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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

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That calibration is the experimental evaluation of the scale readings of an instrument against an absolute standard [16].?

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Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
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Your search for shanxi (Keyword) returned 7 results for the whole karstbase:
Gypsum karst in China., 1996, Cooper Anthony, Yaoru Lu
The Peoples Republic of China has the largest gypsum resources in the world and a long history of their exploitation. The gypsum deposits range in age from Pre-Cambrian to Quaternary and their genesis includes marine, lacustrine, thermal (volcanic and metasomatic), metamorphic and secondary deposits. The gypsum is commonly associated with other soluble rocks such as carbonates and salt. These geological conditions, regional climate differences and tectonic setting strongly influence the karstification process resulting in several karst types in China. Well developed gypsum palaeokarst and some modem gypsum karst is present in the Fengfeng Formation (Ordovician) gypsum of the Shanxi and Hebei Provinces. Collapse columns filled with breccia emanate upwards from this karst and affect the overlying coalfields causing difficult and hazardous mining conditions. Gypsum karst is also recorded in the middle Cambrian strata of Guizhou Province and the Triassic strata of Guizhou and Sichuan Provinces. Gypsum-salt lake karst has developed in the Pleistocene to Recent enclosed basin deposits within the Qinghai-Xizang (Tibet) Plateau.

GYPSUM KARST GEOHAZARDS IN CHINA, 1997, Yaoru Lu, Cooper A. H.

China has the worlds largest proven gypsum (CaSO4.2H2O) resources in the world. The gypsum ranges from pre-Cambrian to Quaternary in age and occurs in varied geological environments. The rapid dissolution rate of gypsum means that gypsum karst development can be very fast, resulting in progressively worsening geohazards. This paper reviews the characteristics of the gypsum deposits and their associated geohazards in China.Three kinds of gypsum karst are discussed. These include karst in massive thick beds of gypsum, karst in thin-bedded gypsum and compound karst in gypsum and carbonate rocks. Some site-specific problems are also examined. In the Shanxi coalfield, breccia pipes, or collapse columns, caused by the dissolution of Ordovician gypsum, penetrate the overlying Carboniferous and Permian coal-bearing sequences resulting in difficult coal mining conditions. In Guizhou Province re-activated gypsum karst is associated with leakage of water through the gypsum from a reservoir. Remedial engineering works have been carried out, but leakage still occurs. Groundwater abstraction from gypsiferous sequences is also problematical. It can yield sulphate-polluted water and cause subsidence problems both through gypsum dissolution and groundwater drawdown.


Variation of karst spring discharge in the recent five decades as an indicator of global climate change: A case study at Shanxi, northern China, 2005, Guo Q. H. , Wang Y. X. , Ma T. , Li L. X. ,
Karst in Shanxi Province is representative of that in northern China, and karst water systems discharge in the form of springs that are among the most important sources for local water supply. Since the 1950s, attenuation has been the major trend of discharge variation of most karst springs at Shanxi. Based on the case study of 7 karst springs including Niangziguan, Xin'an, Guozhuang, Shentou, Jinci, Lancun, and Hongshan springs, the discharge variation process of karst springs was divided into natural fluctuation phase and anthropogenic impact phase. Discharge attenuation of the 7 karst springs was controlled mainly by climate and human activities, with their contributions being respectively about 60% and 40%. According to the difference of the effect of climate and human activities for each spring, attenuation modes of spring discharge fall into three types: natural process dominated attenuation type, exploitation induced process dominated attenuation type, and mixed attenuation type. The total restored discharge variation of 7 karst springs matched well with the global air temperature change in 1956-2000, clearly indicating the trend of global warming and aridity in the last several decades, and the analysis of discharge variation processes of karst springs can be used as a new tool for global change studies

Management of karst water resources in mining area: dewatering in mines and demand for water supply in the Dongshan Mine of Taiyuan, Shanxi Province, North China, 2006, Wu Qiang, Zhou Wanfang, Li Duo, Di Zhiqiang, Miao Ying,

