently saturated (phreatic) zone. It is of particular hydrological importance in karst because of its high secondary permeability, arising from the considerable chemical solution in this zone. However, corrosional enlargement of fissures diminishes with depth; thus permeability decreases in the same direction with the result that percolation is inhibited, except down widened master joints and faults. Storage of water consequently occurs in this zone, particularly after storms. The upper surface of this suspended saturated layer in the subcutaneous zone is defined by a perched water table, which slopes towards points of rapid vertical percolation. The potential induces lateral water movement converging on the most permeable areas such as beneath dolines. Leakage from the subcutaneous store sustains slow percolation in the vadose zone. Cross-correlation of rainfall with percolation rates in caves in New Mexico, U.S.A., and New Zealand reveal response lags of 2-14 weeks with no apparent relationship to depth below the surface. Other percolation sites show no correlation with rainfall; interpreted as being a consequence of considerable friction in tight fissure networks. The recognition of storage and rapid as well as very slow percolation from the subcutaneous zone requires re-interpretation of the components of hydrographs from karst springs and of some conceptual models of karst aquifers. The importance of subcutaneous storage in sustaining baseflow discharge at some sites must be recognised, as must the contribution of subcutaneous water to flood hydrographs. Methods of estimating the volumes of subcutaneous and phreatic components of karst-spring flood hydrographs are presented. The paper concludes with a discussion of the significance of subcutaneous hydrologic processes for an understanding of karst geomorphology. The desirability of explaining karst landform evolution in terms of hydrologic processes is stressed

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Mueller M. ,
Upper Ordovician Arthur Marble and Oligocene Takaka Limestone contain extensive phreatic cave systems beneath the Takaka valley and Golden Bay. Half of all water flows in the Takaka valley pass through subterranean drainage conduits in carbonate rock. New Zealand's largest freshwater springs, the Waikoropupu Springs, are one surface expression of these karst systems. Other characteristics are dolines and submarine springs. A paleocave system developed in the Arthur Marble during the formation of the northwest Nelson peneplain in the Late Cretaceous and early Tertiary. Subsequent subsidence of the peneplain, and deposition of Motupipi Coal Measures, Takaka Limestone, and Tarakohe Mudstone, was followed by folding and faulting of the sequence in the Kaikoura Orogeny. Uplift and erosion in the Pleistocene brought the two carbonate rock formations within reach of groundwater movements. The paleocave system in Arthur Marble was reactivated during periods of glacial, low sea levels, and a smaller cave system formed in the overlying Takaka Limestone. Both systems interact and extend to more than 100 m below present sea level, forming the Arthur Marble - Takaka Limestone aquifer

Palaeoclimatic interpretation of stable isotope data from Holocene speleothems of the Waitomo district, North Island, New Zealand, 1999,
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Williams P. W. , Marshall A. , Ford D. C. , Jenkinson A. V. ,
One straw stalactite and three stalagmites from the Waitomo district of North Island, New Zealand, were examined for stable isotopes of oxygen and carbon with a view to interpreting their palaeoclimate signal. Dating was by uranium series and AMS 14C for the stalagmites and by gamma-ray spectrometry for the straw. Records were thus established for about 100 years for the straw and 3.9, 10.1 and 10.2 ka for the stalagmites. The range of variability in d18Oc and d13Cc this century is about two-thirds of that experienced over the entire Holocene, and is most simply explained in terms of the oceanic source area of rain. Stable isotope variations in three stalagmites show some general similarities, but have significant differences in detail, which underlines the necessity to base palaeoclimatic interpretations on more than one speleothem record. The d18Oc of each stalagmite varies positively with temperature, indicating the dominance of the ocean source of evaporation in determining the isotopic composition of precipitation and hence speleothem calcite in the Holocene. This conclusion is contrary to that of other authors working in New Zealand, who identified a negative relationship between d18Oc and temperature, while examining time periods extending across the Last Glacial Maximum. It is concluded here that, whereas the ice volume effect dominates the large climatic shifts of glacial-interglacial amplitude, the oceanic source effect becomes more important during the period of relatively stable sea level during the Holocene. Results also indicate a late-Holocene altitudinal effect of 0.2{per thousand} d18Oc per 100 m and an associated temperature relationship of about 0.26{per thousand} per{degrees}C. The average of two records identifies the postglacial climatic optimum to lie in the interval from prior to 10 ka BP to 7.5 ka BP, when d18Oc values were up to 0.6{per thousand} less negative than present, implying an average annual mean temperature that was up to 2.3{degrees}C warmer. The average of three speleothem records for the last 3900 years reveals the coldest period of the Holocene to have occurred about 3 to 2 ka BP, when d18Oc values were typically 0.4{per thousand} more negative than present and average temperatures may have been 1.5{degrees}C cooler. Mean annual temperature variability of about 2{degrees}C was sometimes experienced in little more than 100 years

