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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

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That poise is a measure of viscosity.?

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Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
See all featured articles
Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
See all featured articles from other geoscience journals

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Your search for peak forest (Keyword) returned 13 results for the whole karstbase:
Gautries Hole, Peak Forest, Derbyshire, 1948, Salmon L. B. , Boldock G.

Eldon Hole, Peak Forest, Derbyshire, 1949, Editor The

Perryfoot Caves, Peak Forest, Derbyshire, 1949, Salmon L. B. , Boldock G.

The Peak Forest Swallets, Castleton, Derbyshire, 1950, Salmon L. B. , Boldock G.

Coalpithole Rake [Peak Forest, Derbyshire], 1963, Salmon L. B.

Eldon Hole, Peak Forest [Derbyshire], 1965, Kinsman J. , Westlake C. D.

The Peak Forest Mines - Part I. The Development of Coalpithole Mine, 1967, Crabtree P. W.

Field survey and analysis of hillslopes on tower karst in Guilin, southern China, 2000, Tang T. , Day M. J. ,
Limestone dissolution in tropical and subtropical humid southern China created residual hills with steep slopes, a landform that is referred to as tower karst. Two types of tower karst landform feature, fenglin or peak forest (isolated towers) and fengcong or peak cluster (linked-base towers), were identified in Guilin. Previous studies proposed two hypotheses regarding their origin and evolution. One is the sequential evolution model from peak cluster to peak forest. The other is a parallel development model, which postulates that both peak cluster and peak forest have developed simultaneously. Through detailed field survey and analysis of slope forms on tower karst in Guilin, it was found that the mean slope angle of the towers is very high (62.4 degrees) and ranges from 60 degrees to 75 degrees. There is no significant difference in mean slope angle and slope angle distribution between towers in the peak cluster basin and peak forest floodplain areas. Mean slope angle increases with intensified fluvial dissection. Three levels of caves in the towers of the peak forest in Guilin were identified in previous research. The isolated towers of the peak forest as well as scattered residuals of peak cluster are generally distributed in the centre of the Guilin syncline. Favourable circumstances of allogenic water concentration indicate that development of the peak forest resulted from the combined effects of subcutaneous and subterranean dissolution as well as subsequent collapse and recession by fluvial erosion after uplifting. By contrast, peak clusters generally occur on the limbs of the syncline or at the periphery of the Guilin basin with relatively higher elevations. The thick vadose zone and predominantly vertical flow suggests that peak clusters are mainly formed by the combination of intensive uplifting and the enhancement of original dolines. The evidence of slope survey and slope analysis suggests that both isolated towers and linked-base towers developed simultaneously but by different mechanisms of formation and different combinations of development processes. Copyright (C) 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd

The earliest Chinese karstologist Xu Xiake, 2003, Ravbar Nataš, A

The first real scientific exploration of karst and karst caves in south China was undertaken by Xu Xiake (1587 - 1641). Chinese karst was studied by Xu Xiake for more than thirty years. He described his journeys to almost half of the territory of the Ming dynasty in his book ĹXu Xiake's travels« (ĹXu Xiake youji«), that was first published in 1642. He dedicated a lot of time to the research of the underground world by describing subterranean rivers and lakes as water resources. He also made ground plans of some caves, marked their entrances and described different shapes of speleothems. He first described different ways of climbing in caves and methods for cave research. Altogether he visited over 300 caves. Xu Xiake first described different types of the tropical karst and focused on the characteristics and reasons of the tower hills origin. He introduced the term fenglin (peak forest), which is still used in the scientific literature. However, he is not only the father of the modern speleology, karstology, geomorphology and geography in the Chinese scale but in a worldwide sense.


South China karst aquifer storm-scale hydrochemistry, 2004, Liu Z. H. , Groves C. , Yuan D. X. , Meiman J. ,
The peak cluster and peak forest karst regions of Southeast Asia form one of the earth's most extensive karst regions. Although there exists a rich, descriptive tradition of geomorphic work performed there, little quantitative study has been made of carbonate hydrochemistry and related aquifer/landscape behavior and evolution. In this paper, high-resolution measurements of ground water carbonate chemistry and flow were made and analyzed at two adjacent locations within the subtropical peak cluster karst of the Guilin Karst Experimental Site in Guangxi Province, China. While waters from a large, perennial spring represent the exit for the 2 km(2) catchment's conduit flow, a nearby well (within 5 m) measures water in the conduit-adjacent, fractured media. Results indicate that within peak cluster karst aquifer flow systems, spatially heterogeneous flow conditions can exist with respect to timing, magnitude, and, in some cases, direction of responses, as different controls can operate in the different flow system components. Stormscale chemical responses are controlled by dilution from rapid infiltration of rain water, CO2 gas sources and sinks, and water-carbonate rock interactions. At this particular location, there is also an influence from high pH recharge, apparently buffered by atmospheric limestone dust. An example of the varying controls on storm-scale responses within the flow system is that within the fractured medium, variations in the ground water calcite saturation index, a key parameter influencing rates of aquifer/landscape evolution, are small and controlled by CO 2 gas, while in the conduit they are more significant and dominated instead by dilution with rain water

