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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

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That polluted water is water that has become contaminated by sewage or other contaminants such that the water quality has become severely degraded.?

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Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
See all featured articles
Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
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Your search for radiation (Keyword) returned 38 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 1 to 15 of 38
Techniques Used in Studies with High-Intensity Gamma Radiation, 1956, Brownell Le, Nehemias Jv,

On the algal world of Hungarian caves., 1964, Palik P.
An account of the researches carried out on the algae living in the caves of Hungary is given. The results of the investigations concerning the algal flora of the Baradla, Peace, Abaliget, Plvlgy, Klyuk caves are enumerated. Theories about the possible energy source utilized by these algae living in the complete darkness of caves such as radiation, symbiosis, chemosynthesis or auxothrophy are discussed. The question of the settling of algae into the caves is debated.

Algological studies in the cave of Matyas Mount, Budapest, Hungary., 1966, Hajdu Lajos.
Experiments were designed to test the ability of the aphotic speleoenvironment to support algal growth. The first series contained gelatin cultures of Scenedesmus placed in the cave at different localities in order to establish whether or not the microhabitats have any particular effect on the multiplication of the algae. No differences were found in the cultures after a three month incubation period in the cave, which could be traced to influences of microenvironmental conditions. Chlorella cultures in sterile Knop's solution showed measurable growth in the cave whereas if the cultures were installed into sterilized cave water or were shielded by lead against possible radiation effects, no appreciable growth occurred. The presence or absence of magnetic field did not noticeably influence algal development. The experiments seemed to indicate that the algae tested are able to utilize soma kind of radiation in the complete darkness of the cava since, in the absence of organic material, appreciable amounts of molecular hydrogen or symbiotic activity, with iron bacteria, considerable growth occurred in a simple, strictly inorganic medium, whereas the cave waters seam to be deficient in some kind of inorganic salt required for algal nutrition. An investigation of algae living in the cave led to the determination of ten different taxa, the majority of which were Cyanophytes. Besides them, however, the cave may contain a more diversified algal population.

Algal growth experiments in the Baradla cave at Aggletek (Biospeleologica hungarica XXI)., 1967, Kol Erzsebet
The author kept 108 algal strains (Cyanophyta 53, Chlorophyta 35, Chrysophyta 20), of axenic cultures from the Kol-Algotheca in the Botanical Division of the Hungarian National Sciences Museum in the Baradla Cave, at Aggletek (Hungary) in darkness for 204-420 days under different environmental conditions. The experiments have proven that several algal strains can tolerate well the complete absence of light. Furthermore, that some algal strains show intensive development even under such conditions. These axenic cultures kept in the cave in metal boxes on inorganic medium have shown that the energy source used by these green coloured algae is not some by-product of chemotrophic bacteria, nor is it available organic material, but that it must be some kind of radiation which is able to penetrate even the metal boxes. The ability to adapt to the conditions existing in a cave is not a general characteristic of algal species, but is the capability of individual algal strains within that species. Most probably the algae living in the caves are aerophytes, terrestrial forms, and also some belonging to the edaphon. The cells were found to be smaller in the algae kept in the cave, there was almost no starch deposition in the cells, the pyrenoids were barely discernible, but the development of carotenes was more intense. Whether there are specific cave dwelling algal strains must be determined by future algological research conducted in caves. The composition of the algal floras of the caves may be equally dependent upon the chemical and physical characteristics of the biotope, as is the case in every other biotope.

