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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That river bed is the channel of a river covered by water [16].?

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Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
See all featured articles
Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
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Your search for volcano (Keyword) returned 42 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 1 to 15 of 42
The Lava Caves of Victoria, 1963, Ollier, C. D.

Many lava tunnels are found in the Western District of Victoria, associated with volcanic eruptions of Pleistocene to Recent age, and some are probably only a few thousand years old. All Australian volcanoes are now extinct, but the most recently active were probably erupting up to 5,000 years ago, that is after the arrival of the Australian aboriginal. The newness of the Victorian caves results in original features being preserved in fine detail. All known lava caves have now been surveyed, mainly by members of the Victorian Cave Exploration Society.


Exploration and Geology of some Lava Tube caves on the Hawaiian Volcanoes, 1981, Wood C.

Gulemwawaya: A Cave in Welded Tuff At Budoya, Fergusson Island, Papua New Guinea, 1981, Ollier, C. D.

A 30m cave in pyroclastic deposits on the flank of a volcano is thought to be made by eluviation and fluvial erosion, and possibly supported mechanically by welded tuffs above. This note is to record a small but significant cave that deserves further attention. I visited the cave for about half an hour in July 1980 and had no facilities for survey or photography.


Grottes de lave et volcano-karst de surface dans la rgion basaltique du Golan (lsral), 1984, Inbar, M.
Lava caves and surface volcano-karst features in the basaltic area of the Golan Heights (Isral) - Caves are formed endogenically as lava tubes and exogenically by erosion of the interlayer lava flows; calcitic speleothems are found in the basaltic caves. Surface depressions may have been formed by collapsed caves or by volcanic explosions. The drainage density is low and surface morphology locally resembles karst karren fields.

Formes de relief pseudokarstiques sur Mars, 1985, Battistini, R.
PSEUDOKARST LANDFORMS ON MARS - There are many morphologic features on Mars looking like karstic features, principally in aeolian, glacio-eolian and volcanic formations: etch-pitted terrain, sinkholes aligned along fractures, sinuous alignments of large cavities similar to megadolines, etc. Some of these features are probably collapse features, and some others probably thermokarstic features but it is difficult to understand exactly the process of their genesis, in some cases very different from the process of terrestrial morphologic features. We may evoke the possibility of an underground karst on Mars.

The Undara lava tube system and its caves, 1990, Atkinson, Anne

In the lava flow from the Undara volcano, McBride Basalt Province, North Queensland, more than 61 arches and caves have been discovered and over 6 km of cave passages has been surveyed; the longest cave is 1,35 km. The various collapse depressions adjacent to or aligned with have been also examined. The feature of the caves and arches are described in detail.


MURUROA ATOLL (FRENCH-POLYNESIA) .1. STRUCTURE AND GEOLOGICAL EVOLUTION, 1992, Buigues D, Gachon A, Guille G,
From a geographical point of view, the atoll of Mururoa belongs to the Tuamotu archipelago. In its largest dimension Mururoa (28 x 10 km) is oriented N080-degrees-E, a direction which is different from that of the other atolls of the Tuamotu, generally oriented parallel to the Pacific plate motion, N130-degrees-E. The atoll of Mururoa is built on a submarine plateau of 130 km long and 30 km wide. The western side of this plateau is 90 km long and N080-degrees-E oriented, the eastern one 40 km long and N095-degrees-E oriented. Three deep main structures of the atoll are revealed by strong aeromagnetic anomalies elongated and oriented once more N080-degrees-E. They represent ancient riftzones, similar to the present time Hawaiian ones. The most important of them, situated at southern end of the atoll, is the prolongation of the eastern plateau. The principal petrographic facies have been defined from the numerous drill holes bored in the upper 1,100 m. From the base to the top are represented volcanic deposits, a volcano-sedimentary serie of both carbonate and volcanic origin and finally reefal carbonates (limestones and dolomites). The volcanic facies represent successively submarine, transitional and aerial volcanic activity. They are commonly affected by early stage of hydrothermalism, due to lava-sea-water chemical interaction, and are frequently supported by differentiated dykes, occasionally interrupted by reefal limestones. The main geometrical distribution of the facies through the atoll and the radiochronology lead to the following model of formation : during early stages of the atoll building two main separate edifices emerged before joining and forming a single volcano. This double structure was similar to the present time morphology of Tahiti. The volcanic activity ceased 10.6 Ma ago, an age which perfectly suits a hot spot origin, at present located to the south-east of Pitcairn island

