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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That cave ecology is the study of the interaction between cave organisms and their environment, e.g. energy input from surface, climatic influences [25].?

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Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
See all featured articles
Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
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Your search for tibet (Keyword) returned 16 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 1 to 15 of 16
Quelques aspects du karst en Chine, 1985, Tricart, J.
Some characteristic features of karst in China Karst terrain is widespread in China: some 2,000,000km2, corresponding to 20-25% of the whole surface of the country. It occurs at very different altitudes and under quite different climates, from the region of Zhoukoudian, where has been found the skull of the Pekin Man, to the Tibet Plateau, where there is presently permafrost conditions, and up to southern tropical moist China, near Canton and Guilin. Recent chinese investigations have proved that most karst features are old. In Southern China a tropical karst (tower-karst or "mogotes" karst) is associated with lacustrine deposits containing the well-known Hipparion Fauna, of Miocene age. Its predates the intensive uplift of the Himalaya and of the Tibet, which has begun during the Pliocene and has continued during all the Pleistocene. The same fossils have been found in this tropical karst in present permafrost areas, above 5,000m. In the region of Guilin (Guangxi Province), this tropical karst has been described. There is evidence for the former existence of a covered karst, where limestones and dolomitic limestones were covered by a thick layer of reddish residual clays, with limonite. This mantle has been stripped during different periods of drier and probably cooler climate, has suggested by pollen spectra. In some places, these residual products have been trapped into pits, cracks, and caves. We have observed a small quantity of red clay painting limestone stalactites and sinters (Chuanshan and Leng Yin Yen Caves, in the surroundings of Guilin). They present sometimes a mining interest and some extractive industries are presently active (limonite, cassierite, etc.). Many caves have been surveyed by the Institute of Karst geology, in Guilin. Some have been equiped for tourism, around Guilin. All these caves are old. Some radiocarbon dating of speleothems yield ages of 33,000 year BP. The famous carving of the Leng Yen Cave have not been affected by calcite deposition from dripping since at least 500 years. The large caves that have been surveyed should correspond to a long evolution span. Along the Lijiang River, at least two terraces can be observed. They are built with gravels and pebbles, covered with thinner sand and loam, suggesting climatic changes, also attested by the changes of fauna and vegetation. These past cooler periods are characterised by an opened vegetation, with the striping of the old weathering cover of the former tropical karst. These karst terrains have been investigated in China for management purposes. Groundwater oscillations have frequently resulted in land subsidences damaging buildings, and in dramatic collapses destroying fields, roads. Sometimes, underground collapse plugged caves and dammed underground rivers, resulting in floodings. The caves are frequently used as reservoirs for irrigation and power plants.

The very few caves known in Tibet, 1993, Waltham A. C.

Geology, palaeohydrology and evolution of caves in Tibet, 1995, Zhang David Dian

A SEM analysis of quartz grains in the sediments of the Lhasa karst areas, Tibet, 1996, Zhang David Dian

Gypsum karst in China., 1996, Cooper Anthony, Yaoru Lu
The Peoples Republic of China has the largest gypsum resources in the world and a long history of their exploitation. The gypsum deposits range in age from Pre-Cambrian to Quaternary and their genesis includes marine, lacustrine, thermal (volcanic and metasomatic), metamorphic and secondary deposits. The gypsum is commonly associated with other soluble rocks such as carbonates and salt. These geological conditions, regional climate differences and tectonic setting strongly influence the karstification process resulting in several karst types in China. Well developed gypsum palaeokarst and some modem gypsum karst is present in the Fengfeng Formation (Ordovician) gypsum of the Shanxi and Hebei Provinces. Collapse columns filled with breccia emanate upwards from this karst and affect the overlying coalfields causing difficult and hazardous mining conditions. Gypsum karst is also recorded in the middle Cambrian strata of Guizhou Province and the Triassic strata of Guizhou and Sichuan Provinces. Gypsum-salt lake karst has developed in the Pleistocene to Recent enclosed basin deposits within the Qinghai-Xizang (Tibet) Plateau.

A morphological analysis of Tibetan limestone pinnacles: Are they remnants of tropical karst towers and cones?, 1996, Zhang D. A. ,
Limestone pinnacles on mountain slopes in Tibet were measured for morphological analysis and the results were compared with those from tropical towers and cones on karst mountain slopes of Shuicheng, southwest China. In the form analyses, the symmetric products (P) of Tibetan pinnacles present large differences between individual pinnacles. The plan forms, represented by long/short axes ratios (R(L/S)), are mostly irregular and scattered and the diameter/height ratios (R(dfh)) reveal that the Tibetan I features could belong to any three cone or tower karat types, according to Balaze's classification of karst towers. The direction of pinnacle development seems to be primarily related to slope aspect and to geological structure. The morphological structure and orientation analyses show that pinnacle development is largely controlled by lithological and stratigraphic conditions. The closed water catchment structure, which is a basic feature in karat areas, has not been found in the limestone pinnacle areas of Tibet. The results of the form and structure analyses for the Tibetan pinnacles differ from those for tropical and subtropical karst areas. Further analysis indicates that Tibetan limestone pinnacles were formed by strong physical weathering under periglacial conditions. Four kinds of morphogenesis of the pinnacles are suggested

