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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That ground-water artery is a tubular body of permeable water-filled material surrounded by confining beds [16].?

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Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
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Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
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Your search for pre-quaternary (Keyword) returned 9 results for the whole karstbase:
Nouvelles recherches gomorphologiques sur les karsts mditerranens, 1983, Nicod, J.
NEW RESEARCHES ON THE MEDITERRANEAN KARSTS - More precise measurements are now being used to establish the rates of which limestone dissolves and the corrosion processes (regular hydrochemical measurements, Iv. GAMS limestone tablets method). In the study of the morphological evolution, the role of the quaternary paleoclimate is estimated by dating on the speleothems and the meaning of the outer carbonate formations has been revealed. Bauxite and terra rossa and various weatings make it possible to specify the pre-quaternary evolution and the origin of paleokarsts. Thanks to new methods, the influence of neotectonic is taken into account, especially the effects of the rise of numerous massifs to which we can add the variations in the sea level with coastal limestone formations. By way of conclusions we must stress the importance of studying karstical surroundings and the problems of applied karstology studies.

Le rle des hritages quaternaires dans les karsts alpins : le cas des Alpes du Nord, 1984, Chardon, M.
THE PART OF THE QUATERNARY INHERITED FEATURES IN THE ALPINE KARSTS: THE EXAMPLE OF THE NORTHERN ALPS - In the western part of the Alps, limestone mountains have been built mainly during Miocene and Pliocene. The relicts of pre-quaternary alterations or karstifications are scarce and difficult to identify. The most part of the morphological features can be related to the quaternary glacial stages. The main landforms of the high and low alpine mountains are described. The glaciers and their melting waters have excavated deep gorges-valley and caves.

Les karsts de l'avant-pays alpin au nord des Alpes occidentales, 1989, Chardon, M.
Karsts of the alpine foreland north to the French Western Alps: glacial origin of the underground systems - Karstic mountains are described between Rhne valley and the border of Northern Alps. The influence of quaternary glaciers is evident for surface landforms and the existence of inactive canyons can be explained only by glacial outflows. Large underground caves and systems such as La Balme, Les Echelles, contain numerous blocks and pebbles of alpine rocks. Except in some places of the alpine mountains, the pre-quaternary karstic evolution cannot be investigated. Now the rate of karstic corrosion is too low and waters are unable to produce large caves. Only the mechanical action of whirling glacial flows in some pre-determinated places can explain the presence of large caves in these low karstic mountains. The formation of these kind of caves can be correlated with the existence of the actual canyons and defils along this part of the Rhne river.

The role of western Mediterranea tectonic evolution in the geometry of a karstic domain in the Betic Cordilleras (Sierra Gorda, Spain): importance of a tardy extensional regime, 1999, Pistre S. , Lopezchicano M. , Pulidobosch A. , Drogue C. ,
Located in the central part of the Betic Cordilleras, the large carbonate Sierra Gorda Massif provides an example of a west-Mediterranean karstic aquifer. In spite of a complex polyphased tectonic history, the fracturing presents, from aerial views and at outcrop scale a quite organised geometry. Four fracture directions are found over the massif: N000-010, N050-070, N090-100 and N140-170. The statistical and geostatistical approach allows the characteristics (lengths, orientations) and the spatial structure for each fracture set to be determined. The N000-010 and N140-170 sets are grouped in packers whereas the two other sets are grouped in bands. The microtectonic study describes the evolution of the massif in the geodynamic context of this part of Mediterranea, distinguishing three recent stages of brittle tectonic activity in the gu massif: a WNW-ESE Middle Miocene compression, then a NNW-SSE to NW-SE compression with a poorly wrenching regime, and finally a probably pre-Quaternary N-S radial distension. This last stage is essential for the karstification of the massif and groundwater circulation. From the combined analysis of fracture network geometry and palaeostresses a multiple porosity model in agreement with hydrological observations made inside the massif can be proposed: in particular, the hectometric N090-100 land N050-070) fractures which are essential for the network connectivity, and have a major drainage role at aquifer scale, while the N000-010 and N140-170 ones have a more local drainage role. This extensive tardy regime, which is for the first time described separately from the internal zones of the Cordilleras, must be considered as a significant phenomenon on a regional scale, and henceforth integrated in future geodynamic schemes of this part of Mediterranea. (C) Elsevier, Paris

Pre-Devonian landscape of the Baltic Oil-Shale Basin, NW of the Russian Platform, 1999, Puura Vaino, Vaher Rein, Tuuling Igor,
The erosional relief of Ordovician and Silurian deposits in Estonia was developed during the continental period in late Silurian and early-middle Devonian times. The uplift of the area and marine regression were induced by compressional tectonics in the continental interior related to the closure of the Iapetus and Tornqvist Oceans. In the northern part of the Baltic sedimentary basin (Estonia), on the gentle southerly dipping slope between the Fennoscandian Shield (Finland) and Baltic Syneclise (Latvia), a pre-Devonian, slightly rugged erosional relief with few cuesta was developed. The pre-Devonian erosional landforms -- hills, depressions and escarpments reaching 150 m in height -- were probably buried under the Devonian deposits and then partly re-exposed by pre-Quaternary erosion. These landforms are described in detail using data from several thousands of cores drilled in the course of oil-shale and phosphorite exploration and mining

