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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

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That perennial spring is see spring, perennial.?

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Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
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Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
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Your search for sorption (Keyword) returned 32 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 1 to 15 of 32
The `human revolution' in lowland tropical Southeast Asia: the antiquity and behavior of anatomically modern humans at Niah Cave (Sarawak, Borneo), , Barker G, Barton H, Bird M, Daly P, Datan I, Dykes A, Farr L, Gilbertson D, Harrisson B, Hunt C,
Recent research in Europe, Africa, and Southeast Asia suggests that we can no longer assume a direct and exclusive link between anatomically modern humans and behavioral modernity (the `human revolution'), and assume that the presence of either one implies the presence of the other: discussions of the emergence of cultural complexity have to proceed with greater scrutiny of the evidence on a site-by-site basis to establish secure associations between the archaeology present there and the hominins who created it. This paper presents one such case study: Niah Cave in Sarawak on the island of Borneo, famous for the discovery in 1958 in the West Mouth of the Great Cave of a modern human skull, the `Deep Skull,' controversially associated with radiocarbon dates of ca. 40,000 years before the present. A new chronostratigraphy has been developed through a re-investigation of the lithostratigraphy left by the earlier excavations, AMS-dating using three different comparative pre-treatments including ABOX of charcoal, and U-series using the Diffusion-Absorption model applied to fragments of bones from the Deep Skull itself. Stratigraphic reasons for earlier uncertainties about the antiquity of the skull are examined, and it is shown not to be an `intrusive' artifact. It was probably excavated from fluvial-pond-desiccation deposits that accumulated episodically in a shallow basin immediately behind the cave entrance lip, in a climate that ranged from times of comparative aridity with complete desiccation, to episodes of greater surface wetness, changes attributed to regional climatic fluctuations. Vegetation outside the cave varied significantly over time, including wet lowland forest, montane forest, savannah, and grassland. The new dates and the lithostratigraphy relate the Deep Skull to evidence of episodes of human activity that range in date from ca. 46,000 to ca. 34,000 years ago. Initial investigations of sediment scorching, pollen, palynomorphs, phytoliths, plant macrofossils, and starch grains recovered from existing exposures, and of vertebrates from the current and the earlier excavations, suggest that human foraging during these times was marked by habitat-tailored hunting technologies, the collection and processing of toxic plants for consumption, and, perhaps, the use of fire at some forest-edges. The Niah evidence demonstrates the sophisticated nature of the subsistence behavior developed by modern humans to exploit the tropical environments that they encountered in Southeast Asia, including rainforest

On the faculty of absorption of coloured substances by the cuticle of Caecospaeroma burgundum Dollfus, Isopod Crustacean of underground waters., 1967, Graf Franois, Marvillet Claude
The discovery, in certain subterranean waters, of "pigmented," brown or black Caecosphaeroma burgundum, led to the systematic study of the action of pigmented substances on these crustaceans. The results of these experiments demonstrate that the colorations thus obtained or observed in nature are due to the agglutination of coloured substances on the surface of the carapace and, in certain cases, to an impregnation of the cuticle itself.

Hydrogeological investigations into discharge of salt-containing water from a stream into an aquifer., 1976, Neuss Matthias
An aquifer in a horseshoe bend of the Weser river was investigated regarding the processes of the river water infiltration. The geology and geometry of the aquifer was ascertained by means of numerous borings. The hydraulic situation before and after infiltration was determined by water table maps. The intrusion of a salt-freshwater lens could be reconstructed from the beginning of infiltration until ten years later by means of previous results of chemical analysis. By new chemical analysis it was proved that river water infiltrates into the aquifer. Additionally it was established that the relatively high concentration of chloride is reduced during the passage of the groundwater both by mixing with recharged groundwater and by adsorption of the ground. Furthermore temperature measurements in the groundwater at selected stations confirm qualitatively the river water infiltration into the polder.

The anatomy and histology of the alimentary tract of the blind catfish Horaglanis Krishnai Menon, 1985, Mercy T. V. Anna, Pillai N. Krishna
H. krishnai is a blind catfish inhabiting the dug-out wells at Kottavam Kerala, South India. Studies on the alimentary tract of the fish show that, the alimentary tract, though typically teleostean, shows several adaptive modifications. The bulbous stomach helps in storing food which is helpful in an environment chronically deficient in food. The ileo-rectal sphincter helps in retaining the digested food in the intestine for a long duration to facilitate maximum absorption. This is very helpful as the intestine is short. The liver is well developed.

