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Enviroscan Ukrainian Institute of Speleology and Karstology

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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That calcarenite is 1. limestone or dolomite composed of coral or shell sand or of grains derived from the disintegration and erosion of older limestones. size of particles ranges from 1/16 to 2 millimeters [10]. 2. a carbonate rock that consists predominantly (>50%) of sandsized calcite (or dolomite) particles. many of the particles are the angular or degraded fragments of fossil shells [9].?

Checkout all 2699 terms in the KarstBase Glossary of Karst and Cave Terms

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KarstBase a bibliography database in karst and cave science.

Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
See all featured articles
Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
See all featured articles from other geoscience journals

Search in KarstBase

Your search for swallet (Keyword) returned 16 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 1 to 15 of 16
Longwood Swallet, Charterhouse-on-Mendip, 1947, Stride A. H. , Stride R. D.

The Peak Forest Swallets, Castleton, Derbyshire, 1950, Salmon L. B. , Boldock G.

Symposium on Hydrology - Tracing Swallet Waters using Lycopodium Spores, 1968, Atkinson T. C.

Symposium on Hydrology - Water Tracing in St. Cuthbert's Swallet, Priddy, Somerset, 1968, Stenner R. D.

Essays to Edward Aubrey Glennie - Caving in the Himalayas: Moila Swallet, 1969, Osmaston G. H.

A Model of the Karst Percolation System of Waterfall Swallet, Derbyshire, 1974, Gunn J.

Karst Hydrogeology and Geomorphology of the Sierra de El Abra and the Valles-San Luis Potosí Region, México, PhD Thesis, 1977, Fish, Johnnie Edward

The general objective of this work was to develop a basic understanding of the karst hydrology, the nature and origin of the caves, the water chemistry, the surface geomorphology, and relationships among these aspects for a high relief tropical karst region having a thick section of limestone. The Valles-San Luis Potosí region of northeastern México, and in particular, the Sierra de El Abra, was selected for the study. A Cretaceous Platform approximately 200 km wide and 300 km long (N-S) delimits the region of interest. A thick Lower Cretaceous deposit of gypsum and anydrite, and probably surrounded by Lower Cretaceous limestone facies, is overlain by more than 1000 m of the thick-bedded middle Cretaceous El Abra limestone, which has a thick platform-margin reef. The Sierra de El Abra is a greatly elongated range along the eastern margin of the Platform. During the late Cretaceous, the region was covered by thick deposits of impermeable rocks. During the early Tertiary, the area was folded, uplifted, and subjected to erosion. A high relief karst having a wide variety of geomorphic forms controlled by climate and structure has developed. Rainfall in the region varies from 250-2500 mm and is strongly concentrated in the months June-October, when very large rainfalls often occur.
A number of specific investigations were made to meet the general objective given above, with special emphasis on those that provide information concerning the nature of ground-water flow systems in the region. Most of the runoff from the region passes through the karstic subsurface. Large portions of the region have no surface runoff whatsoever. The El Abra Formation is continuous over nearly the whole Platform, and it defines a region of very active ground-water circulation. Discharge from the aquifer occurs at a number of large and many small springs. Two of them, the Coy and the Frío springs group, are among the largest springs in the world with average discharges of approximately 24 m³/sec and 28 m³/sec respectively. Most of the dry season regional discharge is from a few large springs at low elevations along the eastern margin of the Platform. The flow systems give extremely dynamic responses to large precipitation events; floods at springs usually crest roughly one day after the causal rainfall and most springs have discharge variations (0max/0min) of 25-100 times. These facts indicate well-developed conduit flow systems.
The hydrochemical and hydrologic evidence in combination with the hydrogeologic setting demonstrate the existence of regional ground-water flow to several of the large eastern springs. Hydrochemical mixing-model calculations show that the amount of regional flow is at least 12 m³/sec, that it has an approximately constant flux, and that the local flow systems provide the extremely variable component of spring discharge. The chemical and physical properties of the springs are explained in terms of local and regional flow systems.
Local studies carried out in the Sierra de El Abra show that large conduits have developed, and that large fluctuations of the water table occur. The large fossil caves in the range were part of great deep phreatic flow systems which circulated at least 300 m below ancient water tables and which discharged onto ancient coastal plains much higher than the present one. The western margin swallet caves are of the floodwater type. The cave are structurally controlled.
Knowledge gained in this study should provide a basis for planning future research, and in particular for water resource development. The aquifer has great potential for water supply, but little of that potential is presently used.

