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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That unconfined aquifer is an aquifer where the water table is exposed to the atmosphere through openings in the overlying materials.?

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Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
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Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
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Your search for temperature range (Keyword) returned 11 results for the whole karstbase:
The climate of the Marble Arch Caves, County Fermanagh, Northern Ireland, BSc thesis (Geography) , 1997, Perrin, D.

The Marble Arch cave is a high energy cave located in County Fermanagh, Northern Ireland. The first 500 metres of the system has been opened as a Showcave for approximately 13 years and has been visited by over half a million visitors since opening. Microclimatic investigations over a six month sampling period (31.7.96-10.1.97) found that the cave has a variable microclimate in response to, the surface climate, the caves hydrology and influences within the Showcave.
High positive correlation coefficient's were attained between the cave and surface air temperature. As distance increased into the cave correlation coefficients' decreased indicating a time lag. Air temperatures varied on both a temporal and spatial scale. Summer air temperature ranges of 2.1 °C were noted between sites within the cave, which increased to 7.1 °C during the winter season. The cave air temperature changed progressively from the entrance to the interior, decreasing in the summer and increasing in the winter months. During the summer months the mean surface air temperature (17.4°C) was greater than the cave mean air temperature (10.8°C). In the winter months the mean surface air temperature (1.9°C) was less than the cave mean air temperature (7.2°C). Site variability was generally greater during the summer months indicated by higher Coefficient of Variations.
The 'chimney effect' is noticeable in some parts of the cave as a result of surface and cave air temperature differences. Airflow within the cave changed direction in response to seasonal air temperature variations, flowing out of the cave during summer months and into the cave in the winter. Other processes such as the 'Entrainment Effect' were also evident. Airflow throughout the cave was generally weak, although in some parts of the cave was noticeable as a 'wind'.
The main river flowing through the cave was responsive to the seasonal cave air temperatures. During the summer months the water temperature once entering the cave decreases by approximately 2°C and increases by up to 7°C during the winter months. A relatively constant seasonal water temperature is maintained whilst travelling through the cave.
The largest air temperature variations occurred within the Showcave in which the presence of tourists and electrical lighting are believed to be partially responsible, the latter of which being the greater contributor. Results show that a tour of 18 people on average increased the surrounding air temperature by up to 1.3°C. The effect was reduced when a tour was moving past a point rather than remaining stationary in the same place.
Electronic lighting increased the overall air temperature throughout the Showcave. Each type of light used within the Showcave influenced the air temperature up to a metre away from the light source. Air temperature increases around the lighting was a result of the type of light used rather than the bulb wattage installed. In some cases the air temperature remained 2°C higher than the mean cave air temperature 1 metre away from the light source.

An experimental study of calcite and limestone dissolution rates as a function of pH from -1 to 3 and temperature from 25 to 80 degrees C, 1998, Alkattan M, Oelkers Eh, Dandurand Jl, Schott J,
Dissolution rates of single calcite crystals, limestones, and compressed calcite powders were determined from sample weight loss using free-drift rotating disk techniques. Experiments were performed in aqueous HCl solutions over the bulk solution pH range -1 to 3, and at temperatures of 25 degrees, 50 degrees, and 80 degrees C. Corresponding rates of the three different sample types are identical within experimental uncertainty. Interpretation of these data using equations reported by Gregory and Riddiford [Gregory, D.P., Riddiford, A.C., 1956. Transport to the surface of a rotating disc. J. Chem. Sec. London 3, 3756-3764] yields apparent rate constants and H diffusion coefficients. The logarithms of overall calcite dissolution rates (r) obtained at constant disk rotation speed are inversely proportional to the bulk solution pH, consistent with r = k(2') a(H,b), where k(2)' stands for an apparent rate constant and a(H,b) designates the hydrogen ion activity in the bulk solution, This variation of dissolution rates with pH is consistent with corresponding rates reported in the literature and the calcite dissolution mechanism reported by Wollast [Wollast, R., 1990. Rate and mechanism of dissolution of carbonates in the system CaCO3-MgCO3. In: Stumm, W. (Ed.), Aquatic Chemical Kinetics. Wiley, pp. 431-445]. Apparent rate constants for a disk rotation speed of 340 rpm increase from 0.07 0.02 to 0.25 0.02 mol m(-2) s(-1) in response to increasing temperature from 25 degrees to 80 degrees C. H diffusion coefficients increase from (2.9 to 9.2) x 10(-9) m(2) s(-1) over this temperature range with an apparent activation energy of 19 kJ mol(-1). (C) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved

Calcite Moonmilk: Crystal Morphology and Environment of Formation in Caves in the Italian Alps, 2000, Borsato A, Frisia S, Jones B, Van Der Borg K,
Calcite moonmilk, which is a cave deposit formed of calcite crystals and water, is found in many caves in the Italian Alps. These modern and ancient deposits are formed of fiber calcite crystals, 50-500 nm wide and 1 to > 10 {micro}m long, and polycrystalline chains that have few crystal defects. Radiocarbon dating indicates that most moonmilk deposits in these caves are fossil and that for most precipitation ceased [~] 6400 cal years BP, at the end of the mid-Holocene Hypsithermal. In the caves of the Italian Alps, the optimal conditions for formation of calcite moonmilk are: (1) a temperature range of 3.5-5.5{degrees}C, (2) low discharge volumes of seepage waters that are slightly supersaturated (SICAL = 0.0 to [~] 0.2), and (3) relative humidity that is at or close to 100%. Microbial activity apparently did not play an active role in the formation of the calcite moonmilk. Conditions for moonmilk formation are typically found in caves that are located beneath land surfaces, which are soil covered and support a conifer forest. Precipitation of the fiber calcite crystals apparently involved very slow flow of slightly supersaturated fluids. The fact that moonmilk appears to form under a narrow range of environmental conditions means that this cave deposit has potential as a paleoclimatic indicator in high alpine karst areas

Geology of the Beltana Willemite Deposit, Flinders Ranges, South Australia, 2003, Groves Iain M. , Carman Cris E. , Dunlap W. James,
Beltana is a high-grade hypogene willemite deposit hosted in Lower Cambrian carbonate rocks in the Arrowie basin, northern Flinders Ranges, South Australia. It is situated adjacent to a major growth fault on the basin margin. Ooid grainstone units of the Woodendinna Dolomite and units of Archaeocyathid-rich Wilkawillina Limestone are the main host lithologies. Lead minerals in subeconomic quantities are also present in karstic collapse breccias surrounding the willemite orebodies. Mineralization is structurally controlled and associated with brecciation and extensive hematite-rich hydrothermal zincian dolomitization. Ore minerals include willemite and coronadite with lesser mimetite, hedyphane, and smithsonite. Late-stage gangue minerals include manganocalcite, dolomite, and minor quartz. The texture of willemite is heterogeneous, resulting from various depositional mechanisms such as partial to massive replacement of the carbonate host rock, internal sedimentation, fracture fill, brecciation, and vein fill. On the periphery of the deposit, smithsonite formed by weathering of willemite. Beltana is centered on a karstic collapse breccia that extends at least 100 m vertically, formed in part through corrosion by acidic ore solutions. The geochemical signature of the orebody includes high levels of Zn, Pb, Cd, As, and Mn. Notably, silver is absent from the deposit and sulfur concentrations are low (<20 ppm). Fluid inclusion studies yield a low minimum temperature range of ore deposition between 50{degrees} and 170{degrees}C. K-Ar dating of coronadite associated with the willemite orebody indicates an age of formation of ~ 435 {} 5 Ma. Premining resources of willemite ore were 850,000 t at 36 percent Zn, and an associated body of subeconomic lead contained more than 800,000 t at 8.9 percent Pb, 3.9 percent Zn and 1 percent As. The deposit has some similarities with Mississippi Valley-type deposits but differs in ore and alteration mineral assemblages

Investigation of the groundwater residence time distribution in the Aladag (Kayseri-Adana, Turkey) karstic aquifer. PhD Thesis, 2004, Ozyurt, N. Nur