Algal growth experiments in the Baradla cave at Aggletek (Biospeleologica hungarica XXI)., 1967, Kol Erzsebet
The author kept 108 algal strains (Cyanophyta 53, Chlorophyta 35, Chrysophyta 20), of axenic cultures from the Kol-Algotheca in the Botanical Division of the Hungarian National Sciences Museum in the Baradla Cave, at Aggletek (Hungary) in darkness for 204-420 days under different environmental conditions. The experiments have proven that several algal strains can tolerate well the complete absence of light. Furthermore, that some algal strains show intensive development even under such conditions. These axenic cultures kept in the cave in metal boxes on inorganic medium have shown that the energy source used by these green coloured algae is not some by-product of chemotrophic bacteria, nor is it available organic material, but that it must be some kind of radiation which is able to penetrate even the metal boxes. The ability to adapt to the conditions existing in a cave is not a general characteristic of algal species, but is the capability of individual algal strains within that species. Most probably the algae living in the caves are aerophytes, terrestrial forms, and also some belonging to the edaphon. The cells were found to be smaller in the algae kept in the cave, there was almost no starch deposition in the cells, the pyrenoids were barely discernible, but the development of carotenes was more intense. Whether there are specific cave dwelling algal strains must be determined by future algological research conducted in caves. The composition of the algal floras of the caves may be equally dependent upon the chemical and physical characteristics of the biotope, as is the case in every other biotope.

Alpha Radiation Levels in Two Caves Related to External Air Temperature and Atmospheric Pressure, 1980, Ahlstrand, Gary M.

Alpha-radiation in Karst areas of the Transvaal, South Africa, 1981, Gamble Frances M.

Caesium-137 and Caesium-134 levels in soil in a tea plantation in Turkey after the chernobyl accident, 1989, Yesin T. , Cakir N. ,
Gamma-ray scintillation spectrometry has been used to measure the 137Cs and 134Cs levels and depth distributions in soil of a tea plantation in the Eastern Black Sea region in Turkey. Soil samples were collected in November 1987. The depth distribution was found to be exponential with [alpha] = 0.16 cm-1 and the exposure rate arising therefrom is calculated as 17.46 [mu]R/h over the ground surface

Radon Concentration in Mineral and Thermal Waters of Veneto: An Estimate of Ingestion and Inhalation Doses, 1991, Biancotto R, Lafisca S, Lucchese R, Martinelli C, Predicatori F, Rosa M, Tacconi A, Trotti F,
222Rn gas concentration was measured in thermal waters as well as in mineral springs and in some aqueducts of Veneto. Places for collection of samples where chosen from different hydro-geological areas: thermal, volcanic, resurgence, middle areas, from the alluvial cone of the Adige river and from the karst formations of Montorio. As for mineral waters, measurements were carried out in most of the industrial springs of this region. Large use of these waters among the people of Veneto makes this investigation more important than the 222Rn levels observed would suggest. The analysis of some local aqueducts allowed us to complete studies of the sources and distribution of drinking water in Veneto

Abstract: Eastern Australian Quaternary mammal faunas: their palaeoclimatic and faunistic setting - and their potential IN: Proceedings of the Wombeyan Karst Workshop November 19-22, 1993 , 1993, Ride, W. D. L.

The availability of extensive palaeoclimatic information and the realisation that the cave deposits of eastern Australia extend back into the Tertiary, and the recognition that virtually the whole of the characteristic marsupial fauna are arid adapted, it seems likely that the caves have the potential to illustrate the whole of the spectacular and rapid Australian radiation after the loss of the rainforests.


AN APPARATUS COMPLEX FOR RADON MEASUREMENTS AND CALIBRATIONS, 1995, Nikolaev V. A. , Vorobjev I. B. , Gewirz V. B. , Gromov A. V. , Kozlov A. E. ,
An apparatus complex is developed for measurements of radon volume activity by the tract method. The equipment has been attested at the D.I.Mendeleev All-Russia Research Institute of Metrology, and is intended for mass scale usage, the complex has passive tract radiometers of radon based on cellulose nitrate detectors, a spark counter of the type ''AIST-ZV'', a thermostating etching device, as well as a calibration radon rack ''KARST''

