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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That stream flow is the total runoff confined in a stream and its' channel [16].?

Checkout all 2699 terms in the KarstBase Glossary of Karst and Cave Terms


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Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
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Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
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Your search for predjama (Keyword) returned 15 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 1 to 15 of 15
Die Tektonik des Nordrandes des Piukabeckens mit besonderer Bercksichtigung des Predjama-(Lueger-)Hhlensystems., 1961,
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Habe, F.
[Slowenien]

Die Tektonik des Nordrandes des Piukabeckens mit besonderer Bercksichtigung des Predjama-(Lueger-)Hhlensystems, 1961,
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Habe, F.

The influence of tectonic zones on cross section formations in the Predjama cave, Slovenia1996, 1996,
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ebela, Stanka

Karst characteristics of thrust contact limestone-dolomite near Predjama, 2001,
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Č, Ar Jož, E, Š, Ebela Stanka

With detailed lithological and tectonic-structural mapping at the scale 1:5000 we studied the area near Bukovje NE from Predjama. In the studied area and further towards the NE we can follow a strong thrust contact between Upper Cretaceous limestones of Snežnik thrust sheet over which Upper Triassic Norian-Rhaetian dolomite of Hrušica thrust sheet is overthrust. The thrust is cut by systems of dextral faults with expressed vertical component. Beneath the studied area underground passages of Predjama cave can be found; they are developed in limestones as in dolomites. Dolines in Upper Cretaceous limestone are uniformly arranged and are in structural-genetic view broken (D), near-fault (E) or fault (F). Along the thrust edge we have contact dolines (G) in dolomite. The rest of the dolines on dolomite are connected to differently broken rocks in fault zones and are called reproduced fault-broken dolines / HF(D)do /. For described karst features along thrust contact we suggest the name contact karst on dolomite along thrust.


The use of structural geological terms and their importance for karst caves, 2003,
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Š, Ebela Stanka

Structural geological studies on karst areas operate with the same structural geological terms as on other geological regions. But because of special geomorphologic terms characterized for karst areas, some structural geological elements, which are in a special way connected with particular karst forms, are used as a special terms, different from those used on non-karstic areas. For Slovene karst we need to divide two most important structural elements that are important for development of cave passages, bedding planes and tectonic structures. And between bedding planes the ones that are tectonically disrupted are very favorable for development of initial cave passages. In the longest Slovene karst caves as Postojnska jama caves, Predjama and Škocjanske jame caves interbedded movements, thrusting and folding deformations, and tectonically broken zones (fissured, broken and crushed zones) are very favorable for initial, and also for older and younger stages of passage development.


Monitoring of active tectonic structures - Project COST 625, 2005,
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Š, Ebela Stanka

For Western Slovenia moderate historical to recent seismicity is characteristic. The principal aim for Slovenia to join the COST 625 project was to exchange the experiences and methodology and in this way to determine the activity or non-activity of selected faults in Western Slovenia. Within the project frame we decided for several years of monitoring, and in this sense four TM 71 extensometers were installed in Western Slovenia. In the first half of the 2004 two TM 71 instruments were installed in Postojnska Jama on the Dinaric oriented fault that is situated about 1 km North from Predjama fault. The third instrument was installed on Raša fault on the SE slope of Vremščica and the fourth instrument in Učja valley on Idrija fault. The fifth instrument TM 71 will be set up on Kneža fault that is situated south from Ravne fault. The first results from Postojnska Jama are showing the small horizontal movements for 0.05 mm in one year.


Tectonic sights of the Pivka basin, 2005,
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Š, Ebela S.

The important regional thrust called Snežnik thrust, that divides the Snežnik thrust sheet from the parautochthon of the Komen thrust sheet, runs through the Pivka basin. A tectonic window near Knežak is proof of older thrusting deformations. The landscape is cut by numerous younger faults among which the most important are Raša, Predjama and Selce faults. The area of Upper Pivka is tectonically quite active, which is shown by earthquakes in recent years. It looks as if the most active is the Raša fault or one of its northern parallel faults, for example Šembije fault or maybe Selce fault. Karst intermittent lakes of Upper Pivka are developed in Upper Cretaceous limestones. The lakes are situated 0.5-4.0 km NE from the Snežnik thrust. Most of the lakes are situated along the Selce fault.


The History of Postojnska Jama: The 1748 Joseph Anton Nagel inscriptions in Jama near Predjama and Postojnska Jama, 2006,
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Kempe Stephan, Hubrich Hanspeter Suckstorff Klaus
Jama near Predjama and Postojnska Jama, Slovenia, are known for their rich body of historic inscriptions spanning over several centuries. Early explorers and visitors left names, dates and symbols. Here we present the inscriptions by the mathematician Josef Anton Nagel (1717-1794). Nagel and the painter and engineer Alois Schaffenrath (1794-1836) are the only ones that we can trace in both of the caves. Nagel visited the caves in July 1748 on order of Emperor Franz I. The inscription in Jama near Predjama is (for cave inscriptions) rather long and written in Latin, giving name, profession, cause and date of the visit, while the inscription in Postojnska Jama is rather short, giving only name and date of visit. Unfortunately the inscription in Jama near Predjama is already partly obliterated by an incautious visitor.

