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Enviroscan Ukrainian Institute of Speleology and Karstology

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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That vadose shaft is a vertical tube in the vadose zone that may be a few inches to several feet in diameter and may be a few feet deep to hundreds and over a thousand of feet deep. they commonly occur as complexes. a drain hole is usually evident at their base. see also vertical shaft.?

Checkout all 2699 terms in the KarstBase Glossary of Karst and Cave Terms

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KarstBase a bibliography database in karst and cave science.

Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
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Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
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Your search for spectroscopy (Keyword) returned 33 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 1 to 15 of 33
Characterization of Karst Soils by Near Infrared Spectroscopy, 1977,
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White, William B.

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Plummer L. N. , Busenberg E. , Glynn P. D. , Blum A. E. ,
Synthetic strontianite-aragonite solid-solution minerals were dissolved in CO2-saturated nonstoichiometric solutions of Sr(HCO3)2 and Ca(HCO3)2 at 25-degrees-C. The results show that none of the dissolution reactions reach thermodynamic equilibrium. Congruent dissolution in Ca(HCO3)2 solutions either attains or closely approaches stoichiometric saturation with respect to the dissolving solid. In Sr(HCO3)2 solutions the reactions usually become incongruent, precipitating a Sr-rich phase before reaching stoichiometric saturation. Dissolution of mechanical mixtures of solids approaches stoichiometric saturation with respect to the least stable solid in the mixture. Surface uptake from subsaturated bulk solutions was observed in the initial minutes of dissolution. This surficial phase is 0-10 atomic layers thick in Sr(HCO3)2 solutions and 0-4 layers thick in Ca(HCO3)2 solutions, and subsequently dissolves and/or recrystallizes, usually within 6 min of reaction. The initial transient surface precipitation (recrystallization) process is followed by congruent dissolution of the original solid which proceeds to stoichiometric saturation, or until the precipitation of a more stable Sr-rich solid. The compositions of secondary precipitates do not correspond to thermodynamic equilibrium or stoichiometric saturation states. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurements indicate the formation of solid solutions on surfaces of aragonite and strontianite single crystals immersed in Sr(HCO3)2 and Ca(HCO3)2 solutions, respectively. In Sr(HCO3)2 solutions, the XPS signal from the outer approximately 60 angstrom on aragonite indicates a composition of 16 mol% SrCO3 after only 2 min of contact, and 14-18 mol% SrCO3 after 3 weeks of contact. The strontianite surface averages approximately 22 mol% CaCO3 after 2 min of contact with Ca(HCO3)2 solution, and is 34-39 mol% CaCO3 after 3 weeks of contact. XPS analysis suggests the surface composition is zoned with somewhat greater enrichment in the outer approximately 25 angstrom (as much as 26 mol% SrCO3 on aragonite and 44 mol% CaCO3 on strontianite). The results indicate rapid formation of a solid-solution surface phase from subsaturated aqueous solutions. The surface phase continually adjusts in composition in response to changes in composition of the bulk fluid as net dissolution proceeds. Dissolution rates of the endmembers are greatly reduced in nonstoichiometric solutions relative to dissolution rates observed in stoichiometric solutions. All solids dissolve more slowly in solutions spiked with the least soluble component ((Sr(HCO3)2) than in solutions spiked with the more soluble component (Ca(HCO3)2), an effect that becomes increasingly significant as stoichiometric saturation is approached. It is proposed that the formation of a nonstoichiometric surface reactive zone significantly decreases dissolution rates

On some cave minerals from Northern Norway., 1995,
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Lauritzen Steinerik, Onac Bogdan Petroniu
The present paper aims to point out the results of 31 samples from some Norwegian caves that have been analysed with respect to their mineralogical composition. Identification of the minerals was done by X-ray diffraction, thermal, infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Seventeen minerals were identified belonging to 4 groups: carbonates, sulphates, oxides-hydroxides and silicates.

