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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That aven is 1. a hole in the roof of a cave passage that may be either a rather large blind roof pocket or a tributary inlet shaft into the cave system. a feature described as an aven when seen from below may equally be described as shaft when seen from above, and the naming of such a feature commonly depends purely upon the direction of exploration. many avens close upwards to impenetrable fissures but may still be important hydrological routes; few caves are without them. in parts of france, aven is equivalent to the british term, pothole [9]. 2. (french.) a vertical or highly inclined shaft in limestone, extending upward from a cave passage, generally to the surface; smaller than an abime. commonly related to enlarged vertical joints. compare cenote; natural well; pothole. 3. (british.) a vertical extension from a shaft in a passage or chamber roof that tapers upward rather like a very elongate cone [10]. compare dome pit.?

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Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
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Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
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Your search for paleoenvironment (Keyword) returned 52 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 1 to 15 of 52
Controversy over the great flood hypotheses in the Black Sea in light of geological, paleontological, and archaeological evidence, , Yankohombach Valentina, Gilbert Allan S. , Dolukhanov Pavel,
Legends describing a Great Flood are found in the narratives of several world religions, and the biblical account of Noah's Flood is the surviving heir to several versions of the ancient Mesopotamian Flood Myth. Recently, the story of the biblical deluge was connected to the Black Sea, together with the suggestion that the story's pre-Mesopotamian origins might be found in the Pontic basin [Ryan, W.B.F., Pitman, III, W.C., 1998. Noah's Flood: The New Scientific Discoveries About the Event That Changed History. Simon and Schuster, New York]. Based on the significance of this flood epic in the Judeo-Christian tradition, popular interest surged following publication of the idea.Currently, two Great Flood scenarios have been proposed for the Black Sea: (1) an Early Holocene event caused by catastrophic Mediterranean inflow at 7.2 ky BP (initial hypothesis of [Ryan et al., 1997. An abrupt drowning of the Black Sea shelf. Marine Geology 138, 119-126]) or 8.4 ky BP (modified hypothesis of [Ryan et al., 2003. Catastrophic flooding of the Black Sea. Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Science 31, 525-554.); and (2) a Late Pleistocene event brought on by Caspian influx between 16 and 13 ky BP [Chepalyga, A.L., 2003. Late glacial Great Flood in the Black Sea and Caspian Sea. GSA Annual Meeting and Exposition, 2-5 November 2003, Seattle, USA, p. 460]. Both hypotheses claim that the massive inundations of the Black Sea basin and ensuing large-scale environmental changes had a profound impact on prehistoric human societies of the surrounding areas, and both propose that the event formed the basis for the biblical Great Flood legend.This paper attempts to determine whether the preponderance of existing evidence sustains support for these Great Floods in the evolution of the Black Sea. Based upon established geological and paleontological data, it finds that the Late Pleistocene inundation was intense and substantial whereas the Early Holocene sea-level rise was not. Between 16 and 13 ky BP, the Late Neoeuxinian lake (the Late Pleistocene water body in the Pontic basin pre-dating the Black Sea) increased rapidly from ~-14 to -50 m (below the present level of the Black Sea), then rose gradually to ~-20 m by about 11 ky BP. At 11-10 ky BP (the Younger Dryas), it dropped to ~-50 m. When the Black Sea re-connected with the Sea of Marmara at about 9.5 ky BP, inflowing Mediterranean water increased the Black Sea level very gradually up to ~-20 m, and in so doing, it raised the salinity of the basin and brought in the first wave of Mediterranean immigrants. These data indicate no major drawdown of the Black Sea after the Younger Dryas, and they do not provide evidence for any catastrophic flooding of the Black Sea in the Early Holocene.In addition, available archaeological and paleoenvironmental evidence from the Pontic region reveal no recognizable changes in population dynamics between 14 and 6 ky BP that could be linked to an inundation of large magnitude [Dolukhanov, P., Shilik, K., 2006. Environment, sea-level changes, and human migrations in the northern Pontic area during late Pleistocene and Holocene times. In: Yanko-Hombach, V., Gilbert, A.S., Panin, N., Dolukhanov, P.M. (Eds.), The Black Sea Flood Question: Changes in Coastline, Climate, and Human Settlement. Springer, Dordrecht, pp. 297-318; Stanko, V.N., 2006. Fluctuations in the level of the Black Sea and Mesolithic settlement of the northern Pontic area. In: Yanko-Hombach, V., Gilbert, A.S., Panin, N., Dolukhanov, P.M. (Eds.), The Black Sea Flood Question: Changes in Coastline, Climate, and Human Settlement. Springer, Dordrecht, pp. 371-385]. More specifically, Mesolithic and early Neolithic archaeological data in southeastern Europe and Ukraine give no indications of shifts in human subsistence or other behavior at the time of the proposed catastrophic flood in the Early Holocene [Anthony, D., 2006. Pontic-Caspian Mesolithic and Early Neolithic societies at the time of the Black Sea Flood: A small audience and small effects. In: Yanko-Hombach, V., Gilbert, A.S., Panin, N., Dolukhanov, P.M. (Eds.), The Black Sea Flood Question: Changes in Coastline, Climate, and Human Settlement. Springer, Dordrecht, pp. 345-370; Dergachev and Dolukhanov, 2006. The Neolithization of the North Pontic area and the Balkans in the context of the Black Sea Floods. In: Yanko-Hombach, V., Gilbert, A.S., Panin, N., Dolukhanov, P.M. (Eds.), The Black Sea Flood Question: Changes in Coastline, Climate, and Human Settlement. Springer, Dordrecht, pp. 489-514]

