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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That ground-water dam is a geological stratum serving as a subsurface dam [16].?

Checkout all 2699 terms in the KarstBase Glossary of Karst and Cave Terms

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KarstBase a bibliography database in karst and cave science.

Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
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Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
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Your search for uranine (Keyword) returned 18 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 1 to 15 of 18
Rsultats de deux traages dans l'amphithtre d'Ozania (Picos de Europa, Espagne), 1984, Fabre J. P. , Fabriol R.
RESULTS OF TWO WATER TRACINGS IN THE OZANIA AMPHITHEATRE (PICOS DE EUROPA, SPAIN) - The Picos de Europa is a high mountain karst with an underground flow organisation poorly known. Two water tracings with uranine have been carried out in the Ozania amphitheatre. These tracings have led to the identification of two separate systems: 900g of tracer injected in the Sima de Los Gorrinos emerged at the Fuente Prieta resurgence 20h later; 10kg of tracer injected in the Sima del Jou Luengu emerged at the Reo Molin and Dobra Seca resurgences 9 days later. The latter system appears to be the most interesting, due to its complexity and to the vast catchment.

Nouveaux traages sur le massif de la Pierre Saint-Martin (Pyrnes-Atlantiques), 1994, Douat M. , Salomon J. N.
In 1982 and 1992 cavers observed the contamination of the B3 and Couey-Lotge underground rivers emerging at the Issaux springs This contamination was thought to be caused by the PSM water purificatlon station which discharges effluents into a fracture. The ARSIP and the LGPA laboratories were asked by the DDA (Pyrenees-Atlantiques administration) to carry out an hydrogeological study to prove the origin of this contamination and determine the limit of the Issaux catchment in the Guillers area in order to find a new site for a modern water purification station. Three uranine tracings were made (Water purification station - B3 underground river - BG. 106 shaft). The first two tracings emerged at the Issaux springs and the third tracing came out at the Bentia spring (Sainte-Engrace). These tracings confirm the hypothesis on the surficial basin limits between Issaux and Saint Vincent.

Groundwater pollution by contaminant transport from soil to fractured rock, 2000, Witthü, Ser Kai, Č, Enč, Ur Curk Barbara

Water flow and contaminant transport from soil to underlying fractured rock is mainly controlled by the hydraulic conditions of the soil-bedrock boundary. In respect to the necessary understanding of contaminant transport at the soil-bedrock boundary the identification of flow paths within both the soil cover and the fractured media is decisive on the one side. On the other hand substance-specific behaviour of the often reactive pollutants compared to water flow has to be known in detail. Field scale tracer tests with different tracers (uranine and salts) and a potential pollutant as a reactive tracer (nitrate) were performed at the IRGO field research facility Sinji Vrh (SI). Injection points are located on the surface, in the soil, at the soil-rock interface and in the fractured rock; water is sampled in an underground tunnel with the help of two subhorizontal boreholes equipped with sampling devices and a special construction for collecting water seeping from the ceiling. The goal of these experiments is to identify the flow paths of solutes to the underground tunnel and to estimate their residence time dependent on the injection point. So far only some conclusions regarding the waterflux into the tunnel could be drawn.

Surface and Groundwater Interaction of the Bela Stream and Vipava Springs in Southwestern Slovenia, 2001, Baker Gerry, Petrič, Metka, Parkin Geoff, Kogovš, Ek Janja

Previous studies suggest a hydrogeologic link between the Vipava springs and the neighbouring Bela surface stream. The Vipava springs drain the Nanos karst plateau. The Bela stream drains the very low permeable flysch to the north west of the Nanos plateau before flowing onto limestone where it gradually sinks along its course. A tracer, uranine, was injected into the Bela upstream of the village Vrhpolje and hydraulic connection with all the Vipava springs was proved. A dispersion model was used to characterise the tracer breakthrough curve of one of the springs where the highest concentrations were found. The hydrology of the Bela was analysed by measuring the discharge of the stream at 8 different sections and analysing the difference in flow between each section. The conclusion drawn from the analysis was that the Bela stream has a different hydrological response related to whether the majority of recharge comes from the karstic or flysch area of the catchment. A flow separation analysis based on hydrochemical measurements indicated that the hydrological response of the Vipava springs also depends on the recharge source area. Proved connection leads to environmental concern for the water quality of the Vipava springs, which are the main water supply of the area, because untreated wastewater is discharged into the Bela stream.