The Aladað karstic aquifer of Eastern Taurids Range extends between 400m and 3750m elevations and, covers an area of 1900 km2 within Adana-Kayseri-Niðde provinces. The study covers the Kapuzbaþý, Göksu shallow circulation and Yerköprü 1, Yerköprü 2 and Yerköprü 3 deep circulation springs that extend from recharge area to the Zamanti river.
The system is fed by precipitation of Mediterranean origin and total precipitation input, evapo-transpiration, net recharge and its volumetric equivalent are found to be 1113 mm, 451 mm, 879 mm and 939 106 m3. Mean annual discharges of Yerköprü 3, Yerköprü 1 and 2, Göksu and, Kapuzbaþý and Barazama springs are 449 106 m3, 82 106 m3, 299 106 m3 and 146 106 m3. Noble gas ( 20Ne, 40Ar, 84Kr) and 18O isotopes suggest recharge area elevation and temperature ranges of 1700-2100m and 2-6 oC. The helium (He) content of groundwater increases with increasing circulation depth. Year round biweekly-monthly samples’ electrical conductivity, tritium ( 3H) and 18O content reveal that Kapuzbaþý and Göksu springs and, Yerköprü 1 and Yerköprü 2 springs behave similarly among themselves.
The “CFC model ages” of the springs where, chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) contents increased from 1997 to 2002, range between 10 to 20 years and 20 to 30 years in the shallow and deep circulation parts, respectively. The 3H/3He* absolute age of groundwater from springs is around 20 +/- 2.5 years. In the computer code LUMPEDUS that was developed for unsteady state lumped parameter modeling applications, 3H, tritiogenic helium-3 ( 3He*), CFC-11, CFC-12, CFC-113, and 18O were used as environmental tracers. Serially connected plug-exponential flow model applied to all springs. All models were calibrated for observed outflux and their forecasted 3H, 3He* and 18O time series were found to be in good agreement with the observations. Mean residence times found by models are in agreement with 3H/3He* ages. According to residence time distribution suggested by models, most of the discharges comprise recharges that occurred within last 20 to 30 years. Sixty per cent of discharge comprises recharges of the last 3 to 4 years. The active reservoir volumes of Yerköprü 1-2, Kapuzbaþý, Göksu and Yerköprü 3 springs are found to be 1604 106 m3, 2808 106 m3, 5728 106 m3 and 8609 106 m3 , respectively. According to well established linear relationship between reservoir volumes and discharge elevations, an active volume increases 50 106 m3 per 1m decrease in elevation. Cumulative active reservoir volume is found to be 18749 106 m3 at 450 m elevation where Yerköprü 3 spring is located. Uppermost elevation of active reservoir is located at 836m. Groundwater’s velocity ranges from 2.09 m/day to 5.57 m/day and the corresponding hydraulic conductivities for different reservoirs are between 41.8 m/day and 212.2 m/day. The ordering of hydraulic conductivity among springs ( > > > ) seems to be related to their time of formation. Based on an assumption of 1500m of maximum hydraulic head at the recharge area, the effective porosity of the system is estimated to be 0.86 per cent.

Modelling of calcium sulphate solubility in concentrated multi-component sulphate solutions, 2007, Azimi G. , Papangelakis V. G. , Dutrizac J. E.

The chemistry of several calcium sulphate systems was successfully modelled in multi-component acid-containing sulphate solutions using the mixed solvent electrolyte (MSE) model for calculating the mean activity coefficients of the electrolyte species. The modelling involved the fitting of binary mean activity, heat capacity and solubility data, as well as ternary solubility data. The developed model was shown to accurately predict the solubility of calcium sulphate from 25 to 95 °C in simulated zinc sulphate processing solutions containing MgSO4, MnSO4, Fe2(SO4)3, Na2SO4, (NH4)2SO4 and H2SO4. The addition of H2SO4 results in a significant increase in the calcium sulphate solubility compared to that in water. By increasing the acid concentration, gypsum, which is a metastable phase above 40 °C, dehydrates to anhydrite, and the conversion results in a decrease in the solubility of calcium sulphate. In ZnSO4–H2SO4 solutions, it was found that increasing MgSO4, Na2SO4, Fe2(SO4)3 and (NH4)2SO4 concentrations do not have a pronounced effect on the solubility of calcium sulphate. From a practical perspective, the model is valuable tool for assessing calcium sulphate solubilities over abroad temperature range and for dilute to concentrated multi-component solutions.

