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Enviroscan Ukrainian Institute of Speleology and Karstology


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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That evaporation loss is the loss of precipitated water that is discharged to the atmosphere by evaporation [16].?

Checkout all 2699 terms in the KarstBase Glossary of Karst and Cave Terms


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KarstBase a bibliography database in karst and cave science.

Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
See all featured articles
Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
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Your search for ordination (Keyword) returned 6 results for the whole karstbase:
Long term stability of a terrestrial cave community, 1997,
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Carchini Gianmaria, Di Russo Claudio, Luccarelli Marco, Rampini Mauro, Sbordoni Valerio
We report data on the spatial structure and seasonal variation of the community of Valmarino cave, a medium sized sandstone cave, located a few kilometres from the coast line, in Central Italy. Due to both its habitat features and its relatively recent geological history, Valmarino cave is only inhabited by terrestrial, troglophilic elements, i.e facultative cave dwellers. By means of monthly censuses and density plot estimates we have investigated species abundance, diversity and their spatial organization, by considering separately samples from different cave sectors. Homogeneous sampling design allowed to compare series of samplings performed in 1974 and 1994. On the whole 21 arthropods and one snail species constitute the cave community. Ordination plots resulting from correspondence analyses of monthly samples outline a distinct spatial and temporal structure. Two main sub-communities can be identified: a inner subcommunity, mainly represented by eu-troglophilic species, showing a remarkable stability throughout the year and an outer sub-community, mainly represented by sub-troglophilic species, showing strong seasonal variation. Both spatial and temporal vectors show similar importance in shaping the community structure. An interesting result of this study is the long term stability of both spatial and seasonal components of the community structure which remained almost identical after 20 years, as shown by the comparison of ordination plots obtained from 1974 and 1994 sampling series. Therefore this study provides empirical evidence of a frequently hypothesised, albeit never demonstrated feature of the cave ecosystem.

Isolated carbonate platform of Caniego, Spain: A test of the latest Albian worldwide sea-level changes, 1997,
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Fernandezmendiola Pa, Garciamondejar J,
The upper Albian Caniego carbonate platform consists of a 20-m-thick unit of rudist- and coral-bearing limestones that crops out at the northern margin of the Mena diapir in northern Spain, The limestones were deposited on top of a slowly subsiding area, the Mena paleohigh, a diapiric-induced horst bounded by synsedimentary faults, The Caniego limestones originated in shallow warm tropical waters following a widespread marine transgression at the base of the foraminifera Rotalipora appenninica zone (ammonite Stoliczkaia dispar zone), Around the middle part of the appenninica zone the Caniego limestones underwent subaerial exposure and karst development, Fibrous calcite cements filled the bulk of the fissure-dike and dissolution cavities, Field, petrological, and geochemical data indicate that the fibrous calcites are meteoric flowstones, delta(18)O values in these cements range from -3 parts per thousand to -4.5 parts per thousand and delta(13)C values range from -7 parts per thousand to -14 parts per thousand (relative to the Peedee belemnite [PDB] standard), Thick wedges of nearshore shallow-marine siliciclastic sediments were deposited in paleotrough areas surrounding the Caniego paleohigh while the platform was subaerially exposed, The carbonate platform was drowned in early Cenomanian time and hardground-condensed facies developed during this period (Rotalipora brotzeni zone), Deeper water noncondensed marry sedimentation was reestablished in the mid-Cenomanian (Rotalipora reicheli zone), Comparison of the Iberian Caniego limestones with worldwide successions suggests a coincidence in the timing of platform formation emergence and drowning in several basins of different lithospheric plates, Nevertheless, an overall lack of coordination of sea-level histories from different basins may be related to tectonic movements of the lithospheric plates, Plate rearrangement is invoked as the primary control on relative sea-level changes and sequence development

Forest recovery in abandoned agricultural lands in a karst region of the Dominican Republic, 2000,
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Rivera L. W. , Zimmerman J. K. , Aide T. M. ,
This study documents the status of forest vegetation in the karst region of Los Haitises National Park, Dominican Republic, following the abandonment of pastures (less than or equal to 5 years), young (less than or equal to 5 years) 'conucos' (mixed plantings), old (7-30 years) conucos, and cacao plantations (> 25 years). We compared these sites to vegetation characteristics of patches of forest in karst valleys ('old forest'-too old to know their exact land use) and on mogote tops with no recent history of human disturbance. The youngest sites date to when squatters were removed from Los Haitises National Park. Forest structure (density, basal area, and species richness of woody plants greater than or equal to 1 cm DBH) were all significantly affected by land use. Density was highest in intermediate-aged valley sites (old conucos) and mogote tops, while both basal area and species richness tended to increase with age of abandonment. Although cacao plantations had been abandoned for more than 25 years the species diversity was low, due to continued regeneration of this persistent crop. Abandoned pastures had the greatest nonwoody biomass and were dominated by the fern Nephrolepis multiflora which had completely replaced pasture grasses. An ordination of the woody plant communities separated the mogote tops from valleys, emphasizing the strong control that topography has on the forest community in moist and wet tropical forests on karst substrates. Valley sites were arranged in the ordination in order of their age, suggesting a successional sequence converging on the composition of the 'old forest' sites