Impact des proprits hydrodynamiques du substrat karstique sur la nature du sol en milieu mditerranen, 1989, Verheye, W. H.
The impact of the hydrodynamic properties of the karst substratum over the soil characteristic in mediterranean areas - The weathering and pedogenetic evolution on limestones in mediterranean areas leads to the formation of a more or less decarbonated red soil. This evolution passes through successive stages of decarbonatation, rubification and decalcification and can be associated with a colour change, which includes lithochromic, brown and red phases. It is obviously influenced by the hydrodynamic properties of the soils and by the underground drainage characteristics of the substratum: hence soils developed over almost impermeable marly limestones remain at the lithochromic and/or brown levels, and decarbonatation remains weak; on hard and fractured limestones, pedogenesis is much more active and, even if the weathering volume on this rather pure rocks is small, the soil profile becomes almost completely devoid of free lime; under certain conditions a slight decalcification of the soil sorption complex may even be observed.

Absorption massive d'eau de mer par des aquiferes karstiques cotiers, 1993, Drogue C.

RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN FRACTURES AND KARSTIFICATION - THE OIL-BEARING PALEOKARST OF ROSPO MARE (ITALY), 1994, Soudet H. J. , Sorriaux P. , Rolando J. P. ,
The Rospo Mare oil field is located in the Adriatic Sea, 20 km off the Italian coast. The reservoir lies at a depth of 1300 m and consists of a paleokarst oi Oligocene to Miocene age which developed within Cretaceous limestones, now covered by 1200 m of Mio-Pliocene sequences. The oil column is about 140 m 8 high. The karstic nature of the reservoir was identified through vertical, cored drill holes which allowed us to analyse the various solution features and the sedimentary infilling (speleothems, terra rossa, marine clays), as well as their vertical distribution. Erosion morphology at the top of the karst is highly irregular, including in particular paleovalleys as well as many pit-shaped sink holes. Detailed geophysical knowledge of that morphology helped to optimize the development of the field through horizontal drilling. Observations concerning the upper part of the reservoir were compared to a palaeokarst of the same age, outcropping widely onshore, in quarries located nearby. The Rospo Mare paleokarst is an integral part of the ante Miocene paleokarst assemblages of the periphery of the Mediterranean which were formed in tropical conditions. Only the fractures enhanced by meteoric water during the formation of the karat are important for reservoir connectivity. During the formation of the karst there were several phases of dissolution and infilling which modified the geometry of the open fissures and only these fractures play an important role in the reservoir drainage. Vertically we can distinguish three very different zones from top to bottom: at the top the epikarst (0-35 m) in a zone of extension. All the fractures have been enlarged by dissolution but the amount of infilling by clay is substantial. The clays are derived either from alteration of the karat fabric or by deposition during the Miocene transgression; the percolation zone (15-45 m) is characterized by its network of large fractures vertically enlarged by dissolution which corresponds to the relict absorption zones in the paleokarst. These fractures, which usually have a pluridecametric spacing, connect the epi-karst with the former sub-horizontal river system. This zone has been intersected by the horizontal wells during the field development. In this zone there are local, horizontal barriers oi impermeable clay which can block vertical transmissibility. In these low permeability zones the vertical fractures have not been enlarged due to dissolution hence the horizontal barrier; the zone of underground rivers (35-70 m) is characterized by numerous horizontal galleries which housed the subterranean ground water circulation. When these fissures are plurimetric in extent this can lead to gallery collapse with the associated fill by rock fall breccia. This can partly block the river system but always leaves a higher zone of free circulation with high permeabilities of several hundreds of Darcys. These galleries form along the natural fracture system relative to the paleohydraulic gradient which in some cases has been preserved. The zone below permanent ground water level with no circulation of fluids is characterized by dissolution limited to non-connected vugs. Very locally these fissures can be enlarged by tectonic fractures which are non-connected and unimportant for reservoir drainage. Laterally, only the uppermost zone can be resolved by seismic imaging linked with horizontal well data (the wells are located at the top of the percolation zone). The Rospo Mare reservoir shows three distinct horizontal zones: a relict paleokarst plateau with a high index of open connected fractures, (area around the A and B platforms); a zone bordering the plateau (to the north-east of the plateau zone) very karstified but intensely infilled by cap rock shales (Miocene - Oligocene age); a zone of intensely disturbed and irregular karst paleotopography which has been totally infilled by shales. The performance of the production wells is dependent on their position with respect to the three zones noted above and their distance from local irregularities in the karst paleotopography (dolines, paleovalleys)

