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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

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That geodesy is the science of measuring the geometrical properties of the earth [16].?

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Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
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Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
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Your search for ostracods (Keyword) returned 14 results for the whole karstbase:
Further investigations into Bacterial and Algal populations of caves in South Wales., 1967, Williams Mary Ann Mason
Some physical data collected over a period of a year in seven locations of the Ogof Ffynnon Ddu cave system in South Wales are reported, including humidity, air and water temperature, pH of the water, as well as the organic oxygen demand of the water. It is shown that seasonal variations in the physical constant in this particular cave system are not well marked. Algae and bacteria were isolated from the soil samples and from calcareous deposits. A total of 30 algal species, of which 13 belong to the Cyanophyta, 22 to the Chlorophyta, and 7 to the Chrysophyta~Baccilariophyceae were found. Thirty-eight heterotrophic and 7 autotrophic bacteria were isolated. The thin films on water surfaces, besides diatoms, contained several flagellates and some ostracods, while some protozoa were found associated with the bacteria and algae in the soft calcite deposits.

Ecological studies in the Mamoth Cave System of Kentucky. I. The Biota., 1968, Barr Thomas C.
The Mammoth Cave system includes more than 175 kilometers of explored passages in Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky. Although biologists have explored the caves intermittently since 1822, the inventory of living organisms in the system is still incomplete. The present study lists approximately 200 species of animals, 67 species of algae, 27 species of fungi, and 7 species of twilight-zone bryophytes. The fauna is composed of 22% troglobites, 36% troglophiles, 22% trogloxenes, and 20% accidentals, and includes protozoans, sponges, triclads, nematodes, nematomorphs, rotifers, oligochaetes, gastropods, cladocerans, copepods, ostracods, isopods, amphipods, decapods, pseudoscorpions, opilionids, spiders, mites and ticks, tardigrades, millipedes, centipedes, collembolans, diplurans, thysanurans, cave crickets, hemipterans, psocids, moths, flies, fleas, beetles, fishes, amphibians, birds, and mammals. The Mammoth Cave community has evolved throughout the Pleistocene concomitantly with development of the cave system. The troglobitic fauna is derived from 4 sources: (1) troglobite speciation in situ in the system itself; (2) dispersal along a north Pennyroyal plateau corridor; (3) dispersal along a south Pennyroyal plateau corridor; and (4) dispersal across the southwest slope of the Cumberland saddle merokarst.

Ecological studies in the Mamoth Cave System of Kentucky. I. The Biota., 1968, Barr Thomas C.
The Mammoth Cave system includes more than 175 kilometers of explored passages in Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky. Although biologists have explored the caves intermittently since 1822, the inventory of living organisms in the system is still incomplete. The present study lists approximately 200 species of animals, 67 species of algae, 27 species of fungi, and 7 species of twilight-zone bryophytes. The fauna is composed of 22% troglobites, 36% troglophiles, 22% trogloxenes, and 20% accidentals, and includes protozoans, sponges, triclads, nematodes, nematomorphs, rotifers, oligochaetes, gastropods, cladocerans, copepods, ostracods, isopods, amphipods, decapods, pseudoscorpions, opilionids, spiders, mites and ticks, tardigrades, millipedes, centipedes, collembolans, diplurans, thysanurans, cave crickets, hemipterans, psocids, moths, flies, fleas, beetles, fishes, amphibians, birds, and mammals. The Mammoth Cave community has evolved throughout the Pleistocene concomitantly with development of the cave system. The troglobitic fauna is derived from 4 sources: (1) troglobite speciation in situ in the system itself; (2) dispersal along a north Pennyroyal plateau corridor; (3) dispersal along a south Pennyroyal plateau corridor; and (4) dispersal across the southwest slope of the Cumberland saddle merokarst.

