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Enviroscan Ukrainian Institute of Speleology and Karstology


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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That rise pit is an artesian spring rising up through alluvium accumulated in an earlier surface valley phase and often fringed, except on the outlet side, by a minor levee deposited as the force of the vertical discharge dissipates at the surface [19].?

Checkout all 2699 terms in the KarstBase Glossary of Karst and Cave Terms


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Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
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Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
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Your search for shrimp (Keyword) returned 13 results for the whole karstbase:
Subterranean Crustacea Decapoda Macrura collected by Mr. L. Botosaneanu during the 1973 Cuban-Romanian biospeleological expedition to Cuba., 1974,
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Holthuis Lipke B.
During the 1973 Cuban Romanian Biospeleological Expedition to Cuba 5 species of cavernicolous Decapod Crustacea were collected: the Palaemonidae Troglocubanus gibarensis Chace, T. eigenmanni (Hay) and Macrobrachium faustinum lucifugum new subspecies. The second of these species now is reported for the first time from Isla de Pinos. The third form proved to be a new subspecies of Macrobrachium faustinum (De Saussure), a freshwater shrimp which is widely distributed in the West Indies. The new subspecies is not only known from Cuba, but also material from Jamaica, Curacao and Bonaire is reported. A new locality is reported for Barbouria cubensis (Von Martens). The Astacid Procambarus niveus Hobbs & Villalobos was collected near its type locality.

On the Subterranean Syncarids of Tasmania, 1977,
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Lake P. S. , Coleman D. J.

The current knowledge on the occurrence of syncarid crustaceans in underground habitats in Tasmania is reviewed. The "mountain shrimp" Anaspides tasmaniae has been recorded on at least five occasions from caves. Syncarid shrimps in the genera Allenaspides, Koonunga and Nicraspides have been collected from crayfish burrows. The term Pholeteros is coined to define the community of organisms dwelling in crayfish burrows. Syncarids in the genera Koonunga and Atopobathynella have been collected in the bed of streams (Hyporheos). The collection of the new species of syncarid from an underground spring at Devonport is reported.


Secondary sympatric occurrence of sibling species of subterranean shrimps in the Karst., 1990,
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Sbordoni Marina Cobolli, Matthaeis Elvira De, La Rosa Giuseppe, Mattoccia Marco, Sbordoni Valerio
Allozyme variation at 32 gene loci was studied in cave dwelling shrimps of the genus Troglocaris (fam. Atyidae). Populations were collected from several caves and wells belonging to different drainage systems in the Karst areas of NE Italy. Results suggest the existence of two sympatric, genetically distinct, biological species (provisionally indicated as species A and B in the T. anophthalmus complex) in the samples collected at the Duino Well, Sagrado and Comarie caves (Nei's D = 0.209). Samples from Gradisca and Aurisina are represented by only one (A) or the other (B) of the two species, respectively. Two remaining eastern populations from the Rosandra Valley also proved to be monospecific. However, they posses fixed alternative alleles markedly different from both species A and B suggesting that these two populations may belong to a third sibling species, C (A vs. C, D=0.346; B vs. C, D=0.146). These data are discussed in relation to allopatric speciation of cave dwelling shrimp species, flooding periods of subterranean waters and the role of cave organisms as markers of this process.

The second occurrence of the troglobic shrimp Macrobrachium microps Holthuis (Crustacea, Decapoda, Palaemonidae), in Samoa, 1993,
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Bruce Alexander J. , Iliffe Thomas M.
A single example of Macrobrachium from an anchialine lava tube un Upolu, Samoa, is described and illustrated. The specimen is referred to M. microps Holthuis, 1978, but shows some differences that may be of specific value, which are discussed. The troglobic species of Macrobrachium are reviewed.

Crustacea: Decapoda (Shrimps, Crayfish, Crabs), 2004,
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Hobbs Iii H. H.