Presence of Rare-Earth Elements in Black Ferromanganese Coatings from V?ntului Cave (Romania), 1997, Onac, B. P. , Pedersen, R. B. , Tysseland, M.
This study examines the rare-earth elements (REEs) found in ferromanganese coatings covering both sandy alluvium and submerged boulders in an underground stream from V?ntului Cave, Romania. The black ferromanganese sediments are mainly composed of birnessite and other poorly-crystallized manganese oxide and hydroxides (pyrolusite, romanechite, todorokite, rhodochrosite) as well as goethite and kaolinite. Scanning electron microscope and EDX analyses performed on the black ferromanganese sediments show the material to have concentrated considerable amounts of REEs (La, Ce, Sm, Nd) in iron-rich spheres that build up botryoidal-like aggregates. The correlation of 143Nd/144Nd ratio for 6 different samples indicates that the REEs were concentrated in the cave environment after being leached from bauxitic and red residual clays from above the cave. Based on our observations, we conclude that an increase in pH resulted in adsorption of REE onto the surface of ferromanganese minerals. This study demonstrates the potential of using Nd isotopes as a tool for paleochemistry studies of the cave environment.

Special speleothems in cement-grouting tunnels and their implications of the atmospheric CO2 sink, 1998, Liu Z. H. , He D. B. ,
Based on the analyses and comparisons of water chemistry, stable carbon isotopes and deposition rates of speleothems, the authors found that there are two kinds of speleothems in the tunnels at the Wujiangdu Dam site, Guizhou, China, namely the CO2-outgassing type and the CO2-absorbing type. The former is natural, as observed in general karst caves, and the product of karst processes under natural conditions. The latter, however, is special, resulting from the carbonation of a cement-grouting curtain and concrete. Due to the quick absorption of CO2 from the surrounding atmosphere, evidenced by the low CO2 content in the air and the high deposition rate of speleothems (as high as 10 cm/a) in the tunnels, the contribution of the carbonation process to the sink of CO2 in the atmosphere is important tin the order of magnitude of 10(8) tons c/a) and should be taken into consideration in the study of the global carbon cycle because of the use of cement on a worldwide scale

Highway stormwater runoff in karst areas - preliminary results of baseline monitoring and design of a treatment system for a sinkhole in Knoxville, Tennessee, 1999, Stephenson J. B. , Zhou W. F. , Beck B. F. , Green T. S. ,
Groundwater is vulnerable to contamination in karst areas where highway stormwater runoff may flow directly into karst aquifers with little or no natural attenuation and transport highway-derived contaminants rapidly from sinkholes to locations in the aquifer. The primary goal of this investigation is the development and evaluation of practical remedial measures for treating highway runoff draining into sinkholes. Field testing sites are located in Knoxville, TN, and Frederick, MD. This paper presents a summary of preliminary results of baseline monitoring in Knoxville. Quantitative dye tracing and hydrograph analyses have demonstrated that water draining into the I-40/I-640 sinkhole passes through a phreatic conduit and resurges at Holston Spring ca 128 m (420 ft) from the sinkhole. Stormwater quantity has been monitored continuously for more than 1.5 years, and runoff quality has been monitored during a storm event. For most of the contaminants analyzed, peak contaminant loading at Holston Spring lagged behind the peak at the sinkhole by approximately 1 hour. The movement of stormwater from other sinkholes in the drainage basin to Holston Spring is regulated by partial blockage of the conduit-dominated flow system. Urban development of the karst terrane in eastern Knoxville may be responsible for this observed phenomenon. A pilot-scale stormwater runoff treatment system has been designed using peat, sand, and rock to remove contaminants by sedimentation, filtration, and adsorption. (C) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved

Organic geochemistry of paleokarst-hosted uranium deposits, South China, 2000, Min M. Z. , Meng Z. W. , Sheng G. Y. , Min Y. S. , Liu X. ,
The paleokarst-hosted uranium deposits in organic-matter, clay-rich Devonian-Carboniferous carbonates are an economically important, new type of uranium deposit in China. The organic matter intimately associated with the uranium mineralization in this type of deposit has been characterized by petrographic, isotopic, gas chromatographic, pyrolysis-gas chromatographic, infrared spectroscopic and elemental geochemical methods. Comparing genetic types of the organic matter in unmineralized and mineralized samples indicates that no fundamental differences are found. The organic matter is chiefly of marine origin and contains a minor terrestrial component. The immature nature of the indigenous organic matter in the unmineralized samples shows generally a low-temperature history (less than or equal to max. 65 degrees C), and geologic data show a shallow maximal burial depth. By combining the organic geochemistry with the geological data, U-Pb dating and temperature determinations, an overall formation process for this type of uranium deposit is deduced. The formation of the paleokarst-hosted uranium deposits in South China is the result of: (1) repeated paleokarstifications of the Devonian and Carboniferous organic, clay-rich carbonate along the faults and unconformities between different strata because of the Hercynian and Yanshanian regional tectonism, and extensive formation of solution-collapse, solution-fault breccias; (2) accumulation of organic matter and clays in the paleocaverns and matrix of the breccias, fixation and adsorption of uranium by the organic matter and clays from the paleokarst waterflows that leached metals from the uranium-bearing host carbonates during their passage towards the karst zones, (3) reduction of uranium by the organic matter and formation of protore and low-grade ore; (4) circulation of heated formational waters and deep circulating, uraniferous meteoric waters by tectonic pumping, reworking the uranium-rich, paleocave-fillings, protore and low-grade ore, reduction and formation of primary uranium minerals (uraninite and coffinite) because of the reducing environment resulting from organic matter and sulfide. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science B.V. Ail rights reserved