Underground meteorology - Whats the weather underground?, 2010, Badino, Giovanni

The aim of this work is to provide a synthetic outline of some of the processes of transient nature occurring in caves, focusing on poorly studied general aspects of underground physics and mainly making use of original experimental data. In the first part, the average climatic conditions of a caves, their connection to the external climate, and the general role played by rock, water, air and external morphology are discussed. The variation of the internal temperature with the altitude is a key parameter for the cave physics: the related energetic consequences are briefly discussed. In the second part, transient processes are considered, and a general overview of main meteorological phenomena occurring underground is given. The physics of thermal sedimentation, of underground temperature ranges, of infrasonic oscillations of cave atmospheres and, above all, of water vapour condensation in caves is synthetically described. The experimental study of these processes is extremely difficult, because they are time dependent and have very small amplitude; the first measurements show, however, that their variability from one cave to another, and from point to point inside a cave, is surprisingly high. To provide a more correct interpretation of underground climatic measurements, for their speleogenetic role and importance in cave environment protection, a better understanding of the processes described here is essential.

The mineral assemblage of caves within Salitrari Mountain (Cerna Valley, SW Romania): depositional environment and speleogenetic implications, 2010, Puscas Cristina M. , Onac Bogdan P. , Tamas Tudor

Eighteen minerals belonging to eight chemical groups were identified from three caves within Şălitrari Mountain, in the upper Cerna River basin (Romania) by means of scanning electron microscopy, electron microprobe analysis, and X-ray powder diffraction. One passage in the Great Cave from Şălitrari Mountain, the largest cave investigated, exhibits abnormal relative humidity and temperature ranges, allowing for a particular depositional environment. The cave floor is covered by alluvial sediments (ranging from cobble, sand, and clay to silt-sized material), bear bones, bat guano, and rubble. These materials reacted with percolating meteoric water and hydrogen sulfide-rich hypogene hot solutions, precipitating a variety of secondary minerals. Most of these minerals are common in caves (e.g. calcite, gypsum, brushite), however, some of them (alunite, aluminite, and darapskite) require very particular environments in order to form and persist. Cave passage morphologies suggest a complex speleogenetic history that includes changes from phreatic to vadose conditions. The latter was punctuated by a sulfuric acid dissolution/precipitation phase, partly overprinted by present-day vadose processes. The cave morphology and the secondary minerals associated with the alluvial sediments in these caves are used to unravel the region’s speleogenetic history.

Empirical equations for the temperature dependence of calcite-water oxygen isotope fractionation from 10 to 708C, 2010, Demeґny A. , Kele S. , Sikloґsy Z.

Although the temperature dependence of calcite-water oxygen isotope fractionation seems to have been well established by numerous empirical, experimental and theoretical studies, it is still being discussed, especially due to the demand for increased accuracy of paleotemperature calculations. Experimentally determined equations are available and have been verified by theoretical calculations (considered as representative of isotopic equilibrium); however, many natural formations do not seem to follow these relationships implying either that existing fractionation equations should be revised, or that carbonate deposits are seriously affected by kinetic and solution chemistry effects, or late-stage alterations. In order to test if existing fractionation-temperature relationships can be used for natural deposits, we have studied calcite formations precipitated in various environments by means of stable isotope mass spectrometry: travertines (freshwater limestones) precipitating from hot and warm waters in open-air or quasi-closed environments, as well as cave deposits formed in closed systems. Physical and chemical parameters as well as oxygen isotope composition of water were monitored for all the investigated sites. Measuring precipitation temperatures along with oxygen isotope compositions of waters and calcites yielded empirical environment-specific fractionation– temperature equations: [1] 1000 _ lnaј17599/T – 29.64 [for travertines with a temperature range of 30 to 70-C] and [2] 1000 _ lnaј17500/T – 29.89 [for cave deposits for the range 10 to 25-C]. Finally, based on the comparison of literature data and our results, the use of distinct calcite-water oxygen isotopic fractionation relationships and application strategies to obtain the most reliable paleoclimate information are evaluated.

Spatial and temporal changes in invertebrate assemblage structure from the entrance to deep-cave zone of a temperate marble cave, 2013, Tobin Benjamin W. , Hutchins Benjamin T. , Schwartz Benjamin F.

