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Enviroscan Ukrainian Institute of Speleology and Karstology


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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That ferghanite is a cave mineral - u3(vo4)2x6h2o [11].?

Checkout all 2699 terms in the KarstBase Glossary of Karst and Cave Terms


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KarstBase a bibliography database in karst and cave science.

Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
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Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
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Your search for zinc (Keyword) returned 60 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 1 to 15 of 60
Genesis of the Ordovician zinc deposits in east Tennessee, 1965,
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Hoagland Alan D. , Hill William T. , Fulweiler Robert E. ,
Zinc occurs in low-iron sphalerite associated with gangue dolomite in dissolution breccias and collapse structures in dolomitized limestone and interbedded fine-grained 'primary' dolomite. These breccias and collapse structures were developed as part of a karst-sinkhole complex formed at depths up to 800 feet below the top of the Knox Dolomite during widespread emergence at the end of Early Ordovician time. Mineralization was completed before the rocks were tilted, and clearly antedates the Appalachian orogeny. Source of hydrothermal solutions is not known

The Concentration of Cadmium, Copper, Lead and Zinc in Sediments from some Caves and Associated Surface Streams on Mendip, Somerset, 1978,
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Stenner R. D.

Pal_co-bact_cries et min_cralisations plombo-zincif_?res du Bled Zelfane (tunisie centrale), 1978,
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Amouri M, Cvigne Jp, Fuchs Y,

Acute Toxicity of Cadmium, Zinc, and Total Residual Chlorine to Epigean and Hypogean Isopods (Asellidae), 1981,
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Bosnak, Arthur D. Morgan, Eric L.

The emplacement of zinc-lead sulfide ores in the Upper Silesian District; a contribution to the understanding of mississippi valley-type deposits, 1982,
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Sassgustkiewicz Maria, Dzulynski Stanislaw, Ridge John D. ,

The Coxco Deposit; a Proterozoic mississippi valley-type deposit in the McArthur River District, Northern Territory, Australia, 1983,
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Walker R. N. , Gulson B. , Smith J. ,
Strata-bound dolomite-hosted lead-zinc deposit. Crusts of colloform sphalerite, galena, pyrite, and marcasite (stage I mineralization) were deposited on the surfaces of the karst-produced solution cavities. Reduced sulfur was produced by sulfate-reducing bacteria within the karst system. A second stage of mineralization consisting of coarsely crystalline sphalerite, galena, pyrite, and marcasite occurs in veins and as the matrix for dolomite breccias.--Modified journal abstract

Genesis of paleokarst and strata-bound zinc-lead sulfide deposits in a Proterozoic dolostone, northern Baffin Island, Canada, 1984,
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Olson R. A. ,
Society Cliffs Formation; episodes of karstification since its deposition. During the first karst episode an evaporite solution-collapse breccia formed ubiquitously on the western Borden Peninsula. During the second karst episode a holokarst developed and an integrated cave system was formed. The caves subsequently were filled with sulfides and carbonate minerals; several interesting sedimentary structures exist in the zinc-lead sulfide deposits. The ore fluid and contained metals are postulated to have been derived during a late-stage dewatering of the black shale that underlies the Society Cliffs Formation. Sulfide deposition may have been caused by chemical reduction of sulfate that existed in the ore fluid when the fluid entered hydrocarbon-filled caves. During the third and fourth episodes of karstification, only merokarst developed in the Society Cliffs Formation. Karst effects which formed during these episodes include oxidized sulfide deposits and surface solution corridors.--Modified journal abstract

Genesis of paleokarst and strata-bound zinc/lead sulfide deposits in a Proterozoic dolostone, Northern Baffin Island - a discussion, 1987,
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Ford D. C.

Breccia-hosted lead-zinc deposits in carbonate rocks, 1988,
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Sangster D. F.