In the carbonate aquifers which underlie most karst terrains, groundwater flow is through a dendritic system of solution conduits. In such aquifers, termed shallow conduit-flow aquifers. the methods used to mode) granular and fracture aquifers are not generally applicable. Investigations were conducted in the Inner Bluegrass Karst Region of central Kentucky with the objective of developing methods of modeling shallow conduit-flow aquifers as well as obtaining quantitative information on a specific portion of the aquifer to assist in its management for water supply purposes. In the Inner Bluegrass Karst Region, groundwater basins are developed. in each of which there is an integrated system of solution conduits which conducts recharge to a major spring. One of the largest of these groundwater basins feeds Royal Spring, which serves as the principal water supply for the town of Georgetown. The basin extends over 15 km to the southeast and most of its flow is furnished by underground diversions of Cane Run, a surface stream with headwaters near the center of the City of Lexington. The principal objectives of the field investigation were to determine discharges at the spring and travel times to the spring from discrete recharge points within the basin, termed swallets. The spring is ungaged. and an attempt was made to obtain a continuous discharge record by the dilution of dye introduced at a swallet. Comparison of the dye-dilution discharge record with stage discharges at the spring revealed substantial discrepancies which are believed to be caused by as much as five-sixths of the low-flow discharge from the upper portion of the basin bypassing the spring. The dye-dilution method, therefore, provided significant insights into the geometry of the conduit system of the groundwater basin although it proved unsatisfactory as a method of determining discharges at the spring. Analysis of the travel times and stage discharges provided information on the conduit geometry by modeling the flow as open-channel flow in a rectangular channel. Flow in the system is rapid, ranging from 140 to 590 m h-1. Although the flow rate increases with discharge, the relationship is not simple owing to substantial increases in conduit cross-sectional area at higher discharges. Flow is turbulent and subcritical under all conditions. The most surprising result was the very low depth of flow calculated; less than 17 cm at even the highest discharge. Although this must be considered an 'equivalent' depth, it is believed to indicate that active flow in shallow conduit-flow aquifers is generally in a thin zone just beneath the water table

Tracing recharge from sinking streams over spatial dimensions of kilometers in a karst aquifer, 1997, Greene E. A. ,
Stable isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen were used to trace the sources of recharge from sinking streams to wells and springs several kilometers downgradient in the karst Madison aquifer near Rapid City, South Dakota. Temporal sampling of streamflow above the swallets identified a distinct isotopic signature that was used to define the spatial dimensions of recharge to the aquifer. When more than one sinking stream was determined to be recharging a well or spring, the proportions were approximated using a two-component mixing model. From the isotopic analysis, it is possible to link sinking stream recharge to individual wells or springs in the Rapid City area and illustrate there is significant lateral movement of ground water across surface drainage basins. These results emphasize that well-head protection strategies developed for carbonate aquifers that provide industrial and municipal water supplies need to consider lateral movement of ground-water flow from adjacent surface drainage basins

Physical response of a karst drainage basin to flood pulses: Example of the Devil's Icebox cave system (Missouri, USA), 1998, Halihan T. , Wicks C. M. , Engeln J. F. ,
In karst aquifers, water moves from the recharge area (sinkhole plains and swallets) to the discharge area (springs), traveling kilometers through the groundwater system in a period of hems to days. Transit rimes through karst aquifers are a function of the conduit geometry and connectedness, intensity and duration of the recharge event, and antecedent soil moisture. Often many of these factors are unknown or difficult to quantify. Therefore, predicting the response of a karst basin to recharge is difficult. Numerous researchers have attempted to understand the response of a karst basin, but a good understanding of whether the response is dependent on local features or regional effects is currently lacking. From April 1994 to May 1995, flood pulse hydrographs from a karst aquifer with well-developed and well-documented conduits (Devil's Icebox cave system) were obtained from a gaging station near the spring of the karst basin. Data were also collected from within the conduit system in an attempt to determine whether flow was locally controlled by constrictions in the conduits. Based on an application of Bernoulli's equation, analyses of the changes in kinetic head and potential head over time indicated local control during storm events. The observed sediment patterns and water level variations also support localized flow control during storm events. A numerical model of the constrictions was rested and reproduced the responses observed at the spring during initial periods of storm events. The model illustrated that the constricted flow was very sensitive to recharge. It also illustrated the transition from local control due to constriction to regional controls due to the aquifer matrix. (C) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V

Determining the source of stream contamination in a karst water system, southwest Virginia, USA, 2001, Younos T. , Kaurish F. W. , Brown T. , De Leon R. ,
Karst terrane provides a linkage between surface water and ground water regimes by means of caves, sinkholes and swallets, and sinking streams, and facilitates the inter-watershed transfer of water and contaminants through these subsurface systems. The goal of this study was to develop procedures to identify the sources of degradation of a creek situated in a complex karst-water system. The study approach consisted of using dye tracing technique to determine subsurface flow paths through the karst system, a water-sampling network to identify and characterize pollution sources within the surface watershed and subsurface flow regime, and evaluation of analytical data for several water quality parameters. The results of this study provide an interesting perspective of water and contaminant movement in karst-water systems and pinpoint the sources of stream contamination for a case study site in southwest Virginia where two springs supply water to a contaminated freshwater stream

Conceptual models for karstic aquifers, 2003, White, W. B.