Quaternary Paleoclimatology of the Black Sea basin, 1979, Schrader Hans Joachim,
The occurrence of polyhaline, mesohaline and oligohaline diatom, silicoflagellate, ebridian and chrysomonad populations in late Quaternary Black Sea sediments (DSDP Leg 42B) forms the basis for reconstruction of surface water paleosalinities in the Black Sea basin over the last 3 million years. Four major periods with increased salinites are separated by extended freshwater periods. Based on paleosalinites, indicators of trophic freshwater conditions and changes in diatom species diversity, a correlation is made to the northern Europian glacial--interglacial stratigraphy and this correlation is used to place paleoenvironmental events into a chronostratigraphy. The `synchronous' late Quaternary occurrence of sediments rich in organic carbon in both the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea supports this interpretation.Three different stages in the interaction between the Black Sea and the Eastern Mediterranean Sea are defined: Stage A (exchange of freshwater and marine water similar to the present day flux) during the Holocene, Eemian, Holsteinian and Pliocene; Stage B (freshwater conditions with only occasional marine spills) during the Saalian, the Waalian, the Tiglian and the Praetiglian; and Stage C (freshwater conditions with no inflow of marine waters) during the Weichselian, the Elsterian and Eburonian

Paleoenvironmental data for N.W. Georgia, U.S.A., from fossils in cave speleothems, 1987, Brook George A. , Keferl Eugene P. , Nickmann Rudy J.
Pollen grains and gastropod shells in two speleothems from Red Spider Cave, Georgia indicate that ca. 10,000 yr B.P. the vegetation near the cave was Mixed Mesophytic Forest. Conditions were cooler and moister than today and a shallow pond existed in the doline above the cave. As these findings support palynologic evidence from nearby pond sites it is clear that cave speleothems are a potential source of paleoecological data to ca. 350,000 yr. B.P.