A gray system model for studying the response to climatic change: The Liulin karst springs, China, 2006, Hao Yonghong, Yeh Tian Chyi, Gao Zongqiang, Wang Yanrong, Zhao Ying,
SummaryGray system theory uses a black-gray-white color spectrum to describe a complex system whose characteristics are only partially known or known with uncertainty. In this study, we use gray system theory to investigate the relation between precipitation and spring flows in a karst region in China. The gray incidence analysis was applied to the Liulin Springs, Shanxi Province, China to analyze the time-lag between spring flow and precipitation. The results showed that the average groundwater residence time at Liulin Spings is about 4 years. The gray system GM(1,2) model was subsequently used as a predictive tool for spring discharge. It was found that model predictions are in agreement with observed data. This study also shows that the discharge of the Liulin Springs primarily responds to climate change; anthropogenic impacts are secondary. The continuous decline of water level in the karst aquifer and waning of spring discharges in semi-arid regions of China might be largely a response of the groundwater system to the decline in regional precipitation over the past two decades

Strontium isotope characterization and major ion geochemistry of karst water flow, Shentou, northern China, 2006, Wang Yanxin, Guo Qinghai, Su Chunli, Ma Teng,
SummaryKarst water is the most important source of water supply for Shanxi province, northern China. The Shentou springs are representative of the 19 major karst springs at Shanxi. The total area of the Shentou karst water system is 5316 km2, the Middle Ordovician limestone being its major karst aquifer. In this study, data about the strontium isotope geochemistry and major ion hydrochemistry were analyzed to understand the flow patterns and hydrogeochemical processes of karst water at Shentou. The contour map of TDS value of karst water and that of Sr concentration are similar, showing the general tendency of increase from the northern, western and southern boundary to the discharge area. The average values of 87Sr/86Sr ratios of karst water decrease from recharge (0.7107) to discharge area (0.7102), evolving towards those of limestone hostrocks. Comparison of 87Sr/86Sr ratios with Sr content suggests that isotopic compositions of some karst water samples from the recharge and flow through area should be the result of interaction between aquifer limestone matrix and strontium-poor recharge waters of meteoric origin. However, for samples from the discharge area that are plotted above the mixing line, mixing with groundwater in the Quaternary aquifers with high 87Sr/86Sr ratios may be another factor controlling Sr isotope chemistry. Two major groundwater flow paths were discerned from hydrogeological and geochemical data. Along both flow paths, the 87Sr/86Sr ratios of karst water show a general tendency of decrease. Geochemical modeling of the major ion geochemistry of karst water using PHREEQC also indicates that the chemistry of springs should be affected by the incorporation of groundwater in Quaternary aquifer. The effect of the mixing action on the spring hydrochemistry in flow path 1 is more remarkable than that in flow path 2, according to different mixing ratios in both paths (30% in flow path 1 and 5% in flow path 2)

PALEOKARST CRUST OF ORDOVICIAN LIMESTONE AND ITS CAPABILITY IN RESISTING WATER INRUSHES IN COAL MINES OF NORTH CHINA, 2013, Mou L. , Li G.

With increase in mining depth of the Carboniferous-Permian coal seams in North China, it is particularly important to study the heterogeneity of karst development in the underlying Middle Ordovician limestone and determine any impermeable strata that may prevent the pressurized karst water from bursting into coal mines. Detailed analysis of the exploratory borehole data suggests presence of a paleokarst crust at the top of Middle Ordovician Fengfeng Formation. Because of its mechanical strength and low permeability to water, the paleokarst crust can function as an additional water-resisting layer. This paper takes Sihe Mine of Shanxi Province as an example to study the geotechnical and hydrogeological characteristics of the paleokarst crust. Incorporation of this additional hydrological barrier led to more minable coal seams in the coalmine.


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