Protactinium-231 Dating of Carbonates by Thermal Ionization Mass Spectrometry: Implications for Quaternary Climate Change, 1997,
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Edwards Rl, Cheng H, Murrell Mt, Goldstein Sj,
Measurement of protactinium-231 ($^{231}$Pa) in carbonates by thermal ionization mass spectroscopy yields $^{231}$Pa ages that are more than 10 times more precise than those determined by decay counting. Carbonates between 10 and 250,000 years old can now be dated with $^{231}$Pa methods. Barbados corals that have identical $^{231}$Pa and thorium-230 ($^{230}$Th) ages indicate that the timing of sea level change over parts of the last glacial cycle is consistent with the predictions of the Astronomical Theory. Two Devils Hole calcite subsamples record identical $^{231}$Pa and $^{230}$Th ages, suggesting that the chronology of this climate record is accurate

The inhibiting action of intrinsic impurities in natural calcium carbonate minerals to their dissolution kinetics in aqueous H2O-CO2 solutions, 1999,
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Eisenlohr L, Meteva K, Gabrovsek F, Dreybrodt W,
We have measured the surface controlled dissolution rates of natural calcium carbonate minerals (limestone and marble) in H2O-CO2 solutions by using free drift batch experiments under closed system conditions with respect to CO2, at 10 degrees C with an initial partial pressure of carbon dioxide of 5.10(-2) atm. All experiments revealed reaction rates F, which can be described by the empirical relation: F-n1 = k(n1) . (1 - c/c(eq))(n1) for c < c(s), which switches to a higher order n(2) for calcium concentrations c greater than or equal to c(s) described by F-n2 = k(n2) . (1 - c/c(eq))(n2) . k(n1) and k(n2) are rate constants in mmole/(cm(2) . s), c(eq) is the equilibrium concentration with respect to calcite. The values of the constants n(1), n(2), k(n1), k(n2) and c(s) depend on the V/A ratio employed, where V is the volume of the solution and A is the surface area of the reacting mineral. Different calcium carbonate minerals exhibit different values of the kinetic constants. But generally with increasing V/A, there is a steep variation in the values of all kinetic constants, such that the rates are reduced with increasing V/A ratio. Finally with sufficiently large V/A these values become constant. These results are explained by assuming intrinsic inhibitors in the bulk of the mineral. During dissolution these are released from the calcite matrix and are adsorbed irreversibly at the reacting surface, where they act as inhibitors. The thickness d of the mineral layer removed by dissolution is proportional to the VIA ratio. The amount of inhibitors released per surface area is given by d c(int), where c(int) is their concentration id the bulk of the mineral. At low thicknesses up to approximate to 3 . 10(-4) cm in the investigated materials, the surface concentration of inhibitors increases until saturation is attained for thicknesses above this value. To analyze the surface concentration and the type of the inhibitors we have used Auger spectroscopy, which revealed the presence of aluminosilicate complexes at the surface of limestone, when a thickness of d approximate to 10(-3) cm had been removed by dissolution. In unreacted samples similar signals, weaker by one order of magnitude, were observed. Depth profiles of the reacted sample obtained by Ar-ion sputtering showed the concentration of these complexes to decrease to the concentration observed in the unreacted sample within a depth of about 10 nm. No change of the concentration with depth was observed in unreacted samples. These data suggest that complexes of aluminosilicates act as inhibitors, although other impurities cannot be excluded. Copyright (C) 1999 Elsevier Science Ltd

