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Community news

Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That hydrometric station is a station at which there usually are a number of hydrometric measurements being performed [16].?

Checkout all 2699 terms in the KarstBase Glossary of Karst and Cave Terms


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Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
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Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
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Your search for serbia (Keyword) returned 24 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 1 to 15 of 24
A new cavernicolous species of the Pseudoscorpion Genus Roncus L. Koch, 1873 (Neobisiidae, Pseudoscorpiones) from the Balkan peninsula., 1973,
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Curcic Bozidar P. M.
Roncus (Parablothrus) pljakici, a new species of cave living pseudoscorpions, is described from the cave 'Pecina u selu Vrelo' on Mt. Stara Planina, East Serbia. The problem of its taxonomic position in the subgenus is discussed. The new species is the first representative of Parablothrus to be found in Serbia. It seems possible that R. (P..) pljakici represents an endemic species, specialized for a cavernicolous way of living. The analogies of this and other species of the subgenus point to some similar phenomena which occur in other genera of Balkan false scorpions (Curcic 1972). In all these cases, a close relationship among the species inhabiting East Serbia, Macedonia and Herzegovina was noticed. It is probable, therefore, that the three regions represent the autochthonous areas of the original populations of the analysed groups of species, out of which new species came into existence.

XLIX contribution to the knowledge of the Amphipoda. On three Niphargus species (Fam. Gammaridae) from the Balkans., 1973,
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Karaman Gordan
Three Niphargus species from the Balkans are studied. Niphargus adbiptus, n. sp. is described from Ravanica cave in Serbia. Niphargus stygius ravanicanus S. Kar. 1943 from the same cave (Ravanica) is redescribed. N. valachicus Dobr. Man. 1933, is newly recorded from Bulgaria (Devnja).

A new cavernicolous species of the Pseudoscorpion Genus Roncus L. Koch, 1873 (Neobisiidae, Pseudoscorpiones) from the Balkan peninsula., 1973,
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Curcic Bozidar P. M.
Roncus (Parablothrus) pljakici, a new species of cave living pseudoscorpions, is described from the cave 'Pecina u selu Vrelo' on Mt. Stara Planina, East Serbia. The problem of its taxonomic position in the subgenus is discussed. The new species is the first representative of Parablothrus to be found in Serbia. It seems possible that R. (P..) pljakici represents an endemic species, specialized for a cavernicolous way of living. The analogies of this and other species of the subgenus point to some similar phenomena which occur in other genera of Balkan false scorpions (Curcic 1972). In all these cases, a close relationship among the species inhabiting East Serbia, Macedonia and Herzegovina was noticed. It is probable, therefore, that the three regions represent the autochthonous areas of the original populations of the analysed groups of species, out of which new species came into existence.

XLIX contribution to the knowledge of the Amphipoda. On three Niphargus species (Fam. Gammaridae) from the Balkans., 1973,
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Karaman Gordan
Three Niphargus species from the Balkans are studied. Niphargus adbiptus, n. sp. is described from Ravanica cave in Serbia. Niphargus stygius ravanicanus S. Kar. 1943 from the same cave (Ravanica) is redescribed. N. valachicus Dobr. Man. 1933, is newly recorded from Bulgaria (Devnja).

Cavernicolous Pseudoscorpions from Macedonia., 1974,
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Curcic Bozidar P. M.
A cavernicolous pseudoscorpion of the genus Neobisium Chamberlin 1930 is living in Kalina Dupka cave in the Bistra Highland of western Macedonia. This pseudoscorpion clearly differs from the other members of the subgenus Blothrus Schiodte 1849, and belongs to the new species N. (B.) princeps, the principal features of which are described in this study. The nearest relatives of this species are N. (B.} spelaeum (Schiodte) 1849, and N. (B.) stygium Beier 1931, both from Slovenian and Croatian caves. From chelal dentition N. (B.) princeps may be considered as the most primitive element of the princeps-stygium-spelaeum series. This new species is in a subterranean mode of life of extreme specialization. Relating to biogeography, it belongs to the endemic pseudoscorpion fauna in Macedonia. After finding pseudoscorpions in Zmejovica cave (Porece mountainous area), we confirmed the presence of the species N. (E.) karamani (Hadli) 1929 in west Macedonia. Morphologic analysis of male specimens from that new locality enabled us to complete description of this species previously based on a single female specimen. The comparison of Hadzis species with N. (E.) remyi Beier 1939 from west Serbian caves, with N. (E.) brevipes (Frivaldsky) 1866 and N. (E.) leruthi Beier 1931 from Turda and Bihar caves in southern Carpathians, leads to the conclusion that these pseudoscorpions belong to a closely related species group. Judging by actual distribution of these species, the possibility exists that a wide area in the ancient Balkanic dry land had been populated by the initial form of that series. As for its preferences for habitat N. (E.) karamani is an exclusive inhabitant of subterranean environment. Relating to biogeography, it may be considered as a relic of Mediterranean Tertiary fauna and its endemic differentiation as developed under the conditions of the evolution of karst relief in southern countries of the Balkan Peninsula. In conclusion, from actual knowledge and the results of this study caves in Macedonia are inhabited by three endemic species of pseudoscorpions of genus Neobisium (Blothrus), namely: N.(B.) ohridanum Hadzi 1940,N. (B.) karamani (Hadzi) 1929, and N. (B.) princeps Curcic 1974. Judging by known blothroid pseudoscorpions, it is possible Macedonia represents one of the centres of origin and genesis for autochthonous and residual fauna of the Tertiary age.