Underground Water Flow from the Tržiščica Sinking Stream (SE Slovenia), 2002, Kogovš, Ek Janja, Petrič, Metka

A tracing test with injection of uranine in the sinking stream Tr¾i¹èica (SE Slovenia) was carried out at the hydrological conditions of recession from medium to low waters. Concentrated flow towards the springs Tominèev studenec, Javornikov izvir and Debeljakov izvir near the village Dvor in the Krka valley was proved. Apparent flow velocities between 2.4 and 4.6 cm/s were obtained, and the share of recovered tracer was estimated to 2/3 of the injected amount. In the Podpe¹ka jama cave the tracer in lower concentrations was detected only after heavy rain occurred after two months of low water. The apparent flow velocity of 0.1 cm/s was calculated. Obtained results, together with the outcomes of the previous tracing tests, indicate that hydrological conditions significantly influence the underground water flow from the Tr¾i¹èica sinking stream.

Flow system dynamics and water storage of a fissured-porous karst aquifer characterized by artificial and environmental tracers, 2005, Einsiedl F,
Concentration breakthrough curves obtained from a tracer test and time series of environmental tracers were analyzed to characterize slow and preferential water flow in a karst aquifer of the Franconian Alb, Germany. Tritium (H-3) and chemical tracers (uranine, bromide, strontium) were measured during low flow conditions and a storm runoff event. The mean transit time of water along the conduits was determined using bromide. Environmental tracer data collected between 1969 and 2003 were modeled to estimate the mean transit time of H-3 in the fissured-porous karst system (diffuse flow). The modelling approach was also used to estimate the water volume of the karst system and the conduits. The results suggest that the total water volume in the fissured-porous karst aquifer is in the range of 57 X 10(6) m(3) and approximately 6% of the total water volume is stored in the soil zone and the epikarst. The water storage capacity of the conduits seems to be of minor importance. A mean transit time of bromide in the range of 14 h was calculated for the conduit flow. The fissures and the porous rock matrix have a calculated water saturated porosity of 5.5% and a mean transit time of approximately 62 years was calculated. Thus the porous rock matrix represents the major dilution and storage zone for pollutants in the karst system. (c) 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved

Test di tracciamento della Fessura del Vento (Val Rosandra, Carso):, 2005, Clarissa Brun& Rino Semeraro
The tracer test was carried out in the 2004, in the perennial stream called ?Rio del lago azzurro? (?Stream of blue lake?). It flows in the lower level of the cave called Fessura del Vento (?Wind?s Fissure?) in Rosandra Valley (Carso, Italy). The Fessura del Vento is one of the larger caves developed in the Stena Mt; this relief is the northern slope of Rosandra valley: the small basin that characterizes the southern border of the Carso (the region of the Carso, or Kras, is administrated by Italy and Slovenia). Two hypotheses before the Uranine injection: a) North-West drainage, toward the Trieste Karst aquifer; b) South drainage, toward the Rosandra Stream. The techniques used for detected the Uranine are: sampling, charcoals, fluorometer probe, fluorometric analysis in laboratory. Tracer test shows that the flow path is connected to Clinciza Spring (or ?Fonte Oppia?) in the rocky bed of Rosandra Stream (left hydrographic slope). The ?Rio del lago azzurro? flows inside the Tertiary ?Alveolinid-nummulitid limestone? of tectonic wedges Stena Mt. These wedges are characterized by overthrust system and the underground water beyond the impermeable layers (marls and marlyarenaceous flysch) probably extinguished in North for faults; for this reason, there is retroversion of drainage and the ?Rio del lago azzurro? outflows in Clinciza Spring (verified the 2nd hypothesis). This karstic spring is placed near the impervious level (?semi-dammed?) provoked by Flysch of ?Ridge fault? (overthrust system). The detected long time of Uranine (62-98 hours), the small path (900 m), the form of output tracer pulse, the very little flow (7-14 m/h), suggest a water circulation in the probably small recently reticular conduits, in saturated semi-saturated zone.