Comparative study of a stalagmite sample by stratigraphy, laser induced fluorescence spectroscopy, EPR spectrometry and reflectance imaging, 2000,
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Perrette Yves, Delannoy Jean Jacques, Bolvin Herve, Cordonnier Michel, Destombes Jean Luc, Zhilinskaya Elena A. , Aboukais Antoine,
In the last few years, it has been shown that multi-proxy data are recorded in speleothems and that these secondary deposits can be used to retrieve records of environmental evolution in extra-glacial continental conditions. The goal of many current research is to obtain a better understanding of the processes leading to the growth of these chemical sediments and to relate them to changes in environmental conditions. In the present research, the multi-proxy study of a well-laminated speleothem sample points out the interest of reflectance trend measurement as a water excess indicator. Results from stratigraphy, laser induced fluorescence spectroscopy, EPR spectrometry and reflectance imaging have been combined in order to get a better understanding of the environmental conditions pertaining during speleothem growth. Several parameters have been measured: (i) Mn2 concentration evolution (shown to be linked to soil processes); (ii) linewidth [Delta]H of the low field Mn2 EPR line (linked to crystalline properties of the speleothem); (iii) intensities of the laser excited fluorescence (linked to organic matter content of calcite) and reflectance (linked to calcite porosity); (iv) wavelength [lambda]peak of the intensity maximum of laser excited fluorescence bands (linked to the size of trapped organic molecules). Other data resulting from statistical treatment of the annual fluorescence cycles have also been used. Significant correlations demonstrate the covariation of [lambda]peak and calcite reflectance with the hydrological regime of the cave. In the well drained soils of a karstic area, Mn2 and [lambda]peak appear to be accurate proxies for soil moisture evolution, directly linked to the water excess. These results are confirmed by the comparison with historical knowledge of environmental changes of the surrounding plateau

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Dani N, Formoso Mll, Decarreau A, Meunier A,
Nordstrandite from Lages represents the first occurrence of this mineral in an oxisoil that does not involve the influence of a calcareous substrate. This is also the first reported occurrence in Brazil. Nordstrandite occurs near the city of Lages only in the weathered bedrock facies, mostly where the circulation of meteoric water is restricted. There is also a close association between nordstrandite and the weathering of modified pseudoleucite structures. The interaction of meteoric water and feldspathic alkaline country rock with uncommon texture and mineralogy (rich in nepheline, sodalite, nosean, analcime and natrolite) promotes the development of solutions enriched in alkaline ions with basic pH, necessary to form nordstrandite. A detailed study by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and infrared (IR) spectroscopy in natural or chemically leached samples was performed to identify the Al(OH)3 polymorphs of gibbsite and nordstrandite

On the genetic conditions of black manganese deposits from two caves of Eastern Serbia., 2001,
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Ljubojevic V. , Pafevski A. , Calicljubojevic J.
Portions of cave passages often have a black colour due to manganese deposits that occur as coatings on cave walls and ceilings, on clastic sediments, as well as on speleothems. On samples from the cave Buronov Ponor chemical analysis, infrared spectroscopy. X-ray diffraction and DTA analysis confirmed the presence of birnessite. In cave Cerjanska Pecina, the presence of manganese compounds in the black coating has been confirmed by chemical tests. In both caves it has been noted that cave passages with black coating have a distinct morphology. They are highly weathered showing an abundance of sharp prolusions, potholes in the streambed and scallops. The paper studies these occurrences and the possible link between the manganese deposition, hydrology and morphology of the passages and petrologic composition. Although this link was not identified, some interesting questions regarding manganese deposition arose. It remains unclear why manganese deposition is limited only to a certain part of cave Cerjanska Pecina, and what caused the cyclicity in manganese deposition in the cave Buronov ponor. manganese deposits, chemical analysis, speleomorphology

Annual resolution analysis of a SW-France stalagmite by X-ray synchrotron microprobe analysis, 2003,
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Kuczumow A. , Genty D. , Chevallier P. , Nowak J. , Ro C. U. ,
A sample of stalagmite from Grotte de Villars, Dordogne, France was analyzed by the use of X-ray synchrotron microprobe in LURE, Orsay, France. Together with the signal of Ca, the main element, much weaker but clear signals of Sr, Fe, Zn and Pb were registered. The X-ray scattered radiation was applied for recognition of the annual zones in the stalagmite structure in parallel with the gray scale morphology from the optical microscope. The elemental scans were superimposed on the optical image of the sample. It was established that places corresponding to dark locations on the annual rings were narrower, composed of less porous matter and had much greater contents of iron and zinc and elevated ratio of Sr/Ca. In the supplementary electron microprobe measurements, the elevated amounts of lighter elements, Si and Mg were found in the same locations. These results will allow a very accurate study of stalagmite elemental composition which is of first importance for paleoclimatic studies from speleothems. (C) 2003 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved

A mineralogical and phytolith study of the middle stone age hearths in Sibudu Cave, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, 2004,
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Schiegl S. , Stockhammer P. , Scott C. , Wadley L. ,
Sediments from Middle Stone Age hearths and burnt deposits in Sibudu Cave (KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa) were analysed for their mineral and phytolith contents. The mineral compositions were determined by FT-IR spectroscopy. The phytoliths were classified and counted by transmitted polarized light microscopy. Burning experiments using wood and grasses from species native to the cave's environment yielded the reference ashes. The visible hearths and ash dumps contain phytolith assemblages characteristic of wood fuel. A significant portion of the phytoliths of hearths and ash layers display morphologies related to intense heating. This finding is suggestive of long-burning wood fires and/or reuse of the same fireplace. The heat-altered phytoliths are useful in tracing fires, especially if hearth structures are not preserved and ash deposits have been diagenetically and heavily altered. The phytolith contents and mineralogical composition of the ash deposits and the surrounding sedimentary matrix are very similar. This feature suggests that the sedimentary matrix originally contained fireplaces and ash deposits, whose structures were destroyed shortly after deposition, presumably by trampling.(21) The intact circular hearths are most likely the product of intense fires. Similar results from hearths and their surrounding matrix have been reported from Middle Palaeolithic cave sites in Israel

Speleothem organic matter content imaging. The use of a Fluorescence Index to characterise the maximum emission wavelength, 2005,
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Perrette Y. , Delannoy J. J. , Desmet M. , Lignier V. , Destombes J. L. ,
The study of palacoenvironments, especially pedologic and biologic environments, is fundamental to a complete understanding of continental climate changes. Many types of sediment contain organic molecules (OM) that were trapped during the depositional process, with the quantity and the nature of these organic molecules being strongly influenced by climate and other local factors. The quantity of organic matter in sediment can be measured by fluorescence intensity, but its nature is more difficult to determine. For this research, the organic molecules in stalagmites were analysed using emission fluorescence spectroscopy. The analysis of carbonated karst sediments was complemented by studies of clay, soil and seepage water samples. The main objective of this paper is to describe a method for the continuous imaging of the spectroscopic features of stalagmite organic molecules. Continuous imaging provides a means of circumventing the nonlinearity, both in space (of the sediment) and in time (of the sedimentation process), of the trapping of organic matter. This methodological report presents a protocol for calculating a Fluorescence Index (FI) that can be used in palaeoenvironmental studies of sediment. A similar approach to that used for determining E4/E6 ratios was used to determine the ratio of the fluorescence intensities of a sample at 514 nm and at 456 nm. This Fluorescence Index is strongly correlated to the wavelength of the maximum intensity of the organic matter spectrum. Due to the relatively stable chemical environment of calcite growth, changes in the Fluorescence Index can be interpreted as being due to changes in the nature of the organic molecules rather than to pH or quenching effects. As an illustration of how this index can be used, we present some examples of fluorescence indices for speleothem samples that show short-term and long-term environmental changes. To allow fuller palaeoenvironmental interpretations to be made, fluorescence indices need to be calibrated to environments and samples need to be dated. (C) 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved

Identification of cave minerals by Raman spectroscopy: New technology for non-destructive analysis., 2006,
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White William B.
The identification of minerals from caves generally requires that samples be removed from the cave for analysis in the laboratory. The usual tools are X-ray powder diffraction, the optical microscope, and the scanning electron microscope. X-ray diffraction gives a definitive fingerprint by which the mineral can be identified by comparison with a catalog of reference patterns. However, samples must be ground to powder and unstable hydrated minerals may decompose before analysis is complete. Raman spectroscopy also provides a fingerprint useful for mineral identification but with the additional advantage that some a-priori interpretation of the spectra is possible (distinguishing carbonates from sulfates, for example). Because excitation of the spectra is by means of a laser beam, it is possible to measure the spectra of samples in sealed glass containers, thus preserving unstable samples. Because laser beams can be focused, spectra can be obtained from individual grains. New technology has reduced the size of the instrument and also the sensitivity of the optical system to vibration and transport so that a portable instrument has become possible. The sampling probe is linked to the spectrometer by optical fibers so that large specimens can be examined without damage. Comparative spectra of common cave minerals demonstrate the value of Raman spectra as an identification technique.