The vegetation of the high mountains of Crete - a revision and multivariate analysis, 2002,
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Bergmeier E,
The vegetation at elevations above 1,400 m in the south Aegean island of Crete (Greece) is studied and revised. By means of phytosociological classification (assisted by TWINSPAN) and ordination (Detrended correspondence analysis, DCA), the plant communities and abiotic (environmental, geographical) factors governing the variance in vegetation are described and discussed. The analyses are based on 492 sample plots from the three major mountain ranges of Crete. All published data available, as well as own unpublished releves are included. Since the plots differ much with respect to species number and plot size, and to combine different subsets and different data properties, various data sets are used for DCA ordination. Data on environmental variables are used supplementarily. Ordination results suggest the following factors to be of major effect on the variance in vegetation: Rock type, soil type, altitude, geographical situation, degree of substrate fixation, and inclination. The representation of local and regional endemics in the vegetation increases with altitude and along the habitat type series: phrygana and woodland - fixed slopes - dolines - screes. A synoptic table of 26 columns (vegetation types and subtypes) is presented. The vegetation consists of the tragacanth formation of fixed slopes (8 columns), swards and scrub of doline grounds (9), scree vegetation (4), and rupicolous chasmophytic vegetation (2). Phrygana (2) and woodland vegetation (1) are marginal. A hierarchical conspectus of the syntaxa is provided which includes the following nomenclaturally relevant new or validated names of various ranks (in alphabetic order): Alysso sphaciotici-Valantion apricae, Arenario fragillimae-Silenetum antri-jovis, Arenarion creticae, Astragalion cretici, Berberido creticae-Astragaletum cretici, Cicero incisi-Silenetum variegatae, Colchico cretensis-Cirsion morinifolii, Fumano paphlagonicae-Helianthemetum hymettii, Gypsophilo nanae-Arenarietum creticae, Hyperico kelleri-Anchusetum cespitosae, Lomelosio sphacioticae-Centranthetum sieberi, Paronychio macrosepalae-Juniperetum oxycedri, Saturejo spinosae-Scutella-rietalia hirtae, Sideritido syriacae-Verbascetum spinosi, Verbascion spinosi

Subterranean ecological research and multivariate statistics: a review (1945-2006), 2008,
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Herrandoperez S. , Baraui M. , And Messana G.
Subterranean ecosystem studies using multivariate ordination and/or agglomerative classification statistical methods were reviewed in the Science Citation Index (SCI) between 1945 and 2006. Nearly 57,000 publications cited subterranean habitats or their associated biota in the SCI abstracts, however, multivariate statistics applied to strictly hypogcan taxa occurred in onl y 65 papers from 1990 onwards. Over 90% of the multivariate applications were devoted to morphometric or genetic studies of single species and to relationships between the environment and species assemblages . In terms of taxa and ecosystem types, stygobitc and waterless cave studies featuring multivariate applications predominated, respectively. Only six different methods (Agglomerative Clustering, Canonical Correspondence Analysis, Correspondence Analysis, Discriminant Analysis, non-metric Multidimensional Scaling, Principal Component Analysis) were used among the >30 multivariate techniques available within the biostatistical toolbox . The retrieved set of publications was sorted in a simple table by keyword according to type of biota, habitat, research topic and multivariate method, while online biostatistical resources are appended. Further comments are made on the use of statistics in the biological sciences in general.

The show cave of Diros vs. wild caves of Peloponnese, Greece - distribution patterns of Cyanobacteria, 2014,
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The karst cave ‘Vlychada’of Diros, one of the oldest show caves in Peloponnese, sustains extended phototrophic biofilms on various substrata – on rocks inside the cave including speleothems, and especially near the artificial lighting installation (‘Lampenflora’). After a survey of the main abiotic parameters (Photosynthetically Active Radiation -PAR, Temperature -T, Relative Humidity -RH, Carbon Dioxide -CO2) three clusters of sampling sites were revealed according to Principal Component Analysis (PCA): i) the water gallery section predominately influenced by CO2, ii) the dry passages influenced by RH and PAR, and iii) the area by the cave exit at the dry section influenced by temperature. The collected samples from the water gallery section and the dry passages of the cave revealed a total of 43 taxa of Cyanobacteria, with the unicellular/colonial forms being the most abundant. The applied non-metric Multi-dimensional Scaling Ordination (nMDS) of the cumulative species composition showed a clear distinction between the water gallery section and the dry passages of the cave. Further comparison with previous data from other wild caves of Peloponnese (‘Kastria’, ‘Francthi’, and ‘Selinitsa’) was conducted revealing a distinction between the show cave and the wild ones. Apart from the human impact on cave ecosystems – through aesthetic alteration (‘greening’) of cave decorations by the ‘Lampenflora’, and by the cleaning treatments and restoration projects on the speleothems – identification of the organisms constituting the ‘Lampenflora’ might provide taxonomically and ecologically significant taxa.


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