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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That meander niche is a conical or crescent-- shaped opening in the wall of a cave, formed by the downward and lateral erosion of a stream on the floor of a passage [10].?

Checkout all 2699 terms in the KarstBase Glossary of Karst and Cave Terms

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KarstBase a bibliography database in karst and cave science.

Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
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Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
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Your search for syria (Keyword) returned 8 results for the whole karstbase:
Environmental isotopic and hydrochemical study of water in the karst aquifer and submarine springs of the Syrian coast, , Al C, Abdul R,

Environmental isotope study of the major karst springs in Damascus limestone aquifer systems: Case of the Figeh and Barada springs, 1997, Kattan Z. ,
The groundwaters of major karst springs and several piezometers and wells in the Damascus limestone aquifer systems (Syria) have been investigated using chemical and environmental isotope techniques. The groundwater bodies of major karat springs mainly originate from direct infiltration of atmospheric water. The groundwaters emerging from the Figeh main spring have lower stable isotope concentrations than those emerging from the Barada spring. Stable isotopes show that the elevation of the recharge zones of the Figeh main spring (1750 m above sea level) is higher than those for the Figeh side spring (1500 m) and the Harouch spring (1300 m). The groundwater in the Barada spring seems to be recharged in a catchment area with a mean elevation of about 1250 m. The temporal evolution of stable isotope concentrations, tritium content and hydrochemistry show the existence of an interconnection between the aquifers of the Figeh main spring and the Figeh side spring, especially during flood periods. The distinct independent isotopic composition of Harouch spring from those of Figeh main and side springs suggests no interconnection with the Figeh aquifers. Adopting a model with exponential time distribution, the mean turnover time (residence time) of groundwater in Figeh main spring was evaluated to be 50 years. On the basis of this evaluation, a value of about 3.9 billion m(3) was obtained for the maximum groundwater reservoir size. (C) 1997 Elsevier Science B.V

Use of hydrochemistry and environmental isotopes for evaluation of groundwater in the Paleogene limestone aquifer of the Ras Al-Ain area (Syrian Jezireh), 2001, Kattan Zuhair,

Geo-electrical Investigation for Sulfur Prospecting in Teshreen Structure in Northeast Syria, 2002, Asfahani Jama, Mohamad Rand,
Electrical and structural characteristics of formations favorable for sulfur occurrences in northeast Syria are described using geo-electrical prospecting methods. Simple (VES) and combined (CVES) Schlumberger vertical electrical soundings and geo-electrical profiling using a Wenner configuration were applied to the Teshreen structure. Six profiles (A, B, C, D, E, and F) at the borders of anticlines, where positive and negative structures are joined and salt formations have a tendency to disappear, were studied. Secondary structures, characterized by high apparent resistivity exceeding 3000 Ohm.m were located on each profile using a Wenner profiling configuration. These secondary structures are demonstrated to be favorable for sulfur prospecting by both drilled wells and vertical electrical soundings. Traditional interpretation of the 84 VES measurments is supported by data from 14 CVES measurments. The CVES technique is a powerful tool, due to its improved resolution of the electrical boundaries. Thicknesses and resistivities of the Lower Al-Fares, Al-Garibeh, and Al-Dibbaneh formations were determined through the interpretation of VES measurments. The same VES measurments were then interpreted using the Pichgin method, whereby all the subsurface tectonic features were determined for depth penetration corresponding to AB/2 = 1000 m. The integration of the first and second VES phases creates a clear picture of the subsurface, including tectonic, geometric, and geo-electrical information. In summary, the sulfur occurrences in the research area are controlled by tectonic paths that are well defined by geo-electrical methods. These diverse geo-electrical methods could be used successfully for sulfur prospecting in similar environments