Magmatic and Hydrothermal Chronology of the Giant Rio Blanco Porphyry Copper Deposit, Central Chile: Implications of an Integrated U-Pb and 40Ar/39Ar Database, 2005,
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Deckart K, Clark Ah, Celso Aa, Ricardo Vr, Bertens An, Mortensen Jk, Fanning M,
The history of hypabyssal intrusion and hydrothermal activity in the northeastern and central parts of the be-hemothian (sensu Clark, 1993) Rio Blanco-Los Bronces porphyry copper-molybdenum deposit is clarified on the basis of integrated U-Pb and 40Ar/39Ar geochronology. Isotope dilution thermal ion mass spectrometry (ID-TIMS) U-Pb dates for zircon separates and ID-TIMS and sensitive high resolution ion microprobe (SHRIMP) dates for single zircon grains in pre-, syn- and late-mineralization volcanic and intrusive host rocks in the Rio Blanco, Don Luis, and Sur-Sur mining sectors provide a temporal framework for interpretation of incremental-heating and spot-fusion 40Ar/39Ar dates for, respectively, magmatic biotite and hydrothermal biotite, muscovite, and orthoclase. The ore deposit is hosted in part by 16.77 {} 0.25 to 17.20 {} 0.05 (2{sigma}) Ma andesitic volcanic strata of the Farellones Formation, but the major host rocks are units of the San Francisco batholith, including the 11.96 {} 0.40 Ma Rio Blanco granodiorite (mine terminology), the 8.40 {} 0.23 Ma Cascada granodiorite, and the 8.16 {} 0.45 Ma diorite. Hypabyssal dacitic intrusions (late porphyries) emplaced into the batholith yield 206Pb/238U ID-TIMS dates ranging from 6.32 {} 0.09 Ma (quartz monzonite porphyry), through 5.84 {} 0.03 Ma (feldspar porphyry) to 5.23 {} 0.07 Ma (Don Luis porphyry). The late-mineralization Rio Blanco dacite plug yields a SHRIMP zircon age of 4.92 {} 0.09 Ma. The 40Ar/39Ar plateau ages for phenocrystic biotites in quartz monzonite porphyry, feldspar porphyry, and Don Luis porphyry, as well as the preore diorite, range only from 5.12 {} 0.07 to 4.57 {} 0.06 Ma. All are significantly younger than the corresponding zircons and exhibit no correlation with intrusive sequence. The 40Ar/39Ar ages for hydrothermal biotite and orthoclase veins within the San Francisco batholith units fall in a narrow interval from 5.32 {} 0.27 to 4.59 {} 0.11 Ma. Hydrothermal sericites (muscovite), one associated with chalcopyrite, yielded spot-fusion ages of 4.40 {} 0.15 Ma (Rio Blanco granodiorite hosted) and 4.37 {} 0.06 Ma (Don Luis porphyry hosted). Comparison with the ID-TIMS and SHRIMP zircon ages indicates that most of the 40Ar/39Ar ages, even 95 percent plateaus, do not record initial magmatic cooling or hydrothermal alteration-mineralization events, evidence for quasipervasive reheating to at least 300{degrees}C by successive intrusions. Published Re-Os ages for two molybdenite samples range from 5.4 to 6.3 Ma and overlap extensively with the zircon U-Pb ages for the late porphyries. They imply that Cu-Mo mineralization overlapped temporally with the emplacement of, at least, quartz monzonite porphyry and feldspar porphyry units of the late porphyry suite and was, therefore, contemporaneous with the rise of dacitic melts to subvolcanic levels. Hydrothermal activity is inferred to have continued until 4.37 {} 0.06 Ma, following intrusion of the Don Luis porphyry and the early stages of emplacement of the Rio Blanco dacite plug complex. Hypogene Cu-Mo mineralization therefore probably persisted for 2 m.y. The geochronologic data do not resolve whether ore formation was continuous or episodic, but the observed crosscutting relationships between intensely altered and mineralized country rocks and less altered and mineralized late porphyry bodies support a model in which the ascent of metal-rich brines from an unexposed zone of the parental magma chamber was periodically stimulated by magma perturbation and hypabyssal intrusion

Fauna of the Pivka intermittent lakes , 2005,
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Pipan, T.

The present contribution deals with aquatic fauna of the Pivka intermittent lakes. Due to their intermittent character some interesting crustaceans from the groups of fairy shrimps (Anostraca), water fleas (Cladocera) and copepods (Copepoda) are found there. Petelinjsko jezero is the only known location in the world for the endemic species Chirocephalus croaticus. Copepod species Diaptomus cyaneus and Diacyclops charon are relatively abundant in Europe, but Petelinjsko jezero and Veliko Drskovško jezero are the only two locations known in Slovenia for both species. All the species are threatened due to destruction of their natural habitats.


Occurrence of the well shrimp Niphargus aquilex (Crustacea: Niphargidae) in Anglesey, North Wales, UK, 2006,
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Bratton J. H.
The subterranean amphipod crustacean Niphargus aquilex Schidte is reported from Anglesey, Wales, for the first time. This record extends its known range in Britain and is farthest into the area covered by the Devensian ice, possibly supporting the theory that subterranean aquatic invertebrates survived within the glaciated area. The groundwater-inhabiting diving beetles Hydroporus longulus Mulsant & Rey and H. ferrugineus Stephens (Dytiscidae) were found at the same site, the first records of these species from Anglesey.