Seasonal variations in Sr, Mg and P in modern speleothems (Grotta di Ernesto, Italy), 2001, Huang Yiming, Fairchild Ian J. , Borsato Andrea, Frisia Silvia, Cassidy Nigel J. , Mcdermott Frank, Hawkesworth Chris J. ,
Sub-annual variations in trace element chemistry and luminescence have recently been demonstrated from speleothems and offer the potential of high-resolution palaeoclimatic proxies. However, no studies have yet examined microscopic trace element variations in relation to modern cave conditions. In this study, the spatial variations in trace element (Sr, Mg and P) concentrations in speleothems (a stalagmite and a soda straw stalactite) from the alpine Ernesto cave (temperature 6.60.1[deg]C) in a forested catchment in NE Italy have been studied using secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) and compared with environmental parameters and waters in the modern cave. An annual lamination exists in the stalagmite and soda straw stalactite in the form of clear calcite with narrow visible layers, which are UV-fluorescent and interpreted to contain soil-derived humic/fulvic acids washed into the cave during autumn rains. Microanalyses were undertaken of seven annual laminae, probably deposited during the 1960s in the stalagmite, and seven laminae in the 1990s for the stalactite.The analysis results show that Sr consistently has a trough and P, a peak centred on the inclusion-rich layer. Mg shows mainly a negative covariation with Sr in laminae formed in the 1990s, but a positive covariation in the stalagmite formed in 1960s. The spatial scale of the main geochemical variations is the same as that of annual laminae of inclusion-poor and inclusion-rich couplets. Mass balance arguments are used to show that the P is inorganic in form and presumably occurs as individual phosphate ions within the calcite.Most drip waters show limited chemical variations, but a summer peak in trace elements in 1995 and a decrease in Mg/Ca in the following winter are notable. More pronounced covariations in Mg/Ca and Sr/Ca are shown by a site with highly variable drip rates where ratios increase at slow drip rates. The strongest seasonal variations are found in pool waters, where ratios increase reflecting significant Ca removal from the water into the calcite during the winter in response to seasonal PCO2 variations in cave air. Thus, the cave waters' compositions tend to reflect climate conditions, such that Mg/Ca and Sr/Ca are tentatively interpreted to be higher when climate conditions are dry.Combining results from the speleothems and cave water along with the behaviour of each trace species, Mg/Ca variations in the speleothems are considered to reflect their variation in the cave waters, whereas, Sr incorporation is also dependent on precipitation rate, in this case, mainly controlled by temporal variations in PCO2 in the cave (and conceivably, also by inhibitors such as phosphate). P adsorption (a fraction of which is subsequently incorporated within calcite) depends on aqueous phosphate concentration and water flux, both of which should increase during the autumn. Therefore, multiple trace element profiles in speleothems reflect multiple aspects of environment seasonality and conditions, and hence, a calibration against weather records is desirable to establish their palaeoclimatological meaning. The strong annual variation of trace elements, and particularly P, can provide chronological markers for high-resolution studies of other climate proxies, such as stable isotopes

Engineering impacts of karst: A review of some engineering aspects of limestone weathering with case studies from Devon and Ireland, MSc Thesis, 2001, Pressdee, C.

