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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That travertine terraces is terraces and related forms covered or composed of carbonates precipitated from water. such precipitation is usually from saturated bicarbonate waters (as from karst) when they enter a zone of turbulent flow [20]. synonyms: (french.) terrasse de travertin; (german.) travertin-terrabe; (greek.) anavathmos travertinou; (italian.) spianata di travertino; (spanish.) terrazas travertinicas; (turkish.) sutasi tracalari; (yugoslavian.) slapovi. see also constructive waterfall.?

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KarstBase a bibliography database in karst and cave science.

Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
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Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
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Your search for stacking (Keyword) returned 8 results for the whole karstbase:
The astronomical theory of climate and the age of the Brunhes-Matuyama magnetic reversal, 1994, Bassinot Fc, Labeyrie Ld, Vincent E, Quidelleur X, Shackleton Nj, Lancelot Y,
Below oxygen isotope stage 16, the orbitally derived time-scale developed by Shackleton et al. [1] from ODP site 677 in the equatorial Pacific differs significantly from previous ones [e.g., 2-5], yielding estimated ages for the last Earth magnetic reversals that are 5-7% older than the K/Ar values [6-8] but are in good agreement with recent Ar/Ar dating [9-11]. These results suggest that in the lower Brunhes and upper Matuyama chronozones most deep-sea climatic records retrieved so far apparently missed or misinterpreted several oscillations predicted by the astronomical theory of climate. To test this hypothesis, we studied a high-resolution oxygen isotope record from giant piston core MD900963 (Maldives area, tropical Indian Ocean) in which precession-related oscillations in [delta]18O are particularly well expressed, owing to the superimposition of a local salinity signal on the global ice volume signal [12]. Three additional precession-related cycles are observed in oxygen isotope stages 17 and 18 of core MD900963, compared to the composite curves [4,13], and stage 21 clearly presents three precession oscillations, as predicted by Shackleton et al. [1]. The precession peaks found in the [delta]18O record from core MD900963 are in excellent agreement with climatic oscillations predicted by the astronomical theory of climate. Our [delta]18O record therefore permits the development of an accurate astronomical time-scale. Based on our age model, the Brunhes-Matuyama reversal is dated at 775 10 ka, in good agreement with the age estimate of 780 ka obtained by Shackleton et al. [1] and recent radiochronological Ar/Ar datings on lavas [9-11]. We developed a new low-latitude, Upper Pleistocene [delta]18O reference record by stacking and tuning the [delta]18O records from core MD900963 and site 677 to orbital forcing functions

Middle Devonian carbonates (250-430 m thick) of the eastern Great Basin were deposited along a low energy, westward-thickening, distally steepened ramp. Four third-order sequences can be correlated across the ramp-to-basin transition and are composed of meter-scale, upward-shallowing carbonate cycles (or parasequences). Peritidal cycles (shallow subtidal facies capped by tidal-flat laminites) constitute 90% of all measured cycles and are present across the entire ramp. The peritidal cycles are regressive- and transgressive-prone (upward-deepening followed by upward-shallowing facies trends). Approximately 80% of the peritidal cycle caps show evidence of prolonged subaerial exposure including sediment-filled dissolution cavities, horizontal to vertical desiccation cracks, rubble and karst breccias, and pedogenic alteration; locally these features are present down to 2 m below the cycle caps. Subtidal cycles (capped by shallow subtidal facies) are present along the middle-outer ramp and ramp margin and indicate incomplete shallowing. submerged subtidal cycles (64% of all subtidal cycles) are composed of deeper subtidal facies overlain by shallow subtidal facies. Exposed subtidal cycles are composed of deeper subtidal facies overlain by shallow subtidal facies that are capped by features indicative of prolonged subaerial exposure (dissolution cavities and brecciation). Average peritidal and subtidal cycle durations are between approximately 50 and 130 k.y. (fourth- to fifth-order). The combined evidence of abundant exposure-capped peritidal and subtidal cycles, transgressive-prone cycles, and subtidal cycles correlative with updip peritidal cycles indicates that the cycles formed in response to fourth- to fifth-order, glacio-eustatic sea-level oscillations. Sea-level oscillations of relatively low magnitude (< 10 m) are suggested by the abundance of peritidal cycles, the lack of widely varying, water-depth-dependent facies within individual cycles, and the presence of noncyclic stratigraphic intervals within intrashelf-basin, slope, and basin facies. Noncyclic intervals represent missed subtidal beats when the seafloor lay too deep to record the effects of the short-term sea-level oscillations. Exposure surfaces at the tops of peritidal and subtidal cycles represent one, or more likely several, missed sea-level oscillations when the platform lay above fluctuating sea level, but the amplitude of fourth- to fifth-order sea-level oscillation(s) were not high enough to flood the ramp. The large number of missed beats (exposure-capped cycles), specifically in Sequences 2 and 4, results in Fischer plots that show poorly developed rising and falling limbs (subdued wave-like patterns); consequently the Fischer plots: are of limited use as a correlation tool for these particular depositional sequences. The abundance of missed beats also explains why Milankovitch-type cycle ratios (similar to 5:1 or similar to 4:1) are not observed and why such ratios would not be expected along many peritidal-cycle-dominated carbonate platforms