Intra-specific predation and survivorship of Gammarus pulex (Crustacea: Amphipoda) within aquatic karstic habitats, 2006,
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Little, Sally, Tom Haslehurst And Paul J. Wood.
Population characteristics (abundance of individuals, body size and body mass index) of the stygophilic freshwater shrimp, Gammarus pulex (Crustacea: Amphipoda), and resource availability (particulate organic matter) within karstic subterranean, spring and riverine habitats in the English Peak District (Derbyshire) were examined. Field experiments were subsequently undertaken to characterize the intra-specific predatory behaviour (cannibalism) of the different populations. The results indicate that the natural abundance of G. pulex was lower in subterranean habitats compared to epigean habitats, although there was a similar body size range of individuals present within each habitat. Subterranean and spring populations had a lower body mass index compared to riverine populations. Experiments assessing intraspecific predation of G. pulex indicated that survivorship was significantly lower at subterranean sites compared to epigean spring and riverine sites. The results are discussed with reference to intra-specific predation within Gammarus spp. populations and resource limitation within aquatic subterranean habitats.

Cannibalism within freshwater shrimp populations (Gammarus duebeni - Crustacea: Amphipoda) from spring, riverine and subterranean habitats, Marble Arch Cave System (Northern Ireland), 2007,
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Wood, Thomas P Worrall And Paul J.
The paper examines cannibalism within Gammarus duebeni (Crustacea: Amphipoda) populations within surface stream, spring and cave habitats. The level of cannibalism was measured via bioassay enclosure experiments in the vicinity of the Marble Arch Cave system. The occurrence of cannibalism was found to be significantly greater within cave populations, compared to epigean spring and riverine populations. The relative length of an individual in relation to its mass (Body Mass Index) was significantly greater for riverine populations when compared to both caves and springs.

The Biodiversity Action Plan (BAP) for Niphargus glenniei (Crustacea: Amphipoda: Niphargidae): the first British troglobite to be listed, 2008,
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Knight, Lee R F D.
The cave shrimp Niphargus glenniei (Spooner, 1952) has recently been placed on the UK Biodiversity Action Plan (BAP) list of priority species. This represents the first aquatic hypogean taxon to be given conservation status/recognition in the UK. This paper outlines the selection procedure and the conservation actions required for the species in the future.

Morphological and biological features of underwater caves Tarzanka (Tarhankut Peninsula, Maliy Atlesh), 2011,
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Kovtun O. A. , Pronin K. K.

Based on the performed examination and topographic survey of the underwater karst-abrasion cave Tarzanka on Minor Atlesh (Western Crimea), its morphological description is given for the first time. Features of biology and ecology of inhabitants of this cavity were studied. A new for the Black Sea species of coelenterates – actinia Sagartia elegans (Dalyell, 1848), and a very rare for the Black Sea species of crustaceans – shrimp (Lysmata seticaudata) and mysid (Hemimisis serrata), registered in the Red Data Book of Ukraine, were found in a cave. It was shown that the cave is a permanent habitat for protected species of fishes – goldsinny-wrasse (Ctenolabrus rupestris), Bucchich`s goby (Gobius bucchichi), brown meagre (Sciaena umbra), shore clingfish (Lepadogaster lepadogaster) and crabs - Eriphia verrucosa, Pachygrapsus marmoratus and Pilumnus hirtellus. In a distant tunnel of the cave an interesting group of actinia (Actinia equina) of red colour morphs was found. It is considered that this cave could recently be a place for reproduction of a monk seal that lived in this area (Monachus monachus).


Observations on the biology of the endangered stygobiotic shrimp Palaemonias alabamae, with notes on P. ganteri (Decapoda: Atyidae), 2011,
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Martha Cooper, John Cooper

Palaemonias alabamae is endemic to subterranean waters in northern Alabama. Its type locality is Shelta Cave, Madison County, and ostensibly conspecifi c shrimps have been found in Bobcat and two other caves. Pollution and other factors may have extirpated the shrimp from the type locality. In Shelta Cave the species is smaller than the shrimp in Bobcat Cave and P. ganteri in Mammoth Cave, Kentucky. Adult female P. alabamae(s.s.) and P. ganteri are larger than males. Female P. alabamae with visible oocytes or, rarely, attached ova, were observed from July through January in Shelta Cave. Each female there produces 8 to 12 large ova, whereas females of the population in Bobcat Cave produce 20 to 24 ova, and P. ganteri produces 14 to 33 ova. Plankton samples taken in Shelta and Mammoth caves yielded nothing identifi able as zoea or postlarvae.Palaemonias alabamae and P. ganteri usually feed by fi ltering bottom sediments through their mouthparts, but both sometimes feed upside down at the water’s surface. Although there is some overlap, the compositions of the aquatic communities in Shelta and Mammoth caves differ, and there are some major differences among the Alabama shrimp caves. The stygobiotic fi sh, Typhlichthys subterraneus, is a known predator on P. alabamae in Shelta Cave.


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