Distribution of Indiana cavernicolous crayfishes and their ecto-commensal Ostracods., 1975, Hobbs Iii Horton H.
Six species and subspecies of crayfishes and four species of entocytherid ostracods are known to inhabit the subterranean streams of southern Indiana. Cambarus (E.) Iaevis (troglophile) appears to be the most widely distributed crayfish and occurs in both karst areas within the State. The troglobite, Orconectes inermis (2 subspecies), is restricted to the larger karst area in solution cavities of Mississippian carbonate rocks. The remaining crayfishes, Orconectes immunis, Orconectes propinquus and Orconectes sloanii, are not common inhabitants of cave waters and are probably trogloxenes. All of the crayfishes except O. sloanii were found to host at least one species of ostracod. From data presented, Sagittocythere barri might be expected to be found commonly in association with Orconectes inermis, Donnaldsoncythere donnaldsonensis, Uncinocythere xania and Dactylocythere susanae, however, are more commonly associated with C. (E) laevis, indicating a near host-specific relationship among these taxa. Whether these are host-specific associations or ones imposed by certain ecological parameters will require additional investigations. Although a fair understanding of the distribution of these crustaceans in the larger, Mississippian limestone belt has been obtained, additional field work on the perimeter of the spelean ranges of the several species will probably prove productive. Furthermore, considerable cave exploration and biospeleological surveys are needed in the Silurian-Devonian limestones of southeast Indiana before our knowledge of these crayfishes, entocytherids and other cave-dwelling species approaches that for the Mississippian karst of the State.

The distribution of the fauna in the interstitial habitats of the riverine sediments of the Danube and the Piesting (Austria)., 1976, Danielopol Dan L.
The interstitial fauna living in the riverine sediments of the Danube and Piesting have been investigated in Lower Austria. The nematodes, oligochaetes and cyclopoids are the most abundant groups (they represent up to 80% of the total fauna). The harpacticoids, the insect larvae, the isopods, the amphipods, the cladocera and the limnohalacarids are poorly represented (generally under 20% of the total fauna). The absence of hydrachnellids is striking. The vertical distribution of the interstitial fauna shows for several groups i.e. limnohalacarids, ostracods, isopods, harpacticoids, that the epigean species are quantitatively better represented in the upper sediment layers instead of the hypogean species which are more abundant in the deeper layers. At one of the sites where samples were taken down to 3 m, most of the interstitial fauna was concentrated in the upper 1.50 m. The occurrence of limnohalacarids in the wells from the Danube Valley and the Piesting area shows that the repartition of this group is not restricted to the rhitrostygal zone. The distribution of the interstitial fauna in connection with the pollution of the river is discussed. High pollution inside the interstitial habitat eliminates the hypogean fauna and the epigeans disappear mainly in those areas with marked chemical reducing conditions.

Investigations on the Entocytheridae Ostracods. Data on Sphaeromicola cebennica juberthiei nov. ssp. and Sphaeromicola cirolanae Rioja., 1977, Danielopol Dan L.
Sphaeromicola cebennica juberthiei n. ssp., a cavernicolous ostracod found in the South of France (Systme de Cent Fons and Avencas, Herault), is described here. The new subspecies differs from Sph. cebennica cebennica (found in a cave from Ardche) by the smaller carapace and a reduced distal bristle on the 'finger" of the male copulatory organ. The affinities and differences between the European Sphaeromicola and Sph. cirolanae from Mexico are discussed. The genus Sphaeromicola is divided into two groups of species: the group topsenti and the group cirolanae. Some observations on the mating process of Sph. Cebennica juberthiei are presented. A precocious sexual behaviour of the female in the last post-embryonic instar is recorded. This type of behaviour seems to be a characteristic of the Entocytheridae.

Hypogean ostracods from South of France. 1. Mixtacandona juberthieae n.sp., 1978, Danielopol Dan L.
The description of Mixtacandona juberthieae n.sp. is presented. The new species belongs to the group taurica and has been found in the karstic system of the Vidourle river at Sauve (Gard).

Hypogean ostracods from South of France. 2. Pseudocandona simililampadis n.sp.., 1978, Danielopol Dan L.
The description of Pseudocandona simililampadis n. sp. is presented. The new species belongs to the group schellenbergi and has been found in the karstic system of the Vidourle river at Sauve (Gard).