The Hawaiian cave planthoppers (Homoptera: Fulgoroidea: Cixiidae); A model for rapid subterranean speciation?, 1997, Hoch Hannelore
After the successful colonization of a single ancestral species in the Hawaiian Islands, planthoppers of the cixiid genus Oliarus underwent intensive adaptive radiation resulting in 80 described endemic species. Oliarus habitats range from montaneous rain forests to dry coastal biotopes and subterranean environments. At least 7 independant evolutionary lines represented by different species have adapted to lava tubes on Molokai (1), Maui (3), and Hawaii Island (3). Behavioral and morphological studies on one of these evolutionary lines on Hawaii Island, the blind, flight- and pigmentless Oliarus polyphentus have provided evidence for reproductive isolation between allopatric populations which may in fact be separate species. Significant differences in song parameters were observed even between populations from neighbouring lava tubes, although the planthoppers are capable of underground migration through the voids and cracks of the mesocavernous rock system which is extant in young basalt: after a little more than 20 years, lava tubes within the Mauna Ulu 1974 flow had been colonized by O. 'polyphenius" individuals, most probably originating from a near-by forestkipuka. Amazingly, this species complex is found on the youngest of the Hawaiian Islands, with probably less than 0.5 m.y., which suggests rapid speciation processes. Field observations have led to the development of a hypothesis to match underground speciation with the dynamics of vegetational succession on the surface of active volcanoes. Planthopper range partitioning and geographic separation of populations by young lava flows, founder events and small population size may be important factors involved in rapid divergence.

Gypsum Trays in Torgac Cave, New Mexico, 1998, Doran, L. M. , Hill, C. A.
Mount St. Helens is an active dacitic volcano, which is currently in a semi-dormant state after a catastrophic explosive eruption in May 1980. A dacite dome occupies the crater and plugs the volcanic vent. The crater area has been progressively covered by a layer of snow, firn, and glacier ice since as early as 1986. Heat, steam, and volcanic gases from the crater fumaroles melted over 2415 meters of cave passage in the crater ice mass. The caves are in approximate balance with the present geothermal heat release. Future changes in the thermal activity will influence the dimensions, location, ceiling, wall, and wall ablation features of these caves. Cave passages are located above fumaroles and fractures in and adjacent to the crater lava dome. Cave passages gradually enlarge by ablation, caused by outside air circulation and by geothermal sources beneath the ice. The passages form a circumferential pattern around the dome, with entrance passages on the dome flanks. Passages grow laterally and vertically toward the surface, spawning ceiling collapse.

Blue Lagon, Afrique du Sud, une grotte remplissage palokarstique permien et concrtions daragonite, 1998, Martini J. E. J. , Moen H. F. G.
The authors de scribe a 7 km long phreatic maze they discovered and explored during the last decade of the 2Oth century in South Africa, developed in the late Archean dolostone in the Malmani Subgroup. This cave is of interest mainly for two aspects. Firstly the cave intersects paleokarst channels filled with bleached kaolinic residuals of Permian age. This paleokarst is most likely to have developed relatively shortly after the Gondwana glaciation in a cool, humid climate. Secondly the cave is remarkable by the abundance of aragonite speleothems. Particularly interesting are subaquatic aragonite formations: rafts, cones, volcanoes, sea urchins and pool floor crust. Aragonite rafts are always associated with more or less calcite, which seems to have formed first and was apparently essential in the initial formation of this speleothem. In the pool floor crust, a cyclical calcite-aragonite deposition seems to correspond to alternation of humid and dry periods, calcite representing wet years. The amplitude of this cycle is possibly in the order of a few decades. Phosphate minerals which developed on cave soil, rock and carbonate speleothems in contact with bat guano, have been identified, in particular the rare mineral collinsite

Lava tube remelt by radiant heat and burning gasses., 1998, Allred Kevin
Some volcanologists assume that interior surfaces of hot lava tubes can commonly he remelted by burning gases and radiant heat. Pending further data, this appears to be unlikely.