DETAILED MORPHOLOGICIAL STUDIES IN NETOPIRJEV ROV, PREDJAMA CAVE: A HyPOGENE SEGMENT OF A SLOVENIAN CAVE, 2008,
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Osborne R. Armstrong L.
Netopirjev Rov, part of the upper level of Jana near Predjama Cave, is not a former fluvial cave passage but a complex void made up of coalesced, structurally guided elongate cavities with cupolas and a range of speleogens normally associated with hypogene caves. These cavities were initially separate and later became integrated by the breakdown of their common walls. The main chamber consists of at least two coalesced voids while an apparent bend, a pseudobend, towards the northern end of Netopirjev Rov results from the breakdown of the common wall near the ends of two adjacent elongate cavities. It is proposed that this section of cave was excavated by the action of water rising from below (per-ascensum speleogenesis), but the nature and source of this water remains unclear.

SURFACE VERSUS UNDERGROUND MEASUREMENTS OF ACTIVE TECTONIC DISPLACEMENTS DETECTED WITH TM 71 EXTENSOMETERS IN WESTERN SLOVENIA, 2009,
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Gosar Andrej, ebela Stanka, Ko?k Blahoslav & Stemberk Josef
The tectonic setting of W Slovenia is characterised by NW-SE trending dextral strike-slip fault systems and moderate seis-micity. Monitoring of tectonic movements along five presum-ably active faults or in their vicinity using TM 71 extensom-eters was set up in 2004. In five years of monitoring some clear trends of displacement were established. The morphologically most prominent fault in W Slovenia is Idrija Fault having a to-tal length of more than 120 km. The average lateral displace-ment measured along a crack in its inner fault zone in U?ja valley was 0.26 mm/year. Short-term rates were even greater and reached 0.54 mm/year. Raa Fault monitoring site at the foot of Vrem?ica Mt. established first an average uplift of SW block for 0.16 mm/year and left-lateral displacement of 0.16 mm/ year. It was followed by down-slip of the same block at the rate of 0.37 mm/year. In Postojnska Jama two instruments, 260 m apart, were installed at the fault zone, which extends about 1 km northeast from Predjama Fault. We detect small tectonic deformations, dextral horizontal movement of 0.05 mm in 5 years for Postojna 1 and extension of 0.03 mm in 5 years for Postojna 2. Both devices recorded similar reactions to some earthquakes with magnitude range 3.1-5.2 and epicentral distance of 12-95 km. The amplitude of individual peaks is in the order of 0.08 mm. The monitoring at Knea Fault started at the end of 2006. In two years clear oblique displacement was established with left-lateral rate of 0.06 mm/year and uplift of SW block for 0.06 mm/year. Monitoring in Poloka Jama situated in vicinity of the Ravne Fault started in 2008. Preliminary results show 0.08 mm of horizontal displacement between two limestone beds. Established displacements proved the active tectonic movement of all monitored faults. Observed deforma-tion rates can be compared with the regional deformation rate in W Slovenia established from GPS measurement, which is in the order of 2 mm/year. Keywords: micro-tectonic displacements, 3D monitoring, TM 71 extensometer, Idrija Fault, Raa Fault, Knea Fault, Predjama Fault, Ravne Fault, Slovenia.

Direct measurement of present-day tectonic movement and associated radon flux in Postojna Cave, Slovenia, 2010,
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Sebela, S. , Vaupotic, J. , Kostak B. , Stemberk, J.
Micro-tectonic deformations have been monitored continuously in 3D in Postojna Cave, Slovenia with TM 71 extensometers since 2004. Two instruments, 260 m apart, were installed on the Dinaric oriented (NW-SE) fault zone that is situated about 1,000 m north of the inner zone of the regionally important Predjama Fault.Monitoring on both instruments has shown small tectonic movements (i.e., a general dextral horizontal movement of 0.05 mm in four years [Postojna 1] and extension of 0.03 mm in fouryears [Postojna 2]). Between the longer or shorter calm periods, eleven extremeshavebeen recorded regarding characteristic changes in displacement. The largest short-term movement was a compression of 0.04 mm in seven days, detected in March 2005, which coincided with the 25 km distant Ilirska Bistrica earthquake (ML 5 3.9). About twomonths before the earthquake an extension of 0.05 mm occurred and one month before the earthquake the strain changed into a compression of 0.05 mm. The largest permanent peak was detected at the end of 2004. Along the y-axis (Postojna 1) there was a dextral horizontal movement of 0.075 mm in one month (November 10 to December 15, 2004). After the sinistral horizontal movement of 0.02 mm (December 1527, 2004), the y-axis retained its permanent position on 0.05 mm, where it remained for more than a year. Regarding the extremes, ten earthquakes were selected that coincided with tectonic micro-displacements. In terms of speleogenesis, the monitored fault zone represents a stable cave environment. Because radon flux is known to change significantly during tectonic and seismic activities, radon air concentrations were monitored in parallel since 2006. During horizontal movements, either dextral or sinistral, radon pathways underground were partly closed, thus hindering radon migration and reducing its concentration in the cave air. Extension movements do not appear to have affected radon transport. Alternatively, the compression process (Postojna 2, FebruaryAugust 2007) appears to have opened some newroutesfor radon transport, facilitating radon migration and increasing its concentration in air.