Spatial and temporal patterns of bacterial density and metabolic activity in a karst aquifer, 2001,
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Simon K. S. , Gibert J. , Petitot P. , Laurent R. ,
Karst aquifers are heterotrophic ecosystems fueled by organic matter imported from the surface. The temporal pattern of floods influences organic matter import and the spatial distribution of organic matter and biofilms in aquifer structural zones. We investigated spatial and temporal patterns of bacterial density and activity as indicators of energy availability and microbial dynamics in a karst aquifer. During baseflow, bacterial density and microbial hydrolytic activity were similar in the upper and lower zones of the aquifer. Floods apparently scoured aquifer biofilms and trans ported soil bacteria into the aquifer, increasing inactive bacterial density in the water column. Respiring bacterial density did not respond to floods and changed little over time. The overall proportion of total bacteria that were respiring was very high on some dates, resulting from a reduction of inactive cell density during flood recession. Floods appear to be key events in scouring senescent microbial assemblages in karst aquifers and stimulating microbial recolonization of the aquifer matrix. We conclude that a conceptual model of karst aquifer structure and function should incorporate changes caused by alternation between flooding and drying in the aquifer

Miocene phreatomagmatic volcanism at Tihany (Pannonian Basin, Hungary), 2001,
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Nemeth K. , Martin U. , Harangi S. ,
A late Miocene (7.56 Ma) maar volcanic complex (Tihany Maar Volcanic Complex - TMVC) is preserved in the Pannonian Basin and is part of the Bakony-Balaton Highland Volcanic Field. Base surge and fallout deposits were formed around maars by phreatomagmatic explosions, caused by interactions between water-saturated sediments and alkali basalt magma carrying peridotite Iherzolite xenoliths as well as pyroxene and olivine megacrysts. Subsequently, nested maars functioned as a sediment trap where deposition built up Gilbert-type delta sequences. At the onset of eruption, magma began to interact with a moderate amount of groundwater in the water-saturated sand. As eruption continued phreatomagmatic blasts excavated downward into limestones, providing access to abundant karst water and deeper to sandstones and schist both providing large amount of fracture-filling water, At the surface, this 'wet' eruption led to the emplacement of massive tuff breccias by fall, surge, mudflow and gravity flow deposition. The nature of the TMVC maar eruptions and their deposits appears to depend on the hydrological condition of the karst and/or fracture-filling aquifer, which varies seasonally with rainfall and spring runoff. The West and East Maar volcanoes of TMVC are interpreted to represent low water input from the karst and/or fracture-filling aquifer ('summer vent'), whereas the East Maar is interpreted to have formed when abundant karst and/or fracture-filling water was available ('spring vent'). (C) 2001 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved

Les karsts de Nouvelle-Zlande, 2002,
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Salomon, Jeannol
Karsts of New-Zealand - New-Zealand presents numerous karsts developed as well in ancient rocks (Palaeozoic) as in recent ones (Oligocene). The stretching in latitude of the land, the high vegetal biodiversity and the strong rainfalls explain the importance of the karst development and the variety of the morphologies. Endokarsts are well developed, but many are still to explore. The polygonal karst of the King Country (North Island) in one hand, and the karsts of the Marble Mountains (South Island) in another one, are the most interesting. The possibilities of crossing of numerous datings (dendrochronology, speleothems, volcanism, etc.) and the location of these karsts in the south hemisphere provide to these last exceptional paleo-environmental recording systems.