Paleoenvironment and speciation in the cave beetle complex Speonomus delarouzeei (Coleoptera, Bathysciinae), 1988, Juberthie Christian
In the eastern part of the Pyrenees (France) the author describes a scenario of speciation in the cave species complex Speonomus delarouzeei (Coleoptera Bathysciinae); the speciation processes have been initiated by a breakdown of the ecological equilibrium induced during three glacial-interglacial episodes. The scenario is the following: during the first glaciation (2.3-2.1 MY), psychrophilic populations ancestral to S. brucki were selected over the highest elevation of the range, by means of cold effect which produced an adaptive demographic advantage; adaptive characters of troglobitic species (K strategy) take place presumably in relation to colonization of caves and M.S.S.; during the second glaciation (1.7-1.3 MY) and a more recent, S. charlottae, latter S. emiliae, diverged from troglobite ancestors of S. brucki without further adaptive characters, as result from stochastic and historical events. M.S.S. generated during erosional period of glacial event provided ways for migration and new niches for colonization. Bottleneck effect in size population of ancestors, founder effect, and colonization by local population which present genetic and behavioural geographical polymorphism, argue for a rapid speciation, presumably 100,000 years long and 50,000 generations in the case of S. emiliae.

Desert paleoenvironmental data from cave speleothems with examples from the Chihuahuan, Somali-Chalbi Kalahari deserts, 1990, Brook G. A. , Burney D. A. , Cowart J. B.

In the valleys of southeastern France, below karst massifs, river deposits with travertines show vertical sedimentary sequences always similar, with, from bottom to top: gravels, silts, chalks, travertines s.s. (stromatolitic encrustations with laminated facies), travertinous sand, silts. The study of flora and fauna fossilized by these formations shows a good correlation between the maximum of carbonate deposition (travertinous facies s.s.) and the optimum of vegetation development (forest). And finally, behind calcareous dams edified by travertine, paludal and lacustrine fields are environments developed trapping diversified sediments (clays, peats, silts,...). Then, dam and lake are forming a unit that we can call a 'travertine system'

230Th dating of the speleothems from the ''Grotta del Fiume-Grotta Grande del Vento'' karst system in Frasassi (Ancona, Italy) and paleoenvironmental implications., 1994, Taddeucci Adriano, Tuccimei Paola, Voltaggio Mario
Chronological measurements have been carried out on speleothems from the Grotta del Fiume-Grotta Grande del Vento karst system in Frasassi (Ancona, Italy) by means of the 230Th radiometric method in order to date hypogean karst levels and related geological events. Higher levels were found to be older than the lower ones according to standstills and sinkings of the water table. The dated speleothems from the first and second level formed less than 10,000 years ago; the minimum ages of the third and fifth levels, which are respectively 130,000 and 200,000 years old, were correlated to climatic events. Dating different portions of a speleothem allows the measurements of the radial and vertical accretion rates and their variation over time. Such data together with the 234U/238U activity ratio and the uranium content of the speleothems have been correlated with the climatic variations connected to the glacial cycles. The same data have been used to fit a hydrogeological model.

Tectonic Speleogenesis of Devils Hole, Nevada, and Implications for Hydrogeology and the Development of Long, Continuous Paleoenvironmental Records, 1994, Riggs Alan C. , Carr W. J. , Kolesar Peter T. , Hoffman Ray J. ,
Devils Hole, in southern Nevada, is a surface collapse into a deep, planar, steeply dipping fault-controlled fissure in Cambrian limestone and dolostone. The collapse intersects the water table about 15 m below land surface and the fissure extends at least 130 m deeper. Below water, most of the fissure is lined with a >30-cm-thick layer of dense maxillary calcite that precipitated continuously from groundwater for >500,000 yr. The thick mammillary calcite coat implies a long history of calcite-supersaturated groundwaters, which, combined with the absence of dissolutional morphologies, suggests that Devils Hole was not formed by karst processes. Devils Hole is located in a region of active extension; its tectonic origin is shown by evidence of spreading of its planar opening along a fault and by the orientation of its opening and others nearby, perpendicular to the northwest-southeast minimum principal stress direction of the region. Most Quaternary tectonic activity in the area, including seismicity and Quaternary faults and fractures, occurs on or parallel to northeast-striking structures. The hydrogeologic implications of this primarily structural origin are that fracture networks and caves opened by extensional tectonism can act as groundwater flowpaths functionally similar to those developed by karst processes and that, during active extension, transmissivity can be maintained despite infilling by mineral precipitation. Such extensional environments can provide conditions favorable for accumulation of deposits preserving long, continuous paleoenvironmental records. The precipitates in Devils Hole store chronologies of flow system water-level fluctuations, hydrochemistry, a half-million-yr proxy paleoclimate record, evidence of Devils Hole's tectonic origin, and probably atmospheric circulation

