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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That hydraulic barrier is a general term referring to modifications of a ground-water flow system to restrict or impede movement of contaminants [22].?

Checkout all 2699 terms in the KarstBase Glossary of Karst and Cave Terms


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Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
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Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
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Your search for paleocaves (Keyword) returned 4 results for the whole karstbase:
MESSINIAN (LATE MIOCENE) KARST ON GRAND-CAYMAN, BRITISH-WEST-INDIES - AN EXAMPLE OF AN EROSIONAL SEQUENCE BOUNDARY, 1994,
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Jones B. , Hunter I. G. ,
The Cayman Unconformity, which separates the Pedro Castle Formation (Pliocene) from the underlying Cayman Formation (Miocene), is a sequence boundary that developed during the Messinian, when sea level was at a lowstand due to glaciation in the Southern Hemisphere. By the end of the Messinian, Grand Cayman was an atoll-like island that had an elevated peripheral rim that was up to 41 m above the central depression. The Cayman Formation contains paleocaves and paleosinkholes that were linked to the Cayman Unconformity. The topography on the Cayman Unconformity is attributed to erosional processes, because (1) there is no evidence of carbonates that formed by constructional processes (i.e., reefs, dunes) in the elevated peripheral rim, and (2) there is ample evidence of dissolutional features in the Cayman Formation. The topography developed on the interior of Grand Cayman during the Messinian was uneven. A deep, basin-like depression, with its base as much as 50 m below the peripheral rim, formed on the western part of the island. By comparison, the floor of the depression on the eastern part of the island was 20-30 m higher. The difference in the topography, which is a reflection of the amount of bedrock dissolution, suggests that the effective rainfall was highest over the western part of the island. The relief on the Cayman Unconformity and associated structures shows that base level during the Messinian karst development was at least 41 m below present-day sea level. This is also provides an estimate of the Messinian lowstand position because the base level in oceanic karst settings is usually controlled by sea level

Pedogenic and Karstic Features at the Boundaries of Bathonian Depositional Sequences in the Grands Causses Area (Southern France): Stratigraphic Implications, 2000,
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Charcosset P, Combes Pj, Peybernes B, Ciszak R, Lopez M,
Several exposure surfaces (D1 to D6) underlain by paleosols, paleokarstic surfaces, and subsurface paleokarsts were identified in the Middle to Upper Bathonian Calcaires a Stipites and Dolomies II Formations in southern France. Two kinds of paleosols with different degrees of maturity were recognized: simple ferruginous crusts, capping very irregular bed surfaces, and a rooted horizon. The paleokarstic surfaces are marked by nodular horizons and paleocaves. On the Cevennes shoal, the paleokarsts discontinuities are associated with synsedimentary tectonic processes, which did not extend into the overlying Dolomies II Formation. Subsurface paleokarsts were observed in the Cirque du Bout du Monde (on the Cevennes shoal) within the Calcaires a Stipites Formation, just beneath surface D5. They are characterized by stronger brecciation of the beds. Most of the paleokarstic discontinuities described in this study correspond to the boundaries of four third-order depositional sequences, Bt 1 to Bt 4 (D1 at the base of Bt 1; D2, D3, D4, and D5 capping Bt 1, Bt 2, Bt 3, and Bt 4, respectively; D6 at the top of the Dolomies II Formation). D1, D2, and D3 paleokarsts are geographically limited to the Grands Causses Graben, whereas D4, D5, and D6 are present only on the Cevennes shoal. Geographic trends of paleokarsts confirm the transgressive trend of sequences Bt 3 and Bt 4, and of the overlying Dolomies II Formation towards the shoal. D6 paleokarstic features were also observed within the uppermost part of the Dolomies II Formation in the Horst de Saint-Bresson. The latter transgressive process provides evidence for subaerial exposure of this paleostructure during the latest Bathonian-Callovian interval, induced by tectonic uplifts

A Review of Coalesced, Collapsed-Paleocave Systems and Associated Suprastratal Deformation, 2007,
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Loucks, Robert G.