Dissolved organic carbon in precipitation, throughfall, stemflow, soil solution, and stream water at the Guandaushi subtropical forest in Taiwan, 2003,
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Liu C. P. , Sheu B. H. ,
The concentration and flux of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) were measured in precipitation, throughfall, stemflow, soil solution, and stream water for three types of subtropical forest stands, a Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata) plantation, a secondary hardwood, and a natural hardwood stand in Guandaushi forest in central Taiwan from January 1998 to December 1998. The mean DOC concentration in precipitation was 4.7 mg l(-1). However, in the rain passing through the tree canopies and barks as throughfall and stemflow, the mean concentrations were 7.0 and 30.8, 9.9 and 10.0, and 8.3 and 7.2 mg l(-1) in the Chinese fir plantation, the secondary hardwood, and the natural hardwood, respectively. Mean DOC concentrations in soil solution were lower in the Chinese fir plantation than both hardwoods, and decreased with depth of soil profiles. Stemflow DOC flux (132.4 kg ha(-1)) in the Chinese fir plantation was much higher than the other hardwood stands (15.3 and 6.7 kg ha(-1) in secondary and natural hardwood, respectively). The monthly variations of DOC concentrations were very similar in throughfall and stemflow at the three stands, showing an increase in the beginning of the growing season in April. No clear monthly variations in soil solution DOC concentrations (mean from 3.2 to 21.3 mg l(-1) in different stands and for different depths) were found in our study. DOC concentrations (mean 2.7 mg l(-1)) in the stream draining the watershed were higher in spring and in winter. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved

Climatic Control of Riverine and Seawater Uranium-Isotope Ratios, 2004,
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Robinson Laura F. , Henderson Gideon M. , Hall Lisa, Matthews Iain,
The large variation in the ratio of uranium-234 to uranium-238 (234U/238U) in rivers is not well understood, but may provide information about past weathering and rainfall and is important because it controls seawater (234U/238U). Here, we demonstrate the importance of physical weathering and rainfall for (234U/238U), using rivers from South Island, New Zealand. These data allow interpretation of an existing speleothem (234U/238U) record and suggest that New Zealand glacier advance 13,000 years ago was influenced by increased rainfall rather than by Younger Dryas-like cooling. A model of seawater (234U/238U) during glacial cycles indicates that rejection of corals based on modern (234U/238U) {} <0.01 is not merited and may reject the highest quality ages

Speleothem master chronologies: combined Holocene 18O and 13C records from the North Island of New Zealand and their palaeoenvironmental interpretation, 2004,
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Williams P. W. , King D. N. T. , Zhao J. X. , Collerson K. D. ,
The stable isotope records of four stalagmites dated by 19 TIMS uranium series ages are combined to produce master chronologies for {delta} 18O and {delta} 13C. The {delta} 18O records display good overall coherence, but considerable variation in detail. Variability in the {delta} 13C records is greater, but general trends can still be dis cerned. This implies that too fine an interpretation of the structure of individual isotopic records can be unreliable. Speleothem {delta} 18O values are demonstrated to show a positive relationship with temperature by comparing trends with other proxy records, but also to respond negatively to rainfall amount. Speleothem {delta} 13C is con sidered to be most influenced by rainfall. The postglacial thermal optimum occurred around 10.8 ka BP, which is similar in timing to Antarctica but up to 2000 years earlier than most Northern Hemisphere sites. Increasingly negative {delta} 18O values after 7.5 ka BP indicate that temperatures declined to a late mid-Holocene minimum centred around 3 ka BP, but more positive values followed to mark a warm peak about 750 years ago which coincided with the Mediaeval Warm Period' of Europe. Low {delta} 18O values at 325 years BP suggest cooling coincident with the Little Ice Age'. A marked feature of the {delta}13C record is an asymmetric periodicity averaging c. 2250 years and amplitude of c. 1.9{per thousand}. It is concluded that this is mainly driven by waterbalance variations with negative swings representing particularly wet intervals. The {delta}18O record shows a higher-frequency cyclicity with a period of c. 500 years and an amplitude of c. 0.25{per thousand}. This is most likely to be temperature-driven, but some swings may have been amplified by precipitation