Le karst haut-alpin du Kanin (Alpes Juliennes, Slovnie-Italie), 2000, Audra, Philippe
Kanin is a high-alpine karst located in the Italo-slovenian Julian Alps. Its surface was elaborated by the quaternary glaciers and includes some inherited discreet tertiary morphological features. Recent dye tracing has shown that the structural setting permits water infiltrated in Italian catchments to contribute to Slovene springs. Hydrodynamic and physico-chemical water analyses show extremely quick transfers of water during snow melt or heavy storms; these create spectacular overflows, such as the Boka spring which emerges as a 100 m high waterfall. The phreatic zone, linked to the impermeable dam of the So_a valley, does not significantly slow these transfers. Nevertheless, it contributes to the occurrence of low water levels during recession periods, giving highly mineralised water after long resident periods. The presence of very deep and developed karst systems is explained by the combination of advantageous factors: thick and jointed limestone, important height gradient, and considerable precipitation. Paleomagnetic dating in one of the largest systems (_rnelsko brezno) attributes some glacial sediments to the Lower Pleistocene period. Their configuration seems to show that this karst system is pre-quaternary.

Role of an extension of pre-Quaternary age for the evolution of the carbonate massifs in the occidental Betic Cordillera: The case of the Yunquera-Nieves massif (southern Spain), 2002, Pistre Severin, Linan Cristina, Andreo Bartolome, Carrasco Francisco, Drogue Claude, Martinalgarra Agustin,
A simultaneous analysis of the fracture geometry and paleo-stress fields of the karstic Yunquera-Nieves massif i n southern Spain (Malaga Province) has been carried out with microtectonic stations. It reveals polyphased t ec -tonics linked to the structural position of this carbonate domain in the western Betic Cordillera. Among the tectonic regimes described in this domain appears a distensive stage with a radial trend probably of post-Tortonian to Quaternary age. Todate, it has seldom been described and is absent from geodynamic models though it seems to have had a regional importance. Furthermore, it played a major role for the acquisition of the hydrodynamic properties of t he aquifer and its karstogenesis. This stage opened all fractures and allowed t he development of karstic drains with NW-SE and N-S directions. Finally, the karstic network was shaped by more recent climatic and tectonic events

High-resolution magnetostratigraphy of speleothems from Snežna jama, Kamnik-Savinja Alps, Slovenia, 2002, Bosá, K Pavel, Hercman Helena, Mihevc Andrej, Pruner Petr

The Snežna jama Cave is located in the Kamnik-Savinja Alps, NE Slovenia, in a Raduha Ridge. The cave is a huge, more or less horizontal fossil phreatic/epiphreatic conduit. It is penetrated by vertical shafts - invasion vadose (proglacial) caves. Close to the cave entrance, there is about 3 m high wall composed of speleothems - a complex sequence of flowstone with numerous breaks in deposition, six of them are principal. The lower part of the profile (about 85 cm) contains abundant terrigenous component (terra rossa-derived clay). Stalagmites developed in several periods are completely buried by nearly horizontal younger sequences of flowstone. Continuous speleothem log was recovered from the profile in a total length of about 2.4 m. The rock column was cut to cubes in the laboratory (2x2x2 cm) and studied both by thermal demagnetisation (23 samples, 12 steps - 20 to 620 °C) and alternating field method (98 samples, 14 steps - 1 to 100 mT). Magnetic properties identified the lithological boundary. In contrast to the upper part, the lower one shows both higher magnetic susceptibility and higher remanent magnetisation. The turn point can indicate important palaeogeographical change. Magnetostratigraphic log is composed of 7 normal and 6 reverse polarised magnetozones. The age of speleothems detected by the U-series alpha-counting spectrometry falls outside the method range, i.e. over 350 ka. Uranium isotopic equilibria indicate the age over 1.2 Ma. The age of the fill is pre-Quaternary, clearly older than 1.77 Ma. The most probable age from correlation with geomagnetic polarity timescales is about 3.0 to 5.0 or 1.8 to 3.6 Ma. Both possibilities can indicate the growth rate of speleothems of about 1.1 to 1.3 m per 1 Ma. The age of speleogenesis can be compared to some of unroofed caves in the area of the Classical Karst (SW Slovenia) connected with the Messinian period. Snežna jama was uplifted to high altitudes by younger (Plio-Pleistocene) uplift of the Alpine chain.


La grotte dAlisadr, un tmoin exceptionnel de lvolution morphologique du Zagros (Iran), 2004, Dumas, Dominique
Cave of Alisadr: a geomorphologic site of outstanding interest in the Zagros Mountains of Iran - The tourist cave of Alisadr, located on the eastern boundaries of the Zagros Mountains, is biggest subsurface cave visited in Iran. Most part of the karstic underground galleries is permanently filled with water: on the sides of the galleries former water table levels are indicated by numerous calcareous sinters. The sub-surface karst has preserved numerous relics and paleoenvironmental residual deposits, which show the geomorphologic karstic development. Dating of the three conspicuous calcareous levels in the cave and that of the surface basaltic mesa, to be established a few kilometres from the cave enable a chronology the stages of karstic evolution. The place of pre-quaternary vestiges in the landscapes of this country is also determined. For example, no typical landform of glacial erosion has been identified. The current karstic denudation rate is about 3 mm/Ky. The geomorphologic evolution of surface and sub-surface landforms during the quaternary era is shown and deduced from the processes, which have led to breccia formations in calcareous rocks.

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