The vegetation of the high mountains of Crete - a revision and multivariate analysis, 2002, Bergmeier E,
The vegetation at elevations above 1,400 m in the south Aegean island of Crete (Greece) is studied and revised. By means of phytosociological classification (assisted by TWINSPAN) and ordination (Detrended correspondence analysis, DCA), the plant communities and abiotic (environmental, geographical) factors governing the variance in vegetation are described and discussed. The analyses are based on 492 sample plots from the three major mountain ranges of Crete. All published data available, as well as own unpublished releves are included. Since the plots differ much with respect to species number and plot size, and to combine different subsets and different data properties, various data sets are used for DCA ordination. Data on environmental variables are used supplementarily. Ordination results suggest the following factors to be of major effect on the variance in vegetation: Rock type, soil type, altitude, geographical situation, degree of substrate fixation, and inclination. The representation of local and regional endemics in the vegetation increases with altitude and along the habitat type series: phrygana and woodland - fixed slopes - dolines - screes. A synoptic table of 26 columns (vegetation types and subtypes) is presented. The vegetation consists of the tragacanth formation of fixed slopes (8 columns), swards and scrub of doline grounds (9), scree vegetation (4), and rupicolous chasmophytic vegetation (2). Phrygana (2) and woodland vegetation (1) are marginal. A hierarchical conspectus of the syntaxa is provided which includes the following nomenclaturally relevant new or validated names of various ranks (in alphabetic order): Alysso sphaciotici-Valantion apricae, Arenario fragillimae-Silenetum antri-jovis, Arenarion creticae, Astragalion cretici, Berberido creticae-Astragaletum cretici, Cicero incisi-Silenetum variegatae, Colchico cretensis-Cirsion morinifolii, Fumano paphlagonicae-Helianthemetum hymettii, Gypsophilo nanae-Arenarietum creticae, Hyperico kelleri-Anchusetum cespitosae, Lomelosio sphacioticae-Centranthetum sieberi, Paronychio macrosepalae-Juniperetum oxycedri, Saturejo spinosae-Scutella-rietalia hirtae, Sideritido syriacae-Verbascetum spinosi, Verbascion spinosi

Localization of saturated karst aquifer with magnetic resonance sounding and resistivity imagery, 2003, Vouillamoz J. M. , Legchenko A. , Albouy Y. , Bakalowicz M. , Baltassat J. M. , Alfares W. ,
To answer one of the main questions of hydrogeologists implementing boreholes or working on pollution questions in a karst environment-i.e., where is the ground water?-numerous tools including geophysics are used. However, the contribution of geophysics differs from one method to the other. The magnetic resonance sounding (MRS) method has the advantage of direct detection of ground water over other geophysical methods. Eight MRSs were implemented over a known karst conduit explored and mapped by speleologists to estimate the MRS ability to localize ground water. Two direct current resistivity imageries (DC-2D imagery) were also implemented to check their capability to map a known cave. We found that the MRS is a useful tool to locate ground water in karst as soon as the quantity of water is enough to be detected. The threshold quantity is a function of depth and it was estimated by forward modeling to propose a support graph to hydrogeologists. The measured MRS's signals could be used to calculate transmissivity and permeability estimators. These estimators were used to map and to draw a cross section of the case study site, which underline accurately the known karst conduit location and depth. We also found that the DC-2D imagery could underline the karst structures: It was able to detect the known cave through its associated faults. We prepared a computer simulation to check the depth of such a cave to induce resistivity anomaly which could be measured in similar conditions

Hydrology of the Oronte-Sin rivers karst, northwestern Syria, 2005, Mahfoud Robert F.

The Jabal Al Qarah Caves of the Hofuf Area, Northeastern Saudi Arabia: A geological investigation., 2006, Hussain M. , Alkhalifah F. , Khandaker N. I.
The Jabal Al Qarah Caves, located approximately 13 km east of Al Hofuf, Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia, are an intricate cave system developed in the calcareous sandstone, marl and clay of the Upper Miocene to Lower Pliocene Hofuf Formation. Physiographically, the hill of Jabal Al Qarah is an outlier mesa that is located at the eastern edge of the Shedgum Plateau, the southern extension of the As Summon Plateau, and the larger Syrian Plateau to the north. Based on cave morphology and interpreted evolutionary history, the Jabal Al Qarah caves appear to be significantly different from other limestone caves reported in the As Summon Plateau. Jabal Al Qarah is known for Us tall, linear cave passages and narrow canyons. The boxwork of linear passages is better developed here than any other known cave locations in the Eastern Province. Field observations, including orientations of the escarpment face of the Shedgum Plateau, joints, and fractures, coupled with a review of the tectonic history of the region, suggest that these caves resulted from erosional enlargement of a series of very deep and narrow joint-controlled fissures in the Hofuf Formation. Petrographic data, especially an abundance of well-preserved palygorskite type clay minerals, suggests that the Hofuf Formation was deposited in a mudflat-dominated coastal plain environment.

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