The Mala gora landfill near Ribnica is one of the nine still active landfills on Slovene karst. According to our legislation the monitoring of its impact on groundwater have to be performed, but this can only be effective when the characteristics of the underground water flow in the area of the landfill are well known. Therefore a tracer test was carried out on the Mala gora landfill and the main underground water connections towards the Tomin?ev studenec, Javornikov izvir, Debeljakov izvir and ?ica springs near the settlement Dvor in the Krka valley were proved. In lower concentrations the uranine was detected in the Podpe?ka jama and Kompoljska jama Caves, as well as in the ?ica near Mala Ra?na spring and both springs of the Krka river. At high waters the flow from the landfill towards the Globo?ec spring was proved also, but this important source of water supply is primary recharged from other parts of the karst aquifer. The appearance of tracer is forwarded by favourable hydrological conditions and increased concentrations of uranine were measured at all springs after more intensive precipitation events even one year after the injection. Obtained results were considered in the preparation of the monitoring plan.

Tracing of the stream flowing through cave Ferranova bua, Central Slovenia, 2006, Staut Miha, Auersperger Primo
The article discusses the characteristics of the recently discovered ground water stream in the cave Ferranova bu?a and its possible karstic hydrological system. Its upstream connections have been narrowed to few possible springs by means of logical exclusion and have yet to be confirmed. For the purpose of establishing its linkage to the downstream springs around Vrhnika a water tracing experiment has been performed. Uranine was used as a tracer and sampled in intervals of eight hours at Primcs spring, Be?kajs spring and Ko?uhs spring. The connection was proved in all three observation points, with Ko?uhs spring draining the largest quantity of the tracer. The tracer experiment evidenced that the dye was completely flushed downward in single transition curve almost without any retention.

Tracer Test in the Vadose Zone of the Trebiciano Abyss near an Uncontrolled Landfill, 2006, Rino Semeraro, Luciano Ballarin, Clarissa Brun, Sergio Dambrosi, Fulvio Forti
The present study concerns the results of a tracer test in the vadose zone of the Trebiciano Abyss in the Karst of Trieste, at the bottom of which the Timavo underground river flows. Two tracers were used: Uranine and Tinopal CBS-X, separately introduced in two dolines above the abyss, through artificial spills of water, simulating heavy rainy events. Inside the abyss, 350 m deep, four points were equipped in order to control and capture the percolation waters (S1, S2, S3, and S4), at different depths, where drainage is normally present. At each point daily sampling and flow measurements were carried out, at S2 at -250 m a fluorometer probe was also installed, to record the two tracers continuously. Refraction seismic survey characterized the epikarst, The Uranine was found at point S3 the same day as its injection, subsequently at point S2 (fluorometer probe recording). Tinopal CBS-X was found at point S2 the same day as its injection. The tracing test also proved, unmistakably, that in just a few hours, after a strong rainfall or an accidental spill the release of pollutants on the karst surface, infiltrating underground, is transferred further than 300 m of depth, flowing directly in the base flow with no chance of being stopped.