Geomorphological and sedimentological comparison of fluvial terraces and karst caves in Zhangjiajie, northwest Hunan, China: an archive of sandstone landform development, 2011, Yang Guifang, Zhang Xujiao, Tian Mingzhong, Ping Yamin, Chen Anze, Ge Zhiliang, Ni Zhiyun, Yang Zhen,

The Zhangjiajie Sandstone Peak Forest Geopark (Zhangjiajie World Geopark) of northwest Hunan, China hosts a well-preserved sequence of fluvial terraces and karst caves. In this contribution, a comparative study of fluvial terraces with karst caves along the middle-lower Suoxi River in Zhangjiajie World Geopark is presented to improve the understanding of the development of striking sandstone landscape in the upper Suoxi River. By integrating geomorphological, sedimentological, and geochronological techniques, the possible correlation between fluvial terraces and karst caves, as well as their climatic and tectonic implications is investigated. The available electron spin resonance and thermo-luminescence numerical ages coupled with morphostratigraphic analysis indicate that aggradation of fluvial terrace levels occurred at ca. 347 ± 34 ka (T4), 104.45 ± 8.88 to 117.62 ± 9.99 ka (T3), 60.95 ± 5.18 ka (T2), and Holocene (T1), followed by the stream incision. Fluvial terrace levels (T4 to T1) correlate morphologically with the karst cave levels (L1 to L4), yet the proposed chronology for the fluvial terrace levels is a bit later than the chronological data obtained from karst caves. In northwest Hunan, where a unique sandstone peak forest landscape was extensively developed, the fluvial terrace sequences as well as the cave systems are the important archives for studying the evolution of the sandstone landscape. The beginning of the sandstone landscape development must be earlier than the aggradation of the fluvial terrace T4, allowing this unique landscape to occur in the Middle Pleistocene.


Quartz sandstone peak forest landforms of Zhangjiajie Geopark, northwest Hunan Province, China: pattern, constraints and comparison, 2012, Yang Guifang, Tian Mingzhong, Zhang Xujiao, Chen Zhenghong, Wray Robert A. L. , Ge Zhiliang, Ping Yamin, Ni Zhiyun, Yang Zhen

The Zhangjiajie Sandstone Peak Forest Geopark in northwest Hunan Province, China, is a comprehensive geopark containing many spectacular quartz sandstone landforms, limestone karst landscapes and various other important geoheritage resources. It is listed as a UNESCO World Geopark and is also part of the World Heritage Wulingyuan Scenic and Historic Interest Area for its important landscape features. Many of the sandstone landforms, particularly the vast number of thin pillars or spires, are very unusual and serve as the core landscapes of the geopark. But Zhangjiajie displays a diverse range of landform types, exhibiting spectacular patterns and regular distributions. In this paper, the geomorphic traits, distribution pattern and constraints of the sandstone landforms of the Zhangjiajie Geopark are examined. Our study indicates that in the outcropping areas, the sandstones display four distinctive levels from 300 to 1,000 m above sea level, and these extend clearly from the highest sandstone plateau platform to the center of the valleys. The high sandstone platforms developed close to a flat high-level erosional surface, and subsequent erosion into this plateau has resulted in successively lower levels of landforms that transition gradually from peak walls, peak clusters, peak forests and peak pillars to remnant peaks in the lower valley bottoms. The form and distribution of the Zhangjiajie sandstone landforms are primarily dominated by the geological setting, particularly the presence of brittle structures (fractures and joint sets) trending NNW, ENE and NE. Triggered by the episodic tectonic movements, major streams and escarpments frequently occur along these structural directions, while some of the peak walls, peak clusters and peak forests have their longer elongated axes corresponding to NE or NNW directions, with an increased density of peak forms at the intersection of these fractures and joints. The geometry of the diverse sandstone landforms is also influenced to a certain degree by the climatic, water system distribution, lithologic properties, biological process, meteorological features and denudation processes. The suite of quartz sandstone landforms in Zhangjiajie can be compared with other sandstone landscapes regionally, and our interpretation of the sandstone peak forest formation processes offers a significant contribution to the study of topographic features and the geomorphic evolution of sandstone landscapes


Tower karst and cone karst, 2013, Zhu X. , Zhu D. , Zhang Y. , Lynch E. M.

Cone karst and tower karst are spectacular types of tropical/subtropical karst formed under conditions of intense karstification, and occurring primarily in China, Vietnam, Cuba, Jamaica, Puerto Rico, and Java. The cone-tower karst system is classified into two basic types: fengcong-fenglin karst developed in hard, fissure-porosity rocks, and cockpit-mogotes karst in soft, high primary porosity carbonates. Key factors in the development of cone-tower karst include tropical or subtropical climate with abundant precipitation, tectonic uplift and base-level lowering, relatively pure and thick carbonate lithology, gentle anticline/syncline structures, allogenic input and through rivers. Differentiation into the cone (fengcong/cockpit) or tower (fenglin/mogotes) subtypes is strongly influenced by surface flow and the thickness of the vadose zone. Basic features of cone-tower karst, formation, and global distribution are discussed, with special emphasis on fengcongfenglin karst and the role of point infiltration, linear infiltration, and surface flow. The simultaneous (as opposed to sequential) evolution of fengcong karst and fenglin karst is explained by systematically analyzing the karst development, as well as the formation rate and age of fengcong-fenglin karst


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