Les recoupements karstiques de mandres encaisss, 1997,
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Nicod, Jean
Three types of cut-off can be observed: 1) by natural bridge or short tunnel: Pont d'Arc type self-piracy (Ardeche, France) ; 2) by caves system or hydrogeological network, Lesse type (Ardenne, Belgium) ; 3) subaerial in karstic environment, the case of Vis in Navacelles (Herault, France). The main processes are debated: anteriority or/and coexistence of the underground drainage, impact of neotectonics, of the load and the screes and of the water chemistry changes.

An example of identifying karst groundwater flow, 1998,
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Stevanovic Z. , Dragisic V. ,
Hydrogeological investigations for the purpose of regulating the karst aquifer were carried out in the mountain massif of Kucaj in the Carpatho-Balkan range of eastern Serbia. Different geo-physical methods were applied in order to identify the position of karstified zones with active circulation of karst underground streams. Especially good results were obtained by using the spontaneous potential method for the exploration and construction of boreholes and wells. In the valleys of Crni Timok and Radovanska reka the measurements have been carried out upstream along the whole width of the alluvium to the limestone periphery. A number of positive and negative anomalies have been recorded. In the centres of positive anomalies several boreholes were located: HG-19 (centre of anomaly 30 mV, total length of the biggest cavern is 9 m); HG-1 ( mV, cavern of 2m); HG-15 (max, ? mV, effective cavernousness is 17%)

Alpine (?) karst of Eastern Serbia, 1999,
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Zlokolicamandić, Milena, Ć, Alić, Ljubojević, Jelena

Eastern Serbia abounds in various karst features which could be classified into different traditionally determined types (tropical, alpine...), although it does not have either climatic or elevation parameters characteristic for those types. After introducing the basic postulates of the pure karst model, as well as the theories of inception and development, the fact which becomes evident is that, for example, Alpine and Dinaric karst differ only in dimensions and frequency of features, but not in the basic morphological characteristics. Eastern Serbia is an area which was explored more than a hundred of years ago (the area of classical explorations done by Jovan Cviji }). On the basis of the knowledge of that time, the karst of Eastern Serbia was determined as an example of the Jura type. In recent explorations, however, many entirely new facts have been established regarding sorts, dimensions, frequency and development factors of karst features. That is to say that the main difference lies in the extent of exploration and level of knowledge of an area, or, in other words, whether the karst is explored or unexplored.


Caves below collapse dolines - case study of Tisova Jama (Eastern Serbia), 2000,
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Ć, Alić, Ljubojević, Jelena, Ljubojević, Vladimir

The cave Tisova Jama (-235 m) is located on Beljanica Mountain (Carpatho-Balkanides, Eastern Serbia). Its entrance pit is situated at the bottom of a great collapse doline (dimensions 180 ¥ 160 m), below which there is a chamber with the greatest surface (11 374 m2) and volume (approx. 170 000 m3) so far known among Serbian caves. Such dimensions can be explained by the presence of a strong underground stream in the unreachable part of the cave. Removal of the material disrupts the stability of the rock below the doline, which leads to breakdown and deepening of the doline.


Natural bridges on the Vratna River (Eastern Serbia) as the last remnants of a former cave, 2000,
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Ć, Alić, Ljubojević, Jelena

The Vratna River is a right-side tributary of the Danube and its drainage area is situated at the western rim of the Dacian Basin. Along its 22 km long course, the Vratna flows through a 3,5 km long gorge cut in Tithonian limestones. Across the gorge there are three natural bridges, which shelter, in total 94 metres of the river course. There is a strong assumption that two of the natural bridges are the only remaining parts of roof of a former cave. Due to the process of surface denudation and to the disruption of stability, the cave roof almost completely collapsed, with the exception of these two sections. Several short caves and rock shelters exist in the gorge, and the longest cave (305 m) is situated next to the biggest of the three natural bridges.


On the genetic conditions of black manganese deposits from two caves of Eastern Serbia., 2001,
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Ljubojevic V. , Pafevski A. , Calicljubojevic J.
Portions of cave passages often have a black colour due to manganese deposits that occur as coatings on cave walls and ceilings, on clastic sediments, as well as on speleothems. On samples from the cave Buronov Ponor chemical analysis, infrared spectroscopy. X-ray diffraction and DTA analysis confirmed the presence of birnessite. In cave Cerjanska Pecina, the presence of manganese compounds in the black coating has been confirmed by chemical tests. In both caves it has been noted that cave passages with black coating have a distinct morphology. They are highly weathered showing an abundance of sharp prolusions, potholes in the streambed and scallops. The paper studies these occurrences and the possible link between the manganese deposition, hydrology and morphology of the passages and petrologic composition. Although this link was not identified, some interesting questions regarding manganese deposition arose. It remains unclear why manganese deposition is limited only to a certain part of cave Cerjanska Pecina, and what caused the cyclicity in manganese deposition in the cave Buronov ponor. manganese deposits, chemical analysis, speleomorphology