Long-term tracing in karstic aquifer reservoir for drinking water:, 2006, Rino Semeraro, Massimiliano Baldassi, Luciano Ballarin, Clarissa Brun, Luca D?amelio, Fulvio Forti
The chain of the Musi Mt (1,869.4 m) is one of the most important karst massifs of the Western Julian Fore-Alps (Italy). It corresponds to an east-west unicline dipping north. The structural northern slope, having glaciokarst morphologies, is conditioned by karst in calcareous rocks (Raethian-Liassic); the southern dolomitic slope (Dolomia Principale, Norian-Raethian), is less karstified and is characterized by trenches. On the northern slope, the Barmàn spring is located; on the southern slope the Voidizza Springs and the Torre Springs are located. The Torre Springs, fed by both the alluvial aquifer of the upper valley of the Torre Stream and by the carbonate aquifer of the Musi, supply the waterworks of western Friuli region managed by ?CAFC Consorzio Acquedotti Friuli Orientale?. Almost the whole feeding basin of the above-mentioned springs is placed in a protected area, managed by ?Ente Parco Naturale delle Prealpi Giulie?. Therefore, the zone is an important example of an area having high vulnerability due to karst and it is strategic for the water supply for an important part of Friuli. Formerly, two tracing tests were carried out injecting Uranine into the Pahor Abyss on the northern slope. From these tests it results that the waters of the karst area drain in the Uragano Cave and in the underlying Barman Spring. Only during heavy low water, when the underground watershed of the massif lowers, is it possible to observe traces of Uranine in the Torre Springs, since the most northern underground regions of the massif are drained. In order to understand better the underground water flow, a long-term tracing was carried out injecting Uranine in the the Pahor Abyss on 11th October 2005. The tracer test was supported by a chemical-physical study of the underground waters of the massif, in the period from 28th September 2005 to 13th January 2006. In this study flow measurements (Q), physical-chemical measurements on the field (TC, pH, E.C.20C), chemical analysis (Tot. hardness, TDS180, Alk. CaHCO3-, K+, Na+, Ca2+, Mg2+, Cl-, SO42-, NO3-, NH4+, B, SiO2, Li+, Rb+, Sr2+, Cd, Co, tot. Cr, Ni, Pb, Mn, Fe, Cu, As, Zn) and the analysis of the stable isotopes (δ18O, δD) were carried out. As for the tracing test two fluorometer probes were positioned: one at the Barmàn Spring, the other in the mixer between the 21 drainages and the capture well of the Torre Springs. Moreover, the Voidizza Springs were checked and regularly sampled. Uranine was found at the Barmàn Spring after 12.26 hours with a distance of about 1,500 m. It probably flowed in large karst conduits, at a theoretical speed of 120 m/h (3.3 cm/s). The breakthrough curves are very quick: Uranine wave extinguished in only three days, thus confirming that it is a high mountain system that reacts to impulses immediately. The E.C.20C of the Barmàn Spring is almost constantly lower than that of the Torre and Voidizza Springs, whereas the temperature of the Voidizza Springs is always the highest of all the waters measured. δ18O of the Barmàn Spring (between -9.0 ? and -9.1?) is always inferior to that of the springs placed on the southern slope (between -8.0? and -8.7 ?) and δD of the Barmàn Spring ranges between -55? and -63?. E.C.20C of the Barmàn Spring (between μS/cm 128.7 and μS/cm 188.0) is almost always inferior to the E.C.20C of the springs of the southern slope (between μS/cm 139.9 and μS/cm 228.0). Ca2+ and Mg2+ are absolutely predominant in all the waters, where the Ca2+ values of the Barman Spring (around 30 mg/L) and of the springs of the southern slope (between 30 mg/L and 31.8 mg/L) are similar, whereas at the Barman Spring Mg2+ is always lower (about 4.9 mg/L) than that of the springs of the southern slope (between 9.0 mg/L and 16.2 mg/L). This confirms that the southern springs are fed by a predominantly dolomitic aquifer (in particular the Voidizza Springs) compared with that of the northern slope. Among the minor elements it is possible to observe Cu and Fe at the Torre and Voidizza Springs, whereas here Sr is remarkable (between 13.9 μg/L and 18.3 μg/L) and diffused in the whole aquifer. SO42- and NO3- are low in all the waters.


The characteristics of flow from the landfill near Sežana in the area of Kras were studied by the use of tracer test. In well permeable fissure on the karren surface near the landfill the fluorescent dye uranine was injected in order to study the directions and velocities of its flow through the karst aquifer. Monitoring of tracer concentrations in the period of one year and a half enabled us to make some conclusions about the dynamics of groundwater flow in the directions towards the Timava, Brojnica and Sardoč springs. Detailed observations were organised also at the Klariči pumping station, which is the main source of drinking water for the Kras region. Increased concentrations of tracer were measured only during extremely high waters. Different explanations are possible, but we can not exclude the possibility of a weak, not permanent underground water connection with the landfill. Calculation of the amount of recovered tracer confirmed the main flow direction towards the Timava springs (recovery rate 93%) and a secondary direction with lower flow velocity towards the Brojnica and Sardoč springs. Outflow through the Klariči pumping is estimated to only 0.003% of injected uranine.

Percolation and Particle Transport in the Unsaturated Zone of a Karst Aquifer, 2009, Pronk M. , Goldscheider N. , Zopfi J. , Zwahlen F.