Distribution of Ostracods in the Groundwater of the North Western Coast of Euboea (Greece)., 1981, Danielopol Dan L.
Freshwater fauna from 20 wells located 15-200 m from the seashore as well as marine interstitial fauna from the coastal zone around the village Aghios Georghios (Cape Likhada) have been investigated. Freshwater hypogean ostracods live mainly in protected wells having clean bottom and little particulate organic matter from which the water is moderately pumped. Epigean freshwater ostracods dominate in unprotected wells with large amounts of organic matter on the bottom. There is a sharp difference between the ostracod fauna living in fresh groundwater (mainly Cypridids) and those living in coastal marine interstitial habitats (marine Cytherids and Polycopids). It is suggested that in the Mediterranean realm the hypogean fauna could be found easily in protected wells with little organic matter accumulation, where water is moderately pumped.

Caecidotea carolinensis (Isopoda: Asellidae): First Record of a Stygobite from South Carolina, 2000, Reeves, W. K.
This report of Caecidotea carolinensis, the first stygobitic organism reported from Parlar Cave, South Carolina, USA, extends its known range by 370 km from its only previous collection site in North Carolina. Aquatic fauna from Parlar Cave also included an amphipod, aquatic annelids, aquatic oribatid mites, crayfish, copepods, and ostracods.

The influence of the geological setting on the morphogenetic evolution of the Tremiti Archipelago (Apulia, Southeastern Italy), 2005, Andriani Gk, Walsh N, Pagliarulo R,
The Tremiti Archipelago (Southern Adriatic Sea), also called Insulae Diomedae from the name of the Greek hero who first landed there, is an area of high landscape and historical value. It is severely affected by significant geomorphologic processes dominated by mass movements along the coast that constitute the most important and unpredictable natural hazard for the population and cultural heritage. Coastal erosion is favoured by the peculiar geological and structural setting, seismic activity, weathering, development of karst processes, and wave action. The present paper reports on descriptive and qualitative evaluation of the factors controlling landslides and coastline changes based on medium-term in situ observation, detailed surface surveys at selected locations since 1995, and historic and bibliographic data. The Tremiti Archipelago is part of an active seismic area characterised by a shear zone separating two segments of the Adriatic microplate that have shown different behaviour and roll back rates in the subduction underneath the Apennines since middle Pleistocene. Although coastal morphology can be basically considered to be the result of wave action, the continual action of subaerial processes contributes effectively to the mechanism of shoreline degradation. Weathering mainly affects the marly calcisiltites and calcilutites of the Cretaccio Fm. and the friable and low cemented calcarenites and biomicrites of the San Nicola Fm. The cliffs are characterised by different types of failure such as lateral spreads, secondary topples, rock falls and slides. At the Isle of San Nicola, landslides are controlled by the contrast in competence, shear strength and stiffness between the Pliocene re-crystallised dolomitic calcarenites and calcisiltites and the Miocene marly calcilutites and calcisiltites. At the Isles of San Domino and Caprara rock falls are attributed to the undercutting of waves at the base of the cliffs

Reconstruction of the paleoenvironmental changes around the Miocene-Pliocene boundary along a West-East transect across the Mediterranean, 2006, Pierre Catherine, Caruso Antonio, Blancvalleron Marie Madeleine, Rouchy Jean Marie, Orzsagsperber Fabienne,
In order to reconstruct the environmental changes at the end of the Messinian salinity crisis, a multidisciplinary study has been carried out with a high sampling resolution of the late Messinian-early Zanclean (Zone MPl 1) sediments along a West-East Mediterranean transect. The studied examples comprise sections from southern Spain (Vera/Almanzora), Balearic Basin (ODP Site 975), Tyrrhenian Basin (ODP Site 974), Sicily (Eraclea Minoa), Zakynthos (Kalamaki), Corfu (Aghios Stefanos), Crete (Aghios Vlasis). Previously analyzed sections from the Levantine Basin (Cyprus and ODP Sites 968 and 969) are used for comparison. The sections have been correlated using planktonic foraminiferal assemblages, sedimentological and stable isotope variations, and compared to the astronomical cyclicity defined in the Miocene-Pliocene boundary stratotype of Eraclea Minoa, Sicily. Variations of CaCO3 content, stable isotopes of carbonates ([delta]18O, [delta]13C), and foraminiferal assemblages indicate similar environmental transition at the Miocene-Pliocene boundary in all of the investigated sections.The latest Messinian deposits are barren of fossils or characterized by only reworked planktonic foraminifers, except for the sporadic presence of Ammonia tepida, brackish or lacustrine ostracods and brackish mollusks typical of the 'Lago-Mare' facies. The oxygen and carbon isotopic compositions of carbonates usually exhibit large variations with dominantly low [delta] values indicating freshwater dilution. The earliest Pliocene (MPl 1, cycle 1) shows a rapid and progressive increase of the [delta]18O values, which indicates the restoration of marine conditions after the Lago-Mare event. Normal marine environments were definitely established and stabilized at the top of cycle 1.These data confirm that the inflow of marine waters occurred contemporaneously within the whole Mediterranean at the base of Pliocene, although stable marine conditions occurred only about 20[no-break space]kyrs later

