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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That internal drainage is drainage in a closed basin and not reaching the sea [16]. it is common in maturely karsted terranes where surface water bodies are relatively nonexistent.?

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Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
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Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
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Your search for rare-earth-elements (Keyword) returned 6 results for the whole karstbase:
CONTRIBUTION TO THE GEOCHEMISTRY OF THE RARE-EARTH ELEMENTS IN THE KARST-BAUXITE DEPOSITS OF YUGOSLAVIA AND GREECE, 1991, Maksimovic Z. , Panto G. ,
Distribution of the rare earth elements (REE, including La-Lu, Y) along vertical profiles is presented for four well-studied karst-bauxite deposits from Yugoslavia and Greece. For one deposit from Jamaica, La and Y contents are given. All deposits display a downward enrichment of the REE culminating at the base, where authigenic REE minerals have been formed. This REE pattern is characteristic for karst-bauxites formed in situ through the bauxitization of argillaceous material collected in karstic depressions. In this way, the highest enrichment of the REE in the sedimentary cycle has been achieved. Both light REE (LREE) and heavy REE (HREE) were 'mobile' during the bauxitization process and were concentrated at the alkaline barrier of the carbonate footwall. In four out of five studied deposits, the ratios SIGMA-LREE/SIGMA-HREE and La/Y in bauxites decrease downwards, showing an enrichment of the HREE relative to LREE. A further fractionation of the REE took place in the formation of authigenic REE minerals, which exhibit a very high enrichment of LREE relative to HREE. In spite of this, these minerals and bauxites in four studied deposits have a general similarity of the REE distribution patterns, which indicate a close genetic relationship

Rare earth element anomalies in crandallite group minerals from the Schugorsk bauxite deposit, Timan, Russia, 2000, Mordberg Leonid E. , Stanley Chris J. , Germann Klaus,
Crandallite group minerals from the Devonian bauxite deposit of Schugorsk, Timan, Russia, were studied by electron microprobe. Special attention was given to the distribution of the rare earth elements (REE). Of the A-site cations, essential are (oxides in wt.%) Ca (0.2 - 7.9), Sr (0.4 - 5.9), Ba (0.1 - 5.1), Pb (0.01 - 8.4), Y (to 2.4) and REE (to 21.6). Bi (A-site), Ga (B-site) and V (X-site) occur in trace amounts. Two main types of REE distribution in crandallite group minerals are distinguished. The first shows a clear negative Ce anomaly and partially depleted Pr; crandallite group minerals of this type formed under strong oxidising conditions (positive Eh and neutral to slightly alkaline pH values) and lost Ce due to its oxidation to Ce4 and accumulation in other minerals such as anatase. The second type displays a positive Sm anomaly and a negative Pr anomaly. Individual crandallite group crystals belonging to this type, I - 40 {micro}m in size, show a clear compositional zoning: the core is enriched in Ca, while the rim is enriched in S, Sr, Pb and the REE. This crandallite formed under reducing conditions related to stripping of Fe from the weathering profile. The presence of Sm2 in the crandallite lattice is proposed, and the role of organic material in its reduction is discussed. A Pr anomaly was inherited from the parent rock. A comparison of REE distribution in crandallite group minerals from different weathering profiles suggests that these minerals can be used to distinguish conditions of weathering

Trace element (Th, U, Pb, REE) behaviour in a cryptokarstic halloysite and kaolinite deposit from Southern Belgium: importance of 'accessory' mineral formation for radioactive pollutant trapping, 2002, De Putter T, Andre L, Bernard A, Dupuis C, Jedwab J, Nicaise D, Perruchot A,
Hectometer wide cryptokarsts in Paleozoic limestone from Southern Belgium have been studied, to determine to what extent U, Th, Ph and rare earth elements (REE) have been mobilized in the karst sedimentary filling, during a Miocene weathering event. The weathering process resulted in the massive halloysite/kaolinite formation at the karst wall. As with most fossil systems, data on weathering fluid chemistry are lacking, hence it is difficult to quantify relevant parameters such as pH, Eh, and to address solution chemistry. However, on the basis of both field studies of more recent systems, and of geochemical modeling, it is proposed that moderately acid fluids percolated through a multi-layer sedimentary filling, in near-surface conditions and in a temperate/warm climate. Special attention is paid to the trace element immobilization/trapping processes, in newly crystallized REE phosphates, at the karst wall. Analytical methods used include major/trace element geochemistry (emission ICP, ICP-MS) and mineralogy (XRD, SEM, TEM, microprobe). The results suggest that both the sandy sediments that are in contact with the karst carbonate wall, and the carbonate wall itself acted as a kind of geochemical 'barrier'. Mineralization cells settled there, at the decimeter to meter scale. This results in sequential trace element (Pb, Th, REE, U) trapping, according to the affinity of these elements for the aqueous solution. At the end of the sequence, minute U-rich automorphic (Ce, Nd) monazite crystals (from 3 nm upwards) formed on kaolinite flakes. Though the analogy between the studied cryptokarst and planned surface-based repositories for low-level radioactive waste (LLW) in argillaceous context is far from complete, the results outlined here are relevant because they show that even in natural-i.e. intrinsically uncontrolled and unmonitored-systems, 'pollutant' radionuclide (U, Th, REE, Pb) migration paths are often limited in space. Various processes converge towards trapping of these elements, that are present in the radioactive waste. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved

Heterogeneity of parent rocks and its constraints on geochemical criteria in weathering crusts of carbonate rocks, 2004, Wang S. J. , Feng Z. G. ,
Owing to the low contents of their acid-insoluble components, carbonate rocks tend to decrease sharply in volume in association with the formation of weathering crust. The formation of a 1 m-thick weathering crust would usually consume more than ten meters to several tens of meters of thickness of parent rocks. The knowledge of how to identify the homogeneity of parent rocks is essential to understand the formation mechanism of weathering crust in karst regions. especially that of thick-layered red weathering crust. In this work the grain-size analyses have demonstrated that the three profiles studied are the residual weathering crust of carbonate rocks and further showed that there objectively exists the, heterogeneity of parent rocks in the three studied weathering crusts. The heterogeneity of parent rocks can also be. reflected in geochemical parameters of major elements, just as the characteristics of frequency plot of pain-size distribution. Conservative trace element ratios Zr/Hf and Nb/Ta are proven to be unsuitable for tracing the heterogeneity of parent rocks of weathering crust, but its geochemical mechanism is unclear. The authors strongly suggest in this paper that the identification of the homogeneity of parent rocks of weathering crust in karst regions is of prime necessity

Geochemistry of red residua underlying dolomites in karst terrains of Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau II. The mobility of rare earth elements during weathering, 2004, Ji H. B. , Wang S. J. , Ouyang Z. Y. , Zhang S. , Sun C. X. , Liu X. M. , Zhou D. Q. ,
The aim of this study is to characterize the evolution of the rare earth elements (REE) in the Pingba red residua on karst terrain of Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau. The in-situ weathering and the two-stage development of the profile had been inferred from REE criterions. The REE were significantly fractionated, and Ce was less mobilized and separated from the other REEs at the highly enriched top of the profile. This is consistent with the increase of oxidation degree in the regolith. And it is also suggested that the wet/dry climate change during chemical weathering caused Ce alternative change between enrichment and invariance in the upper regolith. Chondrite-normalized REE distribution patterns for samples from dolomites and the lower regolith are characteristic of MREE enrichment and remarkable negative Ce-anomalies patterns (similar to the convex-up REE patterns). The following processes are interpreted for the patterns in this study: (1) the accumulation of MRRE-rich minerals in dolomite dissolution, (2) water-rock interaction in the weathering front, and (3) more leaching MREE from the upper part of the profile. The latter two explanations are considered as the dominant process for the formation of the REE patterns. Samples from the soil horizon exhibit typical REE distribution patterns of the upper crust, i.e., La-N/Yb-N = 10 and Eu/Eu* = 0.65. All data indicate that the leaching process is very important for pedogenesis in this region. The experiments demonstrating that abnormal enrichment of REE at the upper regolith-bedrock interface is caused by a combination of volume change, accumulation of REE-bearing minerals, leaching of REE from the upper regolith, and water-rock interaction during rock-soil alteration processes. Our results support the conclusion that the weathering profile represents a large, continental elemental storage reservoir, whereas REE enrichment occurs under favorable conditions in terms of stable tectonics, low erosion and rapid weathering over sufficiently long time. (C) 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved

REE3 and Mn2 activated cathodoluminescence in lateglacial and Holocene stalagmites of central Europe: evidence for climatic processes?, 2004, Richter Detlev K. , Gotte Thomas, Niggemann Stefan, Wurth Georg,
Combined visual cathodoluminescence (CL) and spectral analyses of CL reveals periodic enrichments of rare earth elements (REE3) and manganese (Mn2) within the laminations of eight calcitic lateglacial to postglacial stalagmites. In the annual layers, the enrichment of trace elements can be correlated with the autumn/winter laminae, which are strongly pigmented and rich in organic carbon. During the Holocene, they occur especially in the Atlantic stage and in subrecent/recent times. The enrichment of REE3 and Mn reflects times of more intense weathering, which presumably prevailed during the Atlantic warm and humid climate. In subrecent/recent times, especially the last 100 years, these enrichments may have been at least partially anthropogenically induced

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