Karstic carbonate aquifers are extremely heterogeneous with a distribution of permeability that spans many orders of magnitude. They often contain open conduit flow paths with hydraulic characteristics more like surface streams than ground water. Karstic carbonate aquifers have highly efficient interfaces with surface water through swallets and springs. Characterizing parameters include: area of ground-water basin, area of allogenic recharge basins, conduit carrying capacity, matrix hydraulic conductivity, fracture hydraulic conductivity, conduit system response time, and conduit/fracture coupling coefficients. The geologic setting provides boundary conditions that allow the generalized conceptual model to be applied to specific aquifers.

Spatial and temporal changes in the structure of groundwater nitrate concentration time series (1935-1999) as demonstrated by autoregressive modelling, 2005, Jones A. L. , Smart P. L. ,
Autoregressive modelling is used to investigate the internal structure of long-term (1935-1999) records of nitrate concentration for five karst springs in the Mendip Hills. There is a significant short term (1-2 months) positive autocorrelation at three of the five springs due to the availability of sufficient nitrate within the soil store to maintain concentrations in winter recharge for several months. The absence of short term (1-2 months) positive autocorrelation in the other two springs is due to the marked contrast in land use between the limestone and swallet parts of the catchment, rapid concentrated recharge from the latter causing short term switching in the dominant water source at the spring and thus fluctuating nitrate concentrations. Significant negative autocorrelation is evident at lags varying from 4 to 7 months through to 14-22 months for individual springs, with positive autocorrelation at 19-20 months at one site. This variable timing is explained by moderation of the exhaustion effect in the soil by groundwater storage, which gives longer residence times in large catchments and those with a dominance of diffuse flow. The lags derived from autoregressive modelling may therefore provide an indication of average groundwater residence times. Significant differences in the structure of the autocorrelation function for successive 10-year periods are evident at Cheddar Spring, and are explained by the effect the ploughing up of grasslands during the Second World War and increased fertiliser usage on available nitrogen in the soil store. This effect is moderated by the influence of summer temperatures on rates of mineralization, and of both summer and winter rainfall on the timing and magnitude of nitrate leaching. The pattern of nitrate leaching also appears to have been perturbed by the 1976 drought. (C) 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved

Geochemical and statistical evidence of recharge, mixing, and controls on spring discharge in an eogenetic karst aquifer, 2009, Moore Paul J. , Martin Jonathan B. , Screaton Elizabeth J.

Information about sources of recharge, distributions of flow paths, and the extent of water–rock reactions in karst aquifers commonly result from monitoring spring chemistry and discharge. To investigate the relationship between spring characteristics and the complexities of karst aquifers, we couple variations in surface- and groundwater chemistry to physical conditions including river stage, precipitation, and  evapotranspiration (ET) within a sink-rise system through a 6-km portion of the Upper Floridan aquifer (UFA) in north-central Florida. Principal component analysis (PCA) of time series major-element compositions suggests that at least three sources of water affect spring discharge, including allogenic recharge into a swallet, diffuse recharge through a thin vadose zone, and water upwelling from deep within the aquifer. The deep-water source exerts the strongest influence on water chemistry by providing a majority of Na+, Mg2+, K+, Cl, and SO2 4 to the system. Anomalously high temperature at one of several monitoring wells reflects vertical flow of about 1 m/year. Mass-balance calculations suggest diffuse recharge and deep-water upwelling can provide up to 50% of the spring discharge; however, their contributions depend on head gradients between the conduit and surrounding aquifer matrix, which are influenced
by variations in precipitation, ET, and river stage. Our results indicate that upwelling from deep flow paths may provide significant contributions of water to spring discharge, and that monitoring only springs limits interpretations of karst systems by masking critical components of the aquifer, such as water sources and flow paths. These results also suggest the matrix in eogenetic aquifers is a major pathway for flow even in a system dominated by conduits.

Understanding sinkhole-drainage capacity and functioning is critical to realizing the effects that may be created when direct-ing stormwater drainage into sinkholes. In this paper, the basics of sinkhole drainage are reviewed in terms of point vortex flow created by drainage down a sinkhole swallet. Then, several different, relatively simple sinkhole shapes are presented and mathematical models developed to simulate drainage from in-flowing water. The models emphasize the significance of drainage rate as a function of sinkhole shape and sinkhole wetted cross-sectional area relative to changes in water level and time. Model simulations provide insights into the sensitivity of sinkholes to inflow rates and water-level changes with time. Ma-jor findings include insights into the rapidity by which inflows may increase the water level in a sinkhole and the significance of sinkhole shape and cross-sectional area as it relates to sinkhole drainage rate. The numerical solution is completely general so it allows for varying inflow rates in any manner desired. Application of the model to real sinkholes should assist in the management of sinkhole-flooding problems.

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