Limestone karst morphology in the Himalayas of Nepal and Tibet, 1996, Waltham A. C. ,
Karst and caves are minor parts of the Himalayan landscapes of Nepal and Tibet. Solution decreases at high altitude on the Nilgiri Limestone of the high Himalaya, and karst features are immature. Limestone outcrops north of the Himalaya, in the rain shadow are characterised by microkarren, indicating minimal solution rates. Most caves in Tibet are modified by frost shattering. Across the region, karst is restricted by both climatic factors and the extreme youthfulness of the landscapes. There is no positive evidence for the survival from the Tertiary of fossil karst features in Tibet. The large cave and the associated collapse gorge at Pokhara, Nepal, are essentially piping failures in limestones only about 500 years old

Contemporary karst solution processes on the Tibetan Plateau, 1997, Zhang D. ,
The Tibetan Plateau, with an average elevation of 4,000-5,000 m a.s.l., is cold and arid, and geomorphologic processes are dominated by periglacial, glacial, and aeolian agents. Here, the highest known, currently-developing karst features were found during the Sino-British Expedition of 1987. Measurements of CO2 partial pressure were taken in air, soil, sediments, and caves. Also measured were the solubility of Tibetan limestones, the dissolved CaCO3 in water, and the electrical conductivity of karst waters. Field solution experiments show that CO2 partial pressure is one of the lowest in the world. Dissolved limestone content in fresh karst water is lower than in other karst areas. The solubility of the major Tibetan limestones varies little, but field experiments indicate that karst solution rates are affected by geomorphologic and climatic conditions. The formation and distribution of the present-day karst features correspond with the results of field and laboratory solution experiments. They are mainly small surface features in relatively wet and warm locations, especially where soil is in direct contact with limestone. Measurements of solution rates and CO2 content indicate that biologically stimulated solution plays an important role in karst development on this cold and arid plateau

A mineralogical analysis of karst sediments and its implications to the middle-late Pleistocene climatic changes on the Tibetan Plateau, 1998, Zhang D. D. ,
The minerals in various categories of Tibetan karst sediments were divided into three groups: carbonate, iron and silicate. The carbonate minerals, including calcite, aragonite and dolomite, consist mainly of speleothem, tufa and sinter. Most of the speleothems indicates wetter and warmer periods in early and middle Pleistocene, the youngest being 194,000 years old. The second formation of carbonate mineral, tufa, implies an arid period starting 91,000 years BP. The iron minerals, goethite and hematite, are often mixed up with cave alluvial sediments that are interbedded with flowstones, and the depression sediments. They indicate strong oxidizing environments during their deposition, which is absent at present. The clay minerals, specially kaolinite, were contained in cave alluvial, flowstone and the depression sediments as well. Combined with stratigraphic study and U-series dating, the mineral analysis shows that warmer and wetter climates, which were suitable for speleothem development, probably disappeared 200 ka ago, and drier and colder climates dominated this plateau since then

Field examination of limestone dissolution rates and the formation of active karren on the Tibetan plateau, 1999, Zhang David Dian

Evaporite karst and resultant geohazards in China, 2002, Lu Y. R. , Zhang F. E. , Qi J. X. , Xu J. M. , Guo X. H. ,
The main kinds of evaporite karst, both sulphate karst and halide karst, are widely distributed in China. Gypsum karst is especially widespread, because China contains the largest gypsum resources in the world. These gypsum deposits range in age from Precambrian to Quaternary, and they were deposited in many environments, including marine, lacustrine, thermal process, metamorphic, and also as secondary deposits. Halide karst is developed in rock salt and salt-water lakes, the latter related to more than 300 salt-water lakes distributed in the Qinghai Plateau of Xizang (Tibet) province. Gypsum and halite are easily dissolved; therefore, development of evaporite karst is somewhat different when compared with carbonate karst, which has developed many typical features in China. This paper discusses the mechanism and development of evaporite karst in sulphate rocks and in halides, and makes comparisons between evaporite karst and carbonate karst based upon field investigations and new tests in the laboratory. The geohazards of evaporite karst usually are triggered by natural karst processes, but often they are exaggerated by artificial (human) actions and engineering impacts that cause flesh groundwater or surface water to come in contact with the evaporite rocks. Some examples of evaporite-karst geohazards are described in this paper; they are present in Shandong, Sichuan, and Guizhou Provinces, and in the Qinghai Plateau of China