The Hawaiian cave planthoppers (Homoptera: Fulgoroidea: Cixiidae); A model for rapid subterranean speciation?, 1997, Hoch Hannelore
After the successful colonization of a single ancestral species in the Hawaiian Islands, planthoppers of the cixiid genus Oliarus underwent intensive adaptive radiation resulting in 80 described endemic species. Oliarus habitats range from montaneous rain forests to dry coastal biotopes and subterranean environments. At least 7 independant evolutionary lines represented by different species have adapted to lava tubes on Molokai (1), Maui (3), and Hawaii Island (3). Behavioral and morphological studies on one of these evolutionary lines on Hawaii Island, the blind, flight- and pigmentless Oliarus polyphentus have provided evidence for reproductive isolation between allopatric populations which may in fact be separate species. Significant differences in song parameters were observed even between populations from neighbouring lava tubes, although the planthoppers are capable of underground migration through the voids and cracks of the mesocavernous rock system which is extant in young basalt: after a little more than 20 years, lava tubes within the Mauna Ulu 1974 flow had been colonized by O. 'polyphenius" individuals, most probably originating from a near-by forestkipuka. Amazingly, this species complex is found on the youngest of the Hawaiian Islands, with probably less than 0.5 m.y., which suggests rapid speciation processes. Field observations have led to the development of a hypothesis to match underground speciation with the dynamics of vegetational succession on the surface of active volcanoes. Planthopper range partitioning and geographic separation of populations by young lava flows, founder events and small population size may be important factors involved in rapid divergence.

Radon transport phenomena studied in Karst caves-international experiences on radon levels and exposures, 1997, Hakl J. , Hunyadi I. , Csige I. , Geczy G. , Lenart L. , Varhegyi A. ,
The results of radon measurements in caves obtained by using of nuclear track detectors are summarized. Mean radon concentrations are ranging worldwide from 0.1 to 20 kBqm-3 with 2.8 kBqm-3 arithmetic average. From long-term extended radon measurements in caves not only a detailed dosimetric picture can be drawn, but using radon gas as a radioactive tracer, the subsurface and near-to-surface transport processes can be studied, too. It will be shown that long-term radon monitoring by nuclear track detectors, in conjunctions with active detectors which enables detection of fast dynamic changes, offers very important information for naturally-occurring transport processes

An Investigation of the Climate, Carbon Dioxide and Dust in Jenolan Caves, N.S.W., PhD Thesis, 1997, Michie, Neville

Pressure of use of Jenolan Caves as a tourist spectacle has raised concerns about the wellbeing of the caves, so three related physical subjects were reviewed and investigated; the cave microclimate, the carbon dioxide in the cave atmosphere and dustfall in the caves. The microclimate has been shown to be dominated by several physical processes: in the absence of air movement, conduction and radiation dominate; in association with air movement, convective coupled heat and mass transfer tends to dominate energy flows. A new approach using boundary conditions and qualitative characteristics of transient fronts enables accurate measurement and analysis of energy, heat and mass transfer. This technique avoids the dimensionless number and transfer coefficient methods and is not geometrically sensitive. Conditions in caves are also determined by the capillary processes of water in cave walls. Air movement in caves depends on surface weather conditions and special problems of surface weather observation arise. A series of experiments were undertaken to evaluate the cave and surface processes. The physical processes that collect, transport and release dust were measured and described. Dust in the caves was shown to be carried from the surface, mainly by visitors. The concept of the Personal Dust Ooud is developed and experimental measurements and analysis show that this process is a major threat to the caves. New techniques of measurement are described. An accurate physiological model has been developed which predicts most of the carbon dioxide measured in Jenolan Caves, derived mainly from visitors on the cave tours. This model, developed from previously published human physiological information also predicts the production of heat and water vapour by cave tourists. The effects of carbon dioxide on cave conditions has been investigated. Details of a two year program of measurements in the caves are given. The generalised approach and methods are applicable to other caves, mines and buildings.


Radiation doses due to radon and progeny in the Postojna Cave, 1998, Vaupotič, Janja, Dujmovič, Petra, Kobal Ivan

In 1996 in the Postojna Cave etched-track detectors were exposed every month at five locations along the route of the guided tourist tour to measure average radon concentrations, and in every season radon, its progeny and equilibrium factor were continuously monitored for 5-10 days. The evaluation of the data revealed a negligible radiation dose for a visitor and yearly doses of up to 15 mSv for workers in the cave (guides, train drivers, maintenance workers, and kiosk workers). These high doses require the restriction of time spent by a worker in the cave and regular radon monitoring in the cave.


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