Ostracoda (Crustacea) from freshwater caves in the western Black Sea region of Turkey, 2012, Yavuzatmaca Mehmet Okan Klkyloglu, Sari Necmettin, Basak Elif, Mengi Hamdi

To understand cave Ostracoda assemblage composition and diversity in the western Black Sea region of Turkey, eleven caves were sampled between September and October, 2010. Seven ostracod taxa were recorded (Ilyocypris inermis, I. bradyi, Ilyocypris sp., Candona neglecta, Candona sp., Pseudocandona sp., and Heterocypris sp.) inhabiting six of eleven caves examined. Two additional taxa (Psychrodromus olivaceus and Psychrodromus sp.) were also collected outside of Çayirköyü Cave and the entrance of Aksu and Sarikaya caves, respectively. The records of adult individuals of I. inermis and I. bradyi represent the first records from cave environments, while the record of C. neglecta is only the second record from cave environments. Almost all of the caves studied were characterized by low diversity and abundance. Unweighted Pair Group Mean Averages with about 85% similarity indicated the presence of three groups comprised of three, seven and three sites respectively. Similarities based on ecological variables were higher between caves in close geographical proximity to each other compared to those farther apart. The results indicate that the occurrence of ostracods within caves is dependent on environmental conditions within the aquatic habitats present at the sites.


Ostracod Assemblages in the Frasassi Caves and Adjacent Sulfidic Spring and Sentino River in the Northeastern Apennines of Italy, 2013, Peterson D. E. , Finger K. L. , Iepure S. , Mariani S. , Montanari A. , Namiotko T.

Rich, diverse assemblages comprising a total (live + dead) of twenty-one ostracod species belonging to fifteen genera were recovered from phreatic waters of the hypogenic Frasassi Cave system and the adjacent Frasassi sulfidic spring and Sentino River in the Marche region of the northeastern Apennines of Italy. Specimens were recovered from ten sites, eight of which were in the phreatic waters of the cave system and sampled at different times of the year over a period of five years. Approximately 6900 specimens were recovered, the vast majority of which were disarticulated valves; live ostracods were also collected. The most abundant species in the sulfidic spring and Sentino River were Prionocypris zenkeri, Herpetocypris chevreuxi, and Cypridopsis vidua, while the phreatic waters of the cave system were dominated by two putatively new stygobitic species of Mixtacandona and Pseudolimnocythere and a species that was also abundant in the sulfidic spring, Fabaeformiscandona ex gr. F. fabaeformis.
Pseudocandona ex gr. P. eremita, likely another new stygobitic species, is recorded for
the first time in Italy. The relatively high diversity of the ostracod assemblages at Frasassi
could be attributed to the heterogeneity of groundwater and associated habitats or to
niche partitioning promoted by the creation of a chemoautotrophic ecosystem based on
sulfur-oxidizing bacteria. Other possible factors are the geologic age and hydrologic
conditions of the cave and karst aquifer system that possibly originated in the early–
middle Pleistocene when topographic uplift and incision enabled deep sulfidic waters to
reach the local carbonate aquifer. Flooding or active migration would have introduced
the invertebrates that now inhabit the Frasassi Cave system


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