The reconstruction of fossil planation surface in China, 2002, Feng Jl, Cui Zj,
On the basis of results of relative subjects, the fossil planation surface has been discussed by the authors from the point of geomorphologic view. The discussion contents included the characteristic information, research methods, paleotopography (gradient and altitude) and other problems about fossil planation surface. The recognition and reconstruction of fossil planation surface mainly rely on the following characteristic information: ( i) the character of erosion unconformity surface; (ii) the paleo-weathering crust and residual deposits; (iii) the paleo-karst and filled deposit in the paleo-karst under the unconformity surface, and (iv) the character and environment of sediment above the unconformity surface. According to the above-mentioned characteristic information, the authors recognized and reconstructed two stages of fossil planation surface on Paleo-land of North China and Yangtze Paleo-land. These two fossil planation surfaces formed from Middle Ordovician to Lower Carboniferous and from Lower Permian to Upper Permian respectively. The paleo-gradient of fossil planation surface changed within 0.31parts per thousand-1.32parts per thousand, mostly less than 1.0parts per thousand. According to the developing depth of paleo-karst, the authors considered that in Suqiao buried-hill region of Paleo-land of North China, the paleo-altitude is 300 m or so above paleo-sea-level. The authors hope that the research is in favor of discussion about rising scale and process of the Tibetan Plateau. Besides, the research of fossil planation surface can provide a theoretical base for relative research, such as the reconstruction of paleoenvironment, the evolution and drift of paleo-continent, the formation and distribution of weathering ore deposits, the reservior and prospection of oil and gas, etc

The covered karst, weathering crust and karst (double-level) planation surface, 2002, Cui Zj, Li Dw, Feng Jl, Liu Gn, Li Hj,
The thick-bedded and continuous karst crust only formed in the old stage of geomorphic development. The corresponding landscape is the karst planation surface. The karst planation surface consists of the loose weathering crust and the base weathering front below the crust. Its profile structure is similar to 'double surface of leveling' model built by Budel. In the limestone area, the base weathering front is the covered karst. From the Tibet Plateau to Yun-Gui (Yunnan-Guizhou) plateau and Xiang-Gul (Hunan-Guangxi) hills, the covered karst is concomitant with the red weathering crust; all of them are the component of the double-level surfaces of karst planation. But, they belong to the different disintegration stages of planation surface. The different subtypes of the covered karst and the red weathering crust indicate the existence of karst planation surface. Thus, they can be made as a reference system when the rising degree and the rising rate of the Tibet Plateau are discussed

Geomorphic constraints on surface uplift, exhumation, and plateau growth in the Red River region, Yunnan Province, China, 2004, Schoenbohm L. M. , Whipple K. X. , Burchfiel B. C. , Chen L. ,
Field observations, digital elevation model (DEM) data, and longitudinal profile analysis reveal a perched low-relief upland landscape in the Red River region, Yunnan Province, China, which correlates to an uplifted, regional low-relief landscape preserved over the eastern margin of the Tibetan Plateau. As with other major rivers of the plateau margin, the Red River has deeply incised the low-relief upland landscape, which we interpret to be the remnants of a pre-uplift or relict landscape. We examine longitudinal river profiles for 97 tributaries of the Red River. Most profiles consist of three segments separated by sharp knickpoints: an upper, low-gradient channel segment, a steeper middle channel segment, and a very steep lower channel segment. Upper channel segments correspond to the relict landscape and have not yet experienced river incision. Steeper middle and lower segments indicate onset of rapid, two-phase river incision, on the basis of which changes in external forcings, such as climate or uplift, can be inferred. In terms of two end-member scenarios, two-phase incision could be the result of pulsed plateau growth, in which relatively slow uplift during the first phase is followed by rapid uplift during the second phase, or it could reflect adjustments of the main channel to changing climate conditions against the backdrop of steady plateau growth. Reconstruction of the paleo-Red River indicates [~]1400 m river incision, 1400-1500 m surface uplift, and a maximum of 750 m vertical displacement across the northern Red River fault, elevating the northern Ailao Shan range above the surrounding relict landscape. On the basis of stratigraphic constraints, incision along the Red River likely began in Pliocene time

Differences in karst processes between northern and southern China, 2012, Hao Y. , Cao B. , Zhang P. , Wang Q. , Li Z. , Yeh T. C. J.

The east–west trending Tsinling Mountains in central China were uplifted at the end of the Middle Jurassic [176–161 million years ago (Ma)] in Yanshanian, thus effectively and geographically defining the northern climate as cold and dry, and the southern climate as warm and humid. Influenced by paleoenvironmental variation, the karst process shows differences between northern and southern China. Using the systems approach, the authors integrated the geologic history, climate, and hydrological conditions to analyze the causes of the karst differences in northern and southern China, as well as in the Tibetan Plateau. Carbonate rock deposition began in the Mesoproterozoic Era (1,600–1,000 Ma) in north China, and in the Sinian Sub-Era (825–570 Ma) in south China. In north China, the rock formation ended in the Mid-Ordovician (466 Ma), while in South China the deposition continued to the Triassic (250–200 Ma). Tibetan Plateau was deposited in the Late Permian (257–250 Ma). The different depositional environment caused different lithologies: the limestones are largely micritic in the north, but are massive and sparry in the south. The modern karst features were formed mainly in the Tertiary (53–2.6 Ma) and the Quaternary. In the Quaternary, the Tibetan Plateau arose sharply, which formed the monsoon system of East Asia, and loess started to deposit in north China, which partly delayed or prevented karstification in north China, and differentiated the karst features from those in south China. Thus, the karst process in north China is mainly hypogene, while the south is epigene in the Quaternary.


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