'Hades''; A remarkable cave on Oldoinyo Lengai in the East African Rift Valley., 1998, Davies Gordon J.
Oldoinyo Lengai is the world's only active carbonatite volcano, situated in northern Tanzania within the Eastern Rift Valley, al 2.751 degrees S, 35.902 degrees E. It forms an isolated symmetrical cone at the southern end of Lake Natron, with a summit elevation of 2,890 m (9,480 ft). Periodic eruptions of ash and lava have been recorded since about 1880, and with increasing precision during this century since 1904. In 1990 a routine expedition to monitor activity levels at the summit led to the discovery of a remarkable cave located in the crater floor, filled with numerous long delicate pale yellow stalactites and stalagmites of unknown composition. Within 100 m there was considerable volcanic activity taking place, and black lava was spraying from a small cone at a height of some 10 m above the crater floor. Due to the regular emission of lava at the summit of Lengai it is unlikely that the cave could have survived intact for more than a few months at most. High internal temperatures and lack of safe access precluded any attempt at entry and sampling of the very unusual and attractive formations within the cave, but a good photographic record was obtained.

'Pit Craters'', lava tubes, and open vertical volcanic conduits in Hawaii: a problem in terminology., 1998, Halliday William R.
Almost from the 1849 publication of the term pit crater, volcanologists have disagreed about the parameters differentiating these features from other vertical volcanic structures. Kaluaiki is a jameo giving entry to Thurston Lava Tube in Hawaii Volcanoes National Park. Long-standing misidentification of it as a pit crater is an example of misunderstandings arising from the lack of a clear definition of pit crater. In general, pit craters are unrelated to lava tube caves genetically, but two special cases are discussed. One probably is genetically related to a rift tube deep below the surface; the other is a complex of a small pit crater with a partial rim of accreted plates plus an ordinary-seeming lava tube cave. The term pit crater should be redefined in such a way that it excludes collapses or subsidences related to ordinary superficial lava tubes and open vertical volcanic conduits. Otherwise, a non-definition like that currently listed for agglomerate may be appropriate.

Volcanic caves of East Africa; an overview., 1998, Simons Jim W.
Numerous Tertiary to recent volcanoes are located in East Africa. Thus, much of the region is made up volcanic rock, which hosts the largest and greatest variety of East Africas caves. Exploration of volcanic caves has preoccupied members of Cave Exploration Group of East Africa (CEGEA) for the past 30 years. The various publications edited by CEGEA are in this respect a treasure troves of speleological information. In the present paper an overview on the most important volcanic caves and areas are shortly reported.

Fault and stratigraphic controls on volcanogenic massive sulphide deposits in the Strelley Belt, Pilbara Craton, Western Australia, 1998, Vearncombe S. , Vearncombe J. R. , Barley M. E. ,
Early Archaean, Fe-Zn-Cu volcanogenic massive sulphide deposits of the Strelley Belt, Pilbara Craton. occur at the top of a volcanic dominated sequence, at the interface of felsic volcanic rucks and siliceous laminites, beneath an unconformity overlain by elastic sedimentary rocks. The structure of the Sulphur Springs and Kangaroo Caves VMS deposits is relatively simple, with the present morphology reflecting original deposition rather than significant structural modification. The rocks have been tilted giving an oblique cross-sectional view of discordant high-angle, deep penetrating faults in the footwall, which splay close to the zones of voltcanogenic massive sulphide mineralization. Faults do not extend far into the overlying sedimentary cover, indicating their syn-volcanic and syn-mineralization timing. Both the Sulphur Springs and Kangaroo Caves sulphide deposits are located within elevated grabens in a setting similar to massive sulphide mineralization in modern back-are environments. Mineralization at Sulphur Springs and Kangaroo Caves is located at the edge of the grabens, at the site of intersecting syn-volcanic extensional faults.

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