Karst features of narrow limestone belts - case study of the ridge Dževrinska Greda, Eastern Serbia, 2001,
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Ć, Alić, Ljubojević, Jelena

The paper presents several most interesting features of the ridge Dževrinska Greda (Carpatho-Balkanides, Eastern Serbia). Being 20 km long and, on average, 100-300 m wide, this narrow limestone belt is a typical polygon for contact karst and fluviokarst research. Beside examples of features such as through cave, through gorge, dry and blind valleys, there is also a discussion on types of contact (tectonic and sedimentary), impact of fluvial factors, directions of groundwater flow, etc.


Differences in the C-14 age, delta C-13 and delta O-18 of Holocene tufa and speleothem in the Dinaric Karst, 2003,
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Horvatincic N. , Bronic I. K. , Obelic B. ,
We studied Holocene speleothems and tufa samples collected in numerous caves and rivers in the Dinaric Karst of Croatia, Slovenia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, as well as Serbia and Montenegro. Differences in the formation process of tufa and speleothems are discussed in the context of their isotopic composition (C-14, C-13 and O-18), as well as the chemistry of surface water (rivers, lakes) and drip water (in caves). The physical and chemical parameters monitored in the surface water (tufa precipitation) and drip water (speleothem precipitation) show that more stable conditions accompany speleothem rather than tufa formation. This is particularly obvious in the water temperature variations (2-22degreesC in surface water and 7-12degreesC in drip water) and in saturation index variation (3-11 in surface water and 1-6 in drip water). The range of C-14 ages recorded by Holocene speleothems (similar to 12 000 yr) is wider by several thousands years than that of Holocene tufa samples (similar to 6000 yr). delta(13)C values for tufa samples range from -12parts per thousand to -6parts per thousand and for speleothem samples from -12parts per thousand to ?? per thousand reflecting higher soil carbon and/or vegetation impact on the process of tufa than on speleothem formation. The differences in delta(18)O values of tufa and speleothem samples from different areas reflect different temperature conditions and differing isotopic composition in the water. The study shows that speleothems from the Dinaric Karst can be used as global palaeoclimatic records, whereas tufa records changes in the local palaeoenvironment. (C) 2003 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved

Differences in the 14C age, [delta]13C and [delta]18O of Holocene tufa and speleothem in the Dinaric Karst, 2003,
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Horvatincic Nada, Krajcar Bronic Ines, Obelic Bogomil,
We studied Holocene speleothems and tufa samples collected in numerous caves and rivers in the Dinaric Karst of Croatia, Slovenia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, as well as Serbia and Montenegro. Differences in the formation process of tufa and speleothems are discussed in the context of their isotopic composition (14C, 13C and 18O), as well as the chemistry of surface water (rivers, lakes) and drip water (in caves). The physical and chemical parameters monitored in the surface water (tufa precipitation) and drip water (speleothem precipitation) show that more stable conditions accompany speleothem rather than tufa formation. This is particularly obvious in the water temperature variations (2-22[deg]C in surface water and 7-12[deg]C in drip water) and in saturation index variation (3-11 in surface water and 1-6 in drip water). The range of 14C ages recorded by Holocene speleothems (~12 000 yr) is wider by several thousands years than that of Holocene tufa samples (~6000 yr). [delta]13C values for tufa samples range from -12[per mille sign] to -6[per mille sign] and for speleothem samples from -12[per mille sign] to [per mille sign] reflecting higher soil carbon and/or vegetation impact on the process of tufa than on speleothem formation. The differences in [delta]18O values of tufa and speleothem samples from different areas reflect different temperature conditions and differing isotopic composition in the water. The study shows that speleothems from the Dinaric Karst can be used as global palaeoclimatic records, whereas tufa records changes in the local palaeoenvironment

Contribution of Ivan Gams to the development of slovene karst terminology, 2003,
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Kunaver, Jurij

The stage of the scientific terminology is by all means one of the indicators of the development of the scientific branch, to which it belongs. Therefore the publishing of the Slovene karst terminology in 1973 was an important event for further development of Slovene karstology. Still more, the efforts for a comparative national karst terminologies of former common state Yugoslavia were successfully achieved in publishing the Serbian and Croatian karst terminology also, a year later. In fact, the former Association of the geographical societies of Yugoslavia decided to give full support to its subcommission in preparing the project Karst terminology of the Yugoslave nations and to a joint Yugoslave symposium on Karst terminology, held in Ljubljana from 22-23th October 1971, both guided and organised by prof. Ivan Gams, who was also the original initiator of this idea. All this efforts were newertheless combined and connected with the international work of that time to find most appropriate terms and definitions for the karst phenomena and to make them comparable in terms of national terminologies. Ivan Gams was therefore not only a most important promoter of the Slovene karst terminology and one of the leading persons of the scientific karstology in the time concerned but was due to his global ideas also one of the central persons in the international karstology.


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