Rock coast morphology in relation to lithology and wave exposure, Lord Howe Island, southwest Pacific, 2005,
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Dickson Me, Woodroffe Cd,
The morphology of rock coastlines appears primarily to be a function of the eroding force of waves and the resistance of rocks, but a number of local factors complicate determination of the relative significance of these as opposed to other factors. Lord Howe Island, a small, basaltic mid-oceanic island in the northern Tasman Sea, presents a unique opportunity to differentiate the roles of rock resistance and wave exposure. The island occurs at the southern limit of coral growth and there is a fringing coral reef and lagoon on a portion of the western coastline. The reef markedly attenuates wave energy and there is an impressive contrast between the sheltered lagoonal coastline, which consists largely of depositional sandy beaches and vegetated hillslopes, and the exposed coastline which is bold and rugged having been eroded by waves into precipitous plunging cliffs, cliffs with talus slopes, and cliffs with basal shore platforms. There is a clear contrast between the development of basalt shore platforms along the sheltered and exposed coastlines: exposed platforms are wider, backed by a higher and steeper cliff, and are without talus deposits, as opposed to sheltered platforms that are veneered by talus. Calcarenites, deposited in the Late Pleistocene, hence precluding significant rock coast inheritance, have been eroded into platforms that are approximately twice as wide on the exposed coastline than the sheltered coastline. Further evidence as to the efficacy of wave erosion around Lord Howe Island is provided by a suite of landforms that appear to have developed as a result of localised wave-quarrying of highly jointed dykes (sea caves, arches, blowholes, and gulches)

Timing and dynamics of the last deglaciation from European and North African [delta]13C stalagmite profiles--comparison with Chinese and South Hemisphere stalagmites, 2006,
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Genty D, Blamart D, Ghaleb B, Plagnes V, Causse C, Bakalowicz M, Zouari K, Chkir N, Hellstrom J, Wainer K, Bourges F,
The last deglaciation and its climatic events, such as the Bolling-Allerod (BA) and the Younger-Dryas (YD), have been clearly recorded in the [delta]13C profiles of three stalagmites from caves from Southern France to Northern Tunisia. The three [delta]13C records, dated by thermal ionization mass spectrometric uranium-thorium method (TIMS), show great synchroneity and similarity in shape with the Chinese cave [delta]18O records and with the marine tropical records, leading to the hypothesis of an in-phase (between 15.5 and 16 ka ~0.5 ka) postglacial warming in the Northern Hemisphere, up to at least 45[deg]N. The BA transition appears more gradual in the speleothem records than in the Greenland records and the Allerod seems warmer than the Bolling, showing here close similarities with other marine and continental archives. A North-South gradient is observed in the BA trend: it cools in Greenland and warms in our speleothem records. Several climatic events are clearly recognizable: a cooler period at about 14 ka (Older Dryas (OD)); the Intra-Allerod Cold Period at about ~13.3 ka; the YD cooling onset between 12.7 and 12.90.3 ka. Similar to the BA, the YD displays a gradual climate amelioration just after its onset at 12.750.25 ka, up to the Preboreal, and is punctuated by a short climatic event at 12.15 ka. Even though the Southern Hemisphere stalagmite records seem to indicate that the postglacial warming started about ~3 ka1.8 ka earlier in New Zealand (~41 [deg]S), and about ~1 to ~2 ka earlier in South Africa (24.1 [deg]S), large age uncertainties, essentially due to slow growth rates, make the comparison still perilous. The overall [delta]13C speleothem record seems to follow a baseline temperature increase controlled by the increase in insolation and punctuated by cold events possibly due to the N-America freshwater lake discharges

Contributory area definition for groundwater source protection and hazard mitigation in carbonate aquifers, 2007,
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Gunn J. ,
Carbonate aquifers provide important sources of potable water but are known to be particularly prone to pollution owing to rapid transfer of pollutants from the surface to springs or boreholes. Source protection zones and groundwater vulnerability maps are commonly used to mitigate against the pollution hazard but cannot be applied simplistically to carbonate aquifers, which are usually highly heterogeneous with overlapping groundwater divides that may vary with water levels. Divergent flow and disjunct contributory areas provide further complexity. Under these conditions, water-tracing experiments, repeated under different flow conditions, are the only tool capable of identifying those areas that contribute recharge to a particular source. Examples of water pollution affecting disjunct and overlapping source contributory areas are presented from the Waitomo area (New Zealand), Cuilcagh Mountain (Ireland) and the Peak District (UK). Source protection zones (SPZ), that have been defined by the Environment Agency in the Buxton area of the Peak District using equivalent porous medium models, are shown to be deficient. Further water-tracing experiments are essential if carbonate aquifers are to be adequately protected from pollution

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