The thesis aims to review the nature of karstic limestone terrains and the implications for engineering practices as a result of the uniquely difficult ground conditions they present. Case studies are included to highlight two very different, yet apparently common, engineering problems on karst. This abstract deals only with Linhay Hill Quarry in Ashburton, Devon where pinnacled rockhead and clay infilled dissolution pipes present problems in the extraction and processing of the limestone for use as aggregate.
The quarry has been in existence for over a hundred years and the current owners are drilling and blasting the Devonian limestone and processing it for a variety of purposes; namely aggregates for concrete, macadam and unbound applications. In the quarry, the rock is fairly evenly bedded and dipping towards the east. Near the ground surface it is extensively solution weathered to form a karst surface, which is now buried by more recent deposits. The extensive karst topography gives considerable problems, currently on the north side, where the intimate mixture of solution weathered limestone and later infilling clays and sandy sediments makes drilling and blasting difficult and contaminates the limestone material.
On the basis of the work carried out, the following summary of findings is presented:
Using published engineering classification schemes; the Chercombe Bridge Limestone in and around Linhay Hill Quarry has been classified as Class III to IV Karst ('Mature' to 'Complex' Karst, Waltham, 1999).
• The origin of the karst is proposed to be the result of a combination of subtropical climate and localised valley conditions in the early Tertiary. Weathering and erosion of the Dartmoor granite and adjacent Cretaceous rocks provided fluvial sediment to subsequently infill the solution channels and cavities in the limestone.
• The physical effects of weathering have been shown to reduce the strength and density of the limestone whilst increasing the water absorption. This has implications for the quality of aggregate produced in the quarry.
• The chemical effects of dolomitisation and solutional weathering have been shown to produce a highly variable material in the quarry.
• Residual insoluble minerals were found to be randomly distributed and exhibited typically high densities, high absorptions and high clay and iron oxide/hydroxide contents.
• The nature of the infilled karst together with the effects of weathering mentioned above has significantly affected the workings of the quarry with considerable cost implications. They are listed (in no particular order) as follows:
Overburden stripping extremely time consuming and costly.
Increased drilling times through clay infilled fissures/cavities.
Enforced blast hole surveying techniques due to variable ground.
Enforced blast charge restriction resulting in reduced primary fragmentation.
Induced dolines in the surrounding farmland.
Costs of washing/scrubbing of clay coated 'contaminated' rock.
Clay materials not always removed resulting in reduced efficiency of processing plant.
Quality of aggregates impaired by variable rock properties and presence of clay.
Implications for concrete and mortar include potentially reduced workability strength and durability


The scapulocoracoid of an early triassic stem-frog from Poland, 2002, Borsukbialynicka M, Evans Se,
The scapulocoracoid of Czatkobatrachus polonicus Evans and Borsuk-Bialynicka, 1998, a stem-frog from the Early Triassic karst locality of Czatkowice (Southern Poland), is described. The overall type of scapulocoracoid is plesiomorphic, but the subcircular shape and laterally oriented glenoid is considered synapomorphic of Salientia. The supraglenoid foramen is considered homologous to the scapular cleft of the Anura. In Czatkobatrachus, the supraglenoid foramen occupies an intermediate position between that of the early tetrapod foramen and the scapular cleft of Anura. The cleft scapula is probably synapomorphic for the Anura. In early salientian phylogeny, the shift in position of the supraglenoid foramen may have been associated with an anterior rotation of the forelimb. This change in position of the forelimb may reflect an evolutionary shift from a mainly locomotory function to static functions (support, balance, eventually shock-absorption). Laterally extended limbs may have been more effective than posterolateral ones in absorbing landing stresses, until the specialised shock-absorption pectoral mechanism of crown-group Anura had developed. The glenoid shape and position, and the slender scapular blade, of Czatkobatrachus, in combination with the well-ossified joint surfaces on the humerus and ulna, all support a primarily terrestrial rather than aquatic mode of life. The new Polish material also permits clarification of the pectoral anatomy of the contemporaneous Madagascan genus Triadobatrachus

TRACER: An EXCEL Workbook to Calculate Mean Residence Time in Groundwater by Use of Tracers CFC-11, CFC-12 and Tritium, 2002, Bayari C. Serdar
An EXCEL workbook is presented for calculating the mean residence time of groundwater based on the environmental tracers, tritium, CFC-11 and CFC-12. The program TRACER is written in Visual Basic for Application language and uses piston, exponential, linear, exponential-piston and linear-piston flow types of lumped-parameter models. Input and output data are stored in worksheets and a graph of results that are best fitted to observations is drawn for visual evaluation. Recharge temperature and altitude are used to convert atmospheric partial pressures of CFC-11 and CFC-12 to dissolved concentrations to provide a direct comparison between the models' output and observed data. The model can also be used to check whether an inferred flow type could be valid in the groundwater system being investigated. Other radioactive and gaseous environmental tracers and reactions such as, sorption and degradation can be included either as decay constant or with modifications in the program code. TRACER matches, satisfactorily, the results obtained from other softwares.

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