Inscriptions of some historically known persons in Postojnska jama , 2011,
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Kempe Stephan, Hubrich Hanspeter

Imenski rov (Rov starih podpisov), the Old Cave (Stara jama), was the only part of Postojnska jama known for several centu­ries until 1818 when Luka Čeč discovered the access to the in­ner parts of the cave. Here we documented ca. 400 inscriptions. About 100 more were also recorded in the historic part of Pred­jama Cave. From these signatures we correlated 19 with inde­pendently historically known persons, less than 5% of the total. The correlation is firm for 15 names, but only tentative for Belle­garde, Kotze, Mihanović and Karl von Zur. The oldest one is that of Johann Melchior Ott(o) of 1642, a painter in the service of Johann Anton zu Eggenberg (1610–1649) the owner of the Cas­tle of Adelsberg at the time, whose coat of arms Ott drew as well. The next oldest is the name Josef Anton Nagel 1748 who also left Latin inscriptions in Predjama cave and in Sloup Cavern, Moravia. All other inscriptions of historic persons are younger than 1800 including those of Franz Graf von Hohenwart, Joseph Petsch Ritter von Löwengreif and Alois Schaffenrath (each with several inscriptions). Noteworthy are also the signatures of Josef Franz Eggenhöfner (1801 or 1809, and 1820; developer of Grotta di Padriciano), Johann Natterer (biologist, 1815, who stayed 19 years in Brazil and laid the basis of the zoological department of the Natural History Museum in Vienna), Karl Beyrich (1819, botanist who died during an expedition in Arkansas, 1834), Giuseppe de Volpi (1820, from Trieste who published first evi­dence of the cave bear presence in Postojnska jama), Johann Fercher, mine supervisor, and his team of miners from Idrija who signed during their survey of the cave in 1833, Johann Rit­ter von Hauer (1836 in Pisani rov, Vienna, Imperial Councelor of War and Palaeontologist), Ivan Andrej Perko (the later direc­tor of the cave) and several cave guides. Members of the nobility or state employees include Bellegard, Adrienne Brandis Desenf­fans and her brother Karl Graf Desenffans, Carl von Kotze, and Mihanović.


Vpliv turizma na rabo Predjame kot naravne vrednote, 2012,
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Culver D. C. , Debevec B. , Knez M. , Kovacic G. , Kranjc A. , Mulec J. , Pipan T. , Preloovsek M. , Ravbar N. , Semeja A. , Slabe T. , Sebela S. , Hajna N. Z.


Historic inscriptions in Predjama cave system and high floods in 2010, 2012,
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Sebela, S.

High floods of September 2010 partly ruined historic inscription made by charcoal »Slovenski gadje 1882« in Predjama cave system. Regarding studied historic records the September 2010 floods were the highest in Predjama at least since 1882. If we thrust the well-documented floods in 1826 they can even be higher than ones in 2010. In 2010 the water reached 489.60 m above the sea level at entrance parts of the cave and about 485 m at Vetrovna Luknja causing that the old inscription from 1882 was under water and partly destroyed. Another old inscription »Nagel 1748«, probably done by more resistant pencil, did not suffer from the 2010 floods. Contrary, it was twice partly destroyed by carless visitors, first in 1991 and secondly in the period 1991 – 2005.


Historic inscriptions in Predjama cave system and high floods in 2010, 2012,
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ebela, Stanka

High floods of September 2010 partly ruined historic inscription made by charcoal »Slovenski gadje 1882« in Predjama cave system. Regarding studied historic records the September 2010 floods were the highest in Predjama at least since 1882. If we thrust the well-documented floods in 1826 they can even be higher than ones in 2010. In 2010 the water reached 489.60 m above the sea level at entrance parts of the cave and about 485 m at Vetrovna Luknja causing that the old inscription from 1882 was under water and partly destroyed. Another old inscription »Nagel 1748«, probably done by more resistant pencil, did not suffer from the 2010 floods. Contrary, it was twice partly destroyed by carless visitors, first in 1991 and secondly in the period 1991 – 2005.


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