Sannur Cave: A Crescent shaped cave developed in Alabaster formation in Eastern Desert, Egypt, 1995, Gü, Nay G. , Elbedewy F. , Ekmekci M. , Bayari S. , Kurttas T.
An expedition to Egypt set out to explore the Wadi Sannur where no speleological work had taken place. The most notable karst feature identified to date is the Sannur Cave, the largest subterranean chamber known in Egypt. It is situated about 70 km to the southeast of Beni-Suef city in the remote Wadi Sannur of the Eastern Desert where the main rock units belong to Eocene and Pliocene periods. The Eocene is represented by limestone including alabaster which is known to be quarried first by the ancient Egyptians. Sannur Cave is first explored during blasting in the alabaster quarry which caused an artificial entrance to the cave. The cave is a single crescent shape chamber approximately 275 m long and can be arbitrarily divided into two sectionshaving different characteristics; left side gallery and right side gallery. Few speleothems occur in the left side gallery while the right side gallery is decorated intensively with many kinds of spelethem including stalagtites, stalagmites, flowstones, microgours, helictites and soda-straws etc. In addition to surveying the cave, based on the geologic, structural and morphologic observation inside and outside the cave some interpretations on the paleoenvironment an the origin of the cave. Surveying was performed with grade 5D according to BCRA Gradings.

Salt cave cross sections and their paleoenvironmental implications, 1998, Frumkin, A.
Salt caves respond rapidly to environmental changes. Direct measurement and 14C dating show that complex cross sections may develop in a few hundred years. Two basic forms are discussed: (1) ingrowing vadose canyons where changing width may correspond to changing discharge; (2) wide low passages with flat ceiling, developed by upward dissolution, which may indicate rising base level. Some cross sections are deformed by Holocene tectonics.

A succession of Miocene rodent assemblages from fissure fillings in southern France: palaeoenvironmental interpretation and comparison with Spain, 1999, Aguilar Jp, Escarguel G, Michaux J,
An Early to Late Miocene sequence of rodent assemblages from southern France has been quantitatively studied. The resulting pattern seems very similar to a contemporary sequence from central Spain (Calatayud-Teruel Basin). The fossil mammal-bearing localities are of different types: mainly karst infills in France and localities situated in sedimentary basins in Spain. In order to interpret the fossil record, a comparison has been made between southern France faunas of similar age but collected in karst infills and in basin deposits. There seems to be no difference between the two kinds of faunas and thus there is no indication that karst infills systematically give a picture of drier and more open environments. Both types of localities may give a similar relative abundance of taxa and when differences exist they can be attributed to local conditions. The comparison between southern France and the Calatayud-Teruel Basin (central Spain) shows that: (1) similar trends occurred in the two areas; (2) differences between spectra were more important during the late Early Miocene than during the Middle Miocene; (3) the shift between the late Early Miocene and the Middle Miocene environments in southern France does not seem to be correlated with. a general drop in temperatures as inferred from the analysis of central Spain faunas. (C) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved

Comparative study of a stalagmite sample by stratigraphy, laser induced fluorescence spectroscopy, EPR spectrometry and reflectance imaging, 2000, Perrette Yves, Delannoy Jean Jacques, Bolvin Herve, Cordonnier Michel, Destombes Jean Luc, Zhilinskaya Elena A. , Aboukais Antoine,
In the last few years, it has been shown that multi-proxy data are recorded in speleothems and that these secondary deposits can be used to retrieve records of environmental evolution in extra-glacial continental conditions. The goal of many current research is to obtain a better understanding of the processes leading to the growth of these chemical sediments and to relate them to changes in environmental conditions. In the present research, the multi-proxy study of a well-laminated speleothem sample points out the interest of reflectance trend measurement as a water excess indicator. Results from stratigraphy, laser induced fluorescence spectroscopy, EPR spectrometry and reflectance imaging have been combined in order to get a better understanding of the environmental conditions pertaining during speleothem growth. Several parameters have been measured: (i) Mn2 concentration evolution (shown to be linked to soil processes); (ii) linewidth [Delta]H of the low field Mn2 EPR line (linked to crystalline properties of the speleothem); (iii) intensities of the laser excited fluorescence (linked to organic matter content of calcite) and reflectance (linked to calcite porosity); (iv) wavelength [lambda]peak of the intensity maximum of laser excited fluorescence bands (linked to the size of trapped organic molecules). Other data resulting from statistical treatment of the annual fluorescence cycles have also been used. Significant correlations demonstrate the covariation of [lambda]peak and calcite reflectance with the hydrological regime of the cave. In the well drained soils of a karstic area, Mn2 and [lambda]peak appear to be accurate proxies for soil moisture evolution, directly linked to the water excess. These results are confirmed by the comparison with historical knowledge of environmental changes of the surrounding plateau

A late Pleistocene ceiling collapse in Bogus Cave, Jones County, Iowa: A potential relationship to coeval accelerated mass wasting events across the central Midwest, 2002, Josephs, R. L.
A thick accumulation of boulder-size dolostone blocks, the result of one or more episodes of ceiling collapse, was encountered during geoarchaeological excavations in the front room of Bogus Cave, east-central Iowa. The rockfall layer was buried by a veneer of Holocene sediments that contained prehistoric artifacts dating to the Woodland Period (2500 - 1000 yr BP). An AMS 14C age of 17,260 120 yr BP, obtained from a caribou (Rangifer tarandus) mandible found wedged among the boulders, dates the collapse near the close of the last glacial maximum, a time when the projected mean annual temperature for this area was at least 14C lower than at present. Paleoenvironmental evidence based on ?13C values from select vertebrate remains and their encompassing sediment, together with a uranium series age of 16,900 4800 yr BP from a stalagmite formed atop one of the boulders, strongly support a late Wisconsinan age for the collapse. The episode (or episodes) of collapse appears to be the result of cryoclastic processes associated with late glacial conditions and the onset of accelerated mass wasting that has been previously documented across the central Midwest

Blue Bone Analyses as a Contribution to the Study of Bone Taphonomy in San Josecito Cave, Nuevo Leon, Mexico, 2002, Robles, J. , Arroyocabrales, J. , Johnson, E. , Allen, B. L. , Izquierdo, G.
Blue-stained bones, collected along a single stratigraphic level in San Josecito Cave, Nuevo Le?n, M?xico, were analyzed in order to better understand the diagenetic processes that pertained to their formation, and in order to ascertain if those processes could be used in inferring past environmental conditions. Using XRD, two minerals were identified as composing the fossil bone, hydroxylapatite and calcite. INAA, ICPS, XRFS, and colorimetric methods were used to quantify trace elements, including Cu, Sr, Zn, F, and Cl (in descending order). The findings point to the presence of a physical phenomenon produced by transition metal ions impurities, that in turn seems to be associated with physical and chemical processes occurring inside the cave, rather than with outside paleoenvironmental conditions

Pamukkale (Hirapolis) : un site de travertins hydrothermaux exceptionnel de Turquie, 2002, Nicod, Jean
Pamukkale (Hierapolis): An outstanding site of hydrothermal travertines in Turkey - These travertines result from the deposit of carbonates near the hydrothermal springs, on the main active fault zone on the northern border of the Denizli basin (W Turkey). Their high mineralised water, rich of CO2 of geothermal origin, accumulate limestone in the fissure ridges and in the cascades on the front of the old travertines balcony, building up in it flowstone and rimstone dams. This site is particularly important as much for the archaeological and palaeoenvironmental researches as the palaeoseismic and neotectonics regional data.

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