Seasonality in surface weather results in seasonal temperature and humidity changes in caves. Ecological and physiological differences among trogloxenes, troglophiles, and troglobionts result in species-dependent responses to this variability. To investigate these responses, we conducted five biological inventories in a marble cave in the Sierra Nevada Range, California, USA between May and December 2010. The cave was divided into six quadrats and temperature was continuously logged in each (humidity was logged at the entrance and in the deep cave). With increasing distance from the entrance, temperature changes were increasingly attenuated and lagged relative to surface temperature. Linear regressions were created to determine the relationship between measured environmental variables and diversity for cavernicoles (troglobionts and troglophiles) and trogloxenes cave– wide and in the transition zone. Diversity for cavernicoles and trogloxenes peaked in the entrance and deep cave zones, respectively. Quadrat, date, 2-week antecedent temperature average, 2-week antecedent temperature range, and trogloxene abundance explained 76% of cavernicole diversity variability. Quadrat explained 55% of trogloxene diversity variability. In the transition zone, trogloxene abundance explained 26% of cavernicole variability and 2-week antecedent temperature and 2-week antecedent temperature range explained 40% of trogloxene variability. In the transition zone, trogloxene diversity was inversely related to 2-week antecedent temperature average and 2-week antecedent temperature range, suggesting that species were moving into the transition zone when temperature was most stable. In a CCA of cavernicoles distribution data and environmental variables, 35% of variation in species-specific distributions was attributable to quadrat, and non-significant percentages were explained by date and environmental variables. Differences in assemblage structure among quadrats were largely due to differences between distributions of trogloxenes and cavernicoles, but responses varied among species. Differences are likely due to ecological niche width, physiological constraints, and competition.



The Na Javorce Cave is located in the Bohemian Karst, Czech Republic, near the Karlštejn castle, about 25 km SW of Prague. The cave was discovered as a result of extensive exploration including cave digging and widely employed capping of narrow sections. Exploration in the cave has already lasted 20 years. The cave is fitted with several hundred meters of fixed and rope ladders and several small fixed bridges across intra-cave chasms. Access to the remote parts of the cave is difficult because of long narrow crawl passages and deep and narrow vertical sections. The Na Javorce Cave became the deepest cave discovered to date in Bohemia with the discovery of its deepest part containing a lake in 2010. The cave was formed in vertically dipping layers of Lower Devonian limestone; it is 1,723 m long and 129 m deep, of which 9 m is permanently flooded (data as of December 2012). The cave is polygenetic, with several clearly separable evolutionary stages. Cavities discovered to date were mostly formed along the tectonic structures of two main systems. One of these systems is represented by vertical faults of generally N-S strike, which are frequently accompanied by vein hydrothermal calcite with crystal cavities. The second fault system is represented by moderately inclined faults (dip 27 to 45°, dip direction to the W). Smaller tube-like passages of phreatic morphology connect the larger cavities developed along the two above-mentioned systems. The fluid inclusion data obtained for calcite developed along both fault systems in combination with C and O stable isotope studies indicate that the hydrothermal calcite was deposited from moderately saline fluids (0.5 to 8.7 wt. % NaCl equiv.) in the temperature range from 58 to 98 °C. The fluids were NaCl-type basinal fluids, probably derived from the deeper clastic horizons of the Barrandian sedimentary sequence. The age of the hydrothermal processes is unknown; geologically it is delimited by the Permian and Paleogene. The hydrothermal cavities are small compared to cavities formed during the later stages of karstification. The majority of the known cavities were probably formed by corrosion by floodwater derived from an adjacent river. This process was initiated during the Late Oligocene to Early Miocene, as was confirmed by typical assemblage of heavy minerals identical in the surface river sediments and in clastic cave sediments. The morphology of most cavities is phreatic or epiphreatic, with only local development of leveled roof sections (“Laugdecken”). The phreatic evolution of the cave is probably continuing into the present in its deepest permanently flooded part, which exhibits a water level close to that of the adjacent Berounka River. Nevertheless, the chemistry of the cave lake differs from that of the river water. The cave hosts all the usual types of cave decoration (including locally abundant erratics). The most interesting speleothem type is cryogenic cave carbonate, which was formed during freezing of water in relation to the presence of permafrost during the Glacial period. The occurrence of cryogenic cave carbonate here indicates that the permafrost of the Last Glacial period penetrated to a depth of at least 65 m below the surface.

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