Observation of bicarbonate in calcite by NMR spectroscopy, 2006,
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Feng J, Lee Yj, Reeder Rj, Phillips Bl,
We show that the signal observed in 13C{1H} cross-polarization magic-angle-spinning (CP/MAS) NMR spectra of synthetic calcite precipitated at room temperature arises from bicarbonate ion. Although this peak occurs at the same chemical shift as for the bulk carbonate signal, its observation by CP/MAS indicates that it corresponds to carbonate associated with H. The variation in the CP/MAS intensity with contact time shows oscillations characteristic of C-H pairs separated by 1.9(1) A and remote from other H, consistent with bicarbonate. 13C{1H} heteronuclear correlation spectra indicate that the hydrogen in the bicarbonate groups gives a relatively narrow 1H NMR signal at .4 ppm. A peak at this chemical shift is also observed in direct-observe 1H MAS NMR spectra of the synthetic sample, and also in natural biogenic and abiogenic calcite. This 1H chemical shift indicates a moderate hydrogen bonding interaction d(OH...O) {approx}1.85 A, which suggests significant structural relaxation occurs near the bicarbonate

Biotic versus abiotic calcite formation on prehistoric cave paintings: the Arcy-sur-Cure 'Grande Grotte' (Yonne, France) case, 2007,
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Chalmin E, D'orlye F, Zinger L, Charlet L, Geremia Ra, Orial G, Menu M, Baffier D, Reiche I,
The Grande Grotte' cave at Arcy-sur-Cure (Yonne, France) with its prehistoric paintings shows important calcite concretions. Two types of calcite have been observed on the wall: translucent yellowish layers and opaque white or grey layers that completely obstruct the paintings. Other calcite types are present in the lakes of the cave (floating calcite rafts at the surface of the lake and soft calcite at the bottom of the lake). The morphology of the different calcites was observed at different scales by optical microscopy with normal and polarized light, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The elemental composition was measured by using particle-induced X-ray emission (micro-PIXE) and the structure by X-ray diffraction (XRD), infrared (FT-IR) and Raman spectroscopy. The bacterial diversity and its role in calcite formation were assessed by culture and 16S-SSCP in order to distinguish and to assess various abiotic and biotic formation mechanisms. The investigation of calcite characteristics enables conclusions on the formation mechanism and on a biotic or abiotic origin of the calcites. The change of calcite types on the walls reveals changes of the environmental cave parameters. In addition, interactions of calcites with the prehistoric paint layer could be evaluated

The impact of host rock geochemistry on bacterial community structure in oligotrophic cave environments, 2007,
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Barton Hazel A. , Taylor Nicholas M. , Kreate Michael P. , Springer Austin C. , Oehrle Stuart A. And Bertog Janet L.
Despite extremely starved conditions, caves contain surprisingly diverse microbial communities. Our research is geared toward understanding what ecosystems drivers are responsible for this high diversity. To asses the effect of rock fabric and mineralogy, we carried out a comparative geomicrobiology study within Carlsbad Cavern, New Mexico, USA. Samples were collected from two different geologic locations within the cave: WF1 in the Massive Member of the Capitan Formation and sF88 in the calcareous siltstones of the Yates Formation. We examined the organic content at each location using liquid chromatography mass spectroscopy and analyzed microbial community structure using molecular phylogenetic analyses. In order to assess whether microbial activity was leading to changes in the bedrock at each location, the samples were also examined by petrology, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX). Our results suggest that on the chemically complex Yates Formation (sF88), the microbial community was significantly more diverse than on the limestone surfaces of the Capitan (WF1), despite a higher total number of cells on the latter. Further, the broader diversity of bacterial species at sF88 reflected a larger range of potential metabolic capabilities, presumably due to opportunities to use ions within the rock as nutrients and for chemolithotrophic energy production. The use of these ions at sF88 is supported by the formation of a corrosion residue, presumably through microbial scavenging activities. Our results suggest that rock fabric and mineralogy may be an important driver of ecosystem function and should be carefully reviewed when carrying out microbial community analysis in cave environments.

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