Facies differentiation and sequence stratigraphy in ancient evaporite basins - An example from the basal Zechstein (Upper Permian of Germany), 1999, Steinhoff I. , Strohmenger C. ,
Due to excellent preservation, the Werra Anhydrite (Al), the upper member of the Upper Permian Zechstein cycle I (Ist cycle, Z1), is readily studied in terms of the distribution of sulfate facies and sequence stratigraphy that can be interpreted from these facies. In this study cores taken from seven wells in the Southern Zechstein Basin were examined for their sedimentary structures and various petrographic features. Facies interpretation and depositional sequences are based on detailed examination of core material. Four main facies environments have been identified: (I) supratidal (II) intertidal (III) shallow subtidal, and (IV) deeper (hypersaline) subtidal. These are further subdivided into 10 subfacies types: (1) karst and (2) sabkha within the supratidal environment (I), (3) algal tidal-flat, (4) tidal flat and (5) beach deposit within the intertidal environment (II), (6) salina, and (7) sulfate arenites within the shallow subtidal enviromnent (III). The (8) slope subfacies type commonly associated with (9) turbidites and the (10) basin subfacies type subdivide the deeper subtidal environment (IV). Vertical stacking patterns of these facies and subfacies types reveal the sequence stratigraphic development of the sulfate cycles in response to sea-level and salinity fluctuations. The lower Werra Anhydrite (belonging to Zechstein Sequence ZS2) is characterized by a transgressive systems tract (IST) overlying the transgressive surface of Zechstein Sequence ZS2 within the Al-underlying upper Zechstein Limestone (Cal). The TST of the AT is several tens of meters thick in platform areas, where it is built up by sulfate arenites and swallow-tail anhydrite-after-gypsum, and thins out to a few meters of thickness toward the condensed basinal section, where laminites ('Linien-Anhydrit') are predominant. Most of the Al succession consists of three relatively thick parasequences belonging to the highstand systems tract (HST) that shows typical prograding sets. Enhanced platform Buildup, including sulfate arenites, salina deposits, intertidal sediments, and sabkha precipitation as well as turbidite shedding off the platforms produced marginal ''sulfate walls' up to 400 m thick as platform to slope portions of the Werra Anhydrite. Seaward, the Al thins to a few tens of meters of laminated sulfate basin muds. Increasingly pronounced Al topography during highstand narrowed the slope subfacies belt parallel to the platform margin This contrasts with the broad but considerably thinner slope deposits of transgressive times with much shallower slopes. The ensuing sea-level lowstand is reflected by a sequence boundary on top of the karstified Al-platform and a lowstand wedge (Zechstein Sequence ZS3) overlying portions of the slope and basinal subfacies of the Al highstand systems tract Beyond the lateral limits of the lowstand wedge, the sequence boundary merges with the transgressive surface of ZS3, shown by the lithologic change from the Al anhydrites to the overlying carbonates of the Stassfurt Carbonates ('Haupt Dolomit' Main Dolomite, Ca2). The Basal Anhydrite (A2), which overlies and seals the carbonate reservoir of the Ca2, can also be subdivided into systems tracts by means of facies analysis. It is, however, much less complex than the Al and is comprised almost exclusively of a transgressive systems tract of Zechstein Sequence ZS4