Recharge and contamination of karst aquifers often occur via the unsaturated zone, but the functioning of this zone has not yet been fully understood. Therefore, irrigation and tracer experiments, along with monitoring of rainfall events, were used to examine water percolation and the transport of solutes, particles, and fecal bacteria between the land surface and a water outlet into a shallow cave. Monitored parameters included discharge, electrical conductivity, temperature, organic carbon, turbidity, particle-size distribution (PSD), fecal indicator bacteria, chloride, bromide, and uranine. Percolation following rainfall or irrigation can be subdivided into a lag phase (no response at the outlet), a piston-flow phase (release of epikarst storage water by pressure transfer), and a mixed-flow phase (increasing contribution of freshly infiltrated water), starting between 20 min and a few hours after the start of recharge event. Concerning particle and bacteria transport, results demonstrate that (1) a first turbidity signal occurs during increasing discharge due to remobilization of particles from fractures (pulse-through turbidity); (2) a second turbidity signal is caused by direct particle transfer from the soil (flow-through turbidity), often accompanied by high levels of fecal indicator bacteria, up to 17,000 Escherichia coli/100 mL; and (3) PSD allows differentiation between the two types of turbidity. A relative increase of fine particles (0.9 to 1.5 lm) coincides with microbial contamination. These findings help quantify water storage and percolation in the epikarst and better understand contaminant transport and attenuation. The use of PSD as ‘‘early-warning parameter’’ for microbial contamination in karst water is confirmed.

A dye-tracing investigation in the Poshte-Naz Karstic aquifer, Alburz Mountain, northern Iran, 2011, Kalantari N. , Mohammadi R.

The tracing technique has been recently used in karstified Zagros structural belt in northern Iran. A tracer study (uranine injection) was conducted in Jurassic limestone of the Poshte-Naz area in the Alborz belt to evaluate aquifer parameters and hydraulic relations between a large (about 100 m in diameter) sinkhole and springs. A main goal of the project was to find out the source of turbidity of the Emarate drinking water supply spring (SP4) in rainy seasons. Eight springs, three wells and the Neka River were selected for monitoring and totally 989 samples in 107 days were collected. In order to select reliable sampling stations, hydrochemical analysis of major ions was carried out and for better interpretation of concentration-time curve, spring discharge was also measured. The results of the tracing by sampling water indicated only a hydraulic connection between the injection point and the Sange-Nou spring (SP8) and, whereas the charcoal bags analysis revealed tracer exits also from spring SP1, SP3, SP4, SP5, SP8, in wells W1 and W2, and in the Neka River. This paper discuses concentration/time curves from charcoal bags for qualitative analysis and tracer exit curves for quantitative analysis.

Towards a better knowledge of Cansiglio karst system (Italy): results of the first successful groundwater tracer test, 2011, Vincenzi Valentina, Riva Alberto, Rossetti Stefano

Cansiglio is a limestone plateau located on the border between the regions of Veneto and Friuli-Venezia Giulia, northeastern Italy. The eastern area is characterized by a thick succession of Cretaceous peritidal carbonates, while the central western part is characterized by slope breccia deposits. Even though Pian Cansiglio is an important karst system, its hydrogeology is poorly known. Three important springs that form the Livenza River are located at its southeastern border and are thought to represent the majority of karst aquifer discharge, but no experimental data are available in the literature. Gruppo Speleologico Ferrarese explored an 800 m deep cave (Abisso Col de la Rizza) on Pian Cansiglio, which provided the opportunity to conduct tracer tests. Fluorescent dyes were injected in September 2008 in Abisso Col de la Rizza (uranine) and in Bus della Genziana (tinopal CBS-X). Over a period of three months, local cavers conducted an intense sampling programme, which included collecting water samples, charcoal bags and cotton lints. Automated samplers were used for high frequency monitoring at two of the springs. Tinopal was not detected, so the connection between Bus della Genziana and the springs was not demonstrated. The connection between Abisso Col de la Rizza and two of the springs was demonstrated by uranine. A mean velocity of 248 m/day results from the tracer concentration peaks; intense rainfall events increased the flow velocities four to five times. Different hypotheses are considered in order to explain the low mass recovery rate (32-40% of the injected mass). The uranine tracer test demonstrated that Pian Cansiglio aquifer contributes to the two Livenza springs; it also opens a question about the third spring, which probably originates from the Mount Cavallo area (another limestone massif close to Pian
Cansiglio). The rapid response to rainfall recharge suggests a
vulnerability of the spring system, further supporting the importance
of conducting a detailed hydrogeological study

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