Coalesced, collapsed-paleocave systems and associated suprastratal deformation appear to be prominent diagenetic/structural features in carbonate sections at/near composite conformities. The basic architecture of the system can be divided into two sections. The lower karsted section, where high-density cave formation took place, is preserved as massive breccias commonly displaying a rectilinear pattern in map view. The overlying suprastratal eformation section is characterized by large, circular to linear sag structures containing faults and fractures. Regional distribution of coalesced, collapsed-cave systems commonly appears as large-scale (hundreds to thousands of square kilometers in area), rectilinear patterns with areas of concentrated, coalesced breccias separated by relatively undisturbed host rock. This pattern may reflect development of the paleocave system along fracture swarms. Collapsed-paleocave systems are large, complex features that show broad-scale organization. The complete paleocave system may need seismic data or large, mountain-scale outcrops to define their architecture and distribution.


SEISMIC-SAG STRUCTURAL SYSTEMS IN TERTIARY CARBONATE ROCKS BENEATH SOUTHEASTERN FLORIDA, USA: EVIDENCE FOR HYPOGENIC SPELEOGENESIS?, 2009,
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Cunningham K. , Walker C.

High-resolution, multichannel seismic-re?ection data recently acquired mostly in Biscayne Bay, southeastern Florida, exhibit disturbances in parallel seismic re?ections that correspond to the carbonate rocks of the Floridan aquifer system and lower part of the overlying intermediate con?ning unit. These disruptions in seismic re?ections are indicative of structural characteristics in carbonate rocks of Eocene to middle Miocene age that are interpreted to be related to collapsed paleocaves or collapsed paleocave systems, and include (1) fractures; (2) faults; (3) narrow (hundreds-of-m- scale wide) seismic-sag structural systems; and (4) broad (km-scale wide) seismic-sag structural systems. Commonly, the seismic-sag structural systems are multistoried, re?ecting a vertical arrangement of cyclic zones of structural sags that exhibit a progressive evolution from cave formation; cave collapse; suprastratal sag; and in some cases, ?nal in?ll of the upward termination of sag zones. In the study area, these structural systems are buried by upper Miocene-to-Holocene sedimentary rocks and sediments; however, they may manifest as well-documented, hundreds-of-m-scale wide, sinkholes along the submarine surface of the continental margin in the Straits of Florida. The potential link between the seismic sags and submarine sinkholes suggests the sea?oor sinkholes began to form as early as during the Eocene. We will discuss, speleogenic mechanisms dominating the formation of the narrow, seismic-sag structures that include: vadose, water-table, regional mixing zone corrosive, and ?ank-margin processes. Further, three mechanisms are postulated for the speleogenesis of the paleocave systems associated with the broad seismic-sag structural systems: (1) corrosion by an Eocene mixed fresh-saltwater zone associated with a regional groundwater ?ow system beneath the southern part of the paleo-Florida Platform, (2) hypogenic speleogenesis associated with upward groundwater ?ow driven by Kohout convection and dissolution by mixed fresh and saline groundwater, or (3) hypogenic spelogenesis associated with the upward ascension of hydrogen-sul?de-bearing groundwater charged by dissolution and the reduction of calcium sulfates in deeper Eocene or Paleocene rocks. We will contrast and compare our theories on the timing and processes involved in the formation of seismic-sag structural systems with those proposed in the existing literature for the submarine sinkholes on the continental margin in the Straits of Florida, and discuss how the seismic-sag structural systems and submarine sinkholes may be linked. Future marine seismic data acquisition and interpretation is planned to help develop more accurate timing of formation of paleocaves and paleocave systems, their collapse, and structural impact on suprastratal rocks, and more decisive insight into the speleogenic processes that proceed during the evolution of these seismic-sag structural systems within the Florida Platform.


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