A record of multistage continental break-up on the Brianconnais marginal plateau (Western Alps): Early and Middle-Late Jurassic rifting, 1999, Claudel Me, Dumont T,
The Brianconnais series in the French Western Alps near Briancon bear evidence of extensional deformation preceding Alpine shortening. Most of these structures have been ascribed to Tethyan rifting processes. However, many of them are younger than the initial opening of the Ligurian Tethys ocean (Late Bajocian-Early Bathonian) and have a different orientation than the syn-rift faults. The combined use of sedimentological, stratigraphic, paleostructural and structural methods allows to distinguish the features related to the Tethyan rifting (Early to early Middle Jurassic) from the younger extensional deformation (Late Jurassic) which in part overprinted them: The Tethyan rifting is marked by a subaerial erosional surface (breakup unconformity), bearing karsts which developed along syn-rift faults. The continental to shallow marine diagenetic inprints are analysed (diagenetic log method). The Tethyan syn-rift uplift occurred as pulses from the early Late Triassic (Champcella type units) to the late Early Liassic (Peyre-Haute unit), whereas Tethyan post-rift drowning was synchronous (Late Bathonian thermal subsidence). We propose that the post-break-up extensional deformation (Late Jurassic) is linked with intracontinental rifting of the Atlantic realm (Bay of Biscay and/or Valais rifts). Therefore, the pre-Alpine deformations recorded in the Brianconnais series may result from the interference between different Mesozoic rifting-spreading cycles. Alpine inversion processes are more complex than previously thought since (1) the pre-Alpine structural grain was made of at least two, nearly perpendicular trends, (2) convergence changed in orientation through time, making it possible to reactivate preferentially either one or the other trend, and (3) significant nappe rotations are expected, which may be considered for palinspastic restoration. This has important paleogeographic implications, i.e. the present-day upper units of the Brianconnais pile are not necessarily derived from more distal parts of the Tethyan margin than the lower ones since they may have suffered important lateral, possibly northward, transport before final outward stacking

High-resolution sequence stratigraphic correlation in the Upper Jurassic (Kimmeridgian)-Upper Cretaceous (Cenomanian) peritidal carbonate deposits (Western Taurides, Turkey), 1999, Altiner D, Yilmaz Io, Ozgul N, Akcar N, Bayazitoglu M, Gaziulusoy Ze,
Upper Jurassic (Kimmeridgian)- Upper Cretaceous (Cenomanian) inner platform carbonates in the Western Taurides are composed of metre-scale upward-shallowing cyclic deposits (parasequences) and important karstic surfaces capping some of the cycles. Peritidal cycles (shallow subtidal facies capped by tidal-Aat laminites or fenestrate limestones) are regressive- and transgressive-prone (upward-deepening followed by upward-shallowing facies trends). Subtidal cycles are of two types and indicate incomplete shallowing. Submerged subtidal cycles are composed of deeper subtidal facies overlain by shallow subtidal facies. Exposed subtidal cycles consist of deeper subtidal facies overlain by shallow subtidal facies that are capped by features indicative of prolonged subaerial exposure. Subtidal facies occur characteristically in the Jurassic, while peritidal cycles are typical for the Lower Cretaceous of the region. Within the foraminiferal and dasyclad algal biostratigraphic framework, four karst breccia levels are recognized as the boundaries of major second-order cycles, introduced for the first time in this study. These levels correspond to the Kimmeridgian-Portlandian boundary, mid-Early Valanginian, mid-Early Aptian and mid-Cenomanian and represent important sea level falls which affected the distribution of foraminiferal fauna and dasyclad flora of the Taurus carbonate platform. Within the Kimmeridgian-Cenomanian interval 26 third-order sequences (types and 2) are recognized. These sequences are the records of eustatic sea level fluctuations rather than the records of local tectonic events because the boundaries of the sequences representing 1-4 Ma intervals are correlative with global sea level falls. Third-order sequences and metre-scale cyclic deposits are the major units used for long-distance, high-resolution sequence stratigraphic correlation in the Western Taurides. Metre-scale cyclic deposits (parasequences) in the Cretaceous show genetical stacking patterns within third-order sequences and correspond to fourth-order sequences representing 100-200 ka. These cycles are possibly the E2 signal (126 ka) of the orbital eccentricity cycles of the Milankovitch band. The slight deviation of values, calculated for parasequences. from the mean value of eccentricity cycles can be explained by the currently imprecise geochronology established in the Cretaceous and missed sea level oscillations when the platform lay above fluctuating sea level. Copyright (C) 1999 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd

Late Archaean foreland basin deposits, Belingwe greenstone belt, Zimbabwe, 2001, Hofmann A. , Dirks P. H. G. M. , Jelsma H. A. ,
The c. 2.65 Ga old sedimentary Cheshire Formation of the Belingwe greenstone belt (BDB), central Zimbabwe, has been studied in detail for the first time to shed some light on the much debated evolution of this classical belt. The Cheshire Formation rests sharply on a mafic volcanic unit (Zeederbergs Formation) and comprises a basal, eastward-sloping carbonate ramp sequence built of shallowing-upward, metre-scale sedimentary cycles. The cycles strongly resemble Proterozoic and Phanerozoic carbonate cycles and might have formed by small-scale eustatic sea level changes. The top of the carbonate ramp is represented by a karst surface. The carbonates are overlain by and grade laterally to the east into deeper water (sub-wave base) siliciclastic facies. Conglomerate, shale and minor sandstone were deposited by high- to low-density turbidity currents and were derived from the erosion of Zeederbergs-like volcanic rocks from the east. Shortly after deposition, the Cheshire Formation and underlying volcanics were affected by a northwest-directed thrusting event. Thrusting gave rise to the deformation of semi-consolidated sediments and resulted in the juxtaposition of a thrust slice of Zeederbergs basalts onto Cheshire sediments. The stratigraphy, asymmetric facies and sediment thickness distribution, palaeogeographic constraints and evidence for an early horizontal tectonic event suggest that the Cheshire Formation formed in a foreland-type sedimentary basin. (C) 2001 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved

Sequence Stratigraphy of the Neoproterozoic Infra Krol Formation and Krol Group, Lesser Himalaya, India, 2002, Jiang Ganqing, Christieblick Nicholas, Kaufman Alan J. , Banerjee Dhiraj M. , Rai Vibhuti,
A sequence stratigraphic study of terrigenous and carbonate rocks of the Infra Krol Formation and Krol Group in the Lesser Himalaya fold and thrust belt of northern India was undertaken as part of a broader investigation of the significance of carbon isotope data in Neoproterozoic successions. Eight regional stratigraphic discontinuities were traced over a distance of nearly 300 km, and interpretations were anchored in a series of local studies involving the mapping of key beds and the measurement of closely spaced sections. Three of the regional surfaces are interpreted as sequence boundaries on the basis of (1) locally developed incised valleys < 60 m deep; (2) paleokarstic depressions with < 50 m of mappable relief; (3) subaerial dissolution and weathering products (breccias and calcrete) filling vertical fissures, dikes, cavities, and shallow depressions in underlying carbonate rocks; and (4) small-scale evidence for subaerial exposure at an erosion surface. The remaining five discontinuities are regional flooding surfaces identified on the basis of either facies changes with an abrupt upward deepening across the surface or transitions in facies stacking patterns, typically from forestepping to backstepping. A glacio-eustatic origin is permitted, although not required, for the three sequence boundaries, but no evidence has been found for marked lowering of sea level at other horizons. A mismatch between the stratigraphic location of sequence boundaries and carbon isotope minima suggests that local diagenetic alteration or oceanographic phenomena unrelated to glaciation may be in part responsible for observed isotopic variation, and that small ice sheets may have existed during apparently nonglacial times without producing either cap carbonates or negative carbon isotope excursions

Relative Sea-Level Changes Recorded on an Isolated Carbonate Platform: Tithonian to Cenomanian Succession, Southern Croatia, 2006, Husinec Antun, Jelaska Vladimir,
Superb sections of Tithonian to Cenomanian carbonates of the Adriatic (Dinaric) platform are exposed on the islands of southern Croatia. A succession approximately 1,800 m thick consists exclusively of shallow-water marine carbonates (limestone, dolomitized limestone, dolomite, and intraformational breccia), formed in a protected and tectonically stable part of the platform interior. Several phases of exposure and incipient drowning are recorded in the platform interior. Four are crucial for understanding the Late Jurassic to mid-Cretaceous evolution of the wider peri-Adriatic area: (1) latest Jurassic-earliest Cretaceous sea-level fall, (2) Aptian drowning, followed by (3) Late Aptian platform exposure, and (4) Late Albian-Early Cenomanian sea-level fall. Deciphering these complex events from the vertical and lateral facies distribution has led to an evaluation of facies dynamics and construction of a relative sea-level curve for the study area. This curve shows that long-term transgression during the Early Tithonian, Hauterivian, Early Aptian, and Early Albian, resulted in generally thicker beds deposited in subtidal environments of lagoons or shoals. Regression was characterized by shallowing-upward peritidal parasequences, with well-developed tidal-flat laminites commonly capped by emersion breccia and/or residual clay sheets (Early Berriasian, Barremian, Late Aptian, Late Albian). The southern part of the Dinarides was tectonically quiet during the Tithonian through Aptian; sea-level oscillations appear to have been the primary control on facies stacking. Some correlation exists between local sea-level fluctuations and the published global eustasy charts for the Tithonian through Aptian. A significant departure is recognized at the Albian-Cenomanian transition, suggesting that it was influenced by tectonics associated with the disintegration of the Adriatic (Dinaric) platform

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