Contemporary karst processes in the zone of influence of the lead and zinc mines in the Olkusz Region. [in Polish], 1989,
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Tyc, Andrzej

DIAGENESIS AND MINERALIZATION PROCESSES IN DEVONIAN CARBONATE ROCKS OF THE SIDING-GUDAN LEAD-ZINC MINERAL SUBDISTRICT, GUANGXI, SOUTHWEST CHINA, 1991,
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Schneider W. , Geng A. Q. , Liu X. Z. ,
The lead-zinc ore deposits of the Siding-Gudan mineral subdistrict Guangxi are part of the large Nanling district of South China, and hosted in Devonian carbonate rocks. The ore bodies occur significantly along main faults and fault zones, and concentrate up to 300 meters above the Cambrian/Devonian unconformity. Connected with hydrothermal karst, size and volume of the ore bodies increase in proximity to this unconformity. Moving from the unaffected host rocks to the center of the ore bodies, four zones can be discriminated by the mineral assemblage (pyrite, sphalerite, galena) as well as by the degree of ordering, Ca/Mg, and Fe/Mn ratios of different dolomites. Homogenization temperatures range from 80-100-degrees-C (Presqu'ile dolomite) to 230-260-degrees-C (massive sphalerite). The sulfides reveal delta-S-34 = -20 to parts per thousand, and fluid inclusions display a salinity of 5-12 wt % equivalent NaCl. The diagenetic and hydrothermal history is similar to that of classic Mississippi Valley Type (MVT) sulfide mineral deposits as, for example, Pine Point in Canada. Mineralization and remobilization of the sulfides took place during a wide time span from late Paleozoic through Mesozoic. Both processes are considered as an interaction of saline basinal brines ascended from the adjoining dewatering trough, and magmatic-hydrothermal fluids of several magmatic-tectonic events

Correlated strontium, carbon and oxygen isotopes in carbonate gangue at the Nanisivik zinc-lead deposits, northern Baffin Island, Canada., 1992,
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Ghazban F. , Schwarcz H. P. , Ford D. C.

RELATION OF MINERALIZATION TO WALL-ROCK ALTERATION AND BRECCIATION, MASCOT JEFFERSON-CITY MISSISSIPPI-VALLEY-TYPE DISTRICT, TENNESSEE, 1994,
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Haynes F. M. , Keslr S. E. ,
This study was undertaken to assess the relation of Mississippi Valley-type mineralization to wall-rock alteration and brecciation in the Mascot-Jefferson City district, the largest part of the East Tennessee Mississippi Valley-type ore field. The main question of interest was whether the Mississippi Valley-type-forming brines created or greatly enlarged the breccia system that hosts the ore or whether the breccia system was a preexisting paleoaquifer that simply controlled movement of the mineralizing brines. A secondary, and closely related, question was whether brine-wall rock interaction deposited Mississippi Valley-type ore. The breccia system that hosts the East Tennessee ore field began as karst breccias which formed in the upper part of the Late Cambrian-Early Ordovician Knox Group during Middle Ordovician emergence. Brecciation, which was most common at the paleosurface and in a limestone-rich zone about 200 m below the surface, took place when limestone solution caused collapse of primary dolostone layers. Mississippi Valley-type mineralization, consisting of sphalerite and sparry dolomite, fills interstices in the breccias that formed in the limestone-rich part of the Knox Group. Ore is associated with ''recrystalline dolomite'' that replaced limestone and there is an inverse correlation between the original limestone and sphalerite abundance suggesting that the ore-forming fluids reacted strongly with limestone wall rock, possibly dissolving it where alteration was most intense. The assessment of a relation between alteration and Mississippi Valley-type mineralization was based on 3,533 surface drill holes covering the 110-km2 Mascot-Jefferson City district, each of which provided stratigraphic data and quantified estimates of mineralization intensity and alteration intensity. These data show clearly that as much as 50 percent of the limestone in the mineralized breccia section was lost over enormous areas that extend far beyond significant mineralization. The intensity of this effect clearly decreases downdip (toward the east), away from the probable source of meteoric karst-forming waters. These relations, combined with isotopic analyses and reaction path calculations, suggest that breccia formation and limestone dissolution took place during the original karst breccia formation. In contrast, later Mississippi Valley-type mineralization was associated with replacement of limestone by recrystalline dolomite. The main effect of dolomitization on the chemistry of the Mississippi Valley-type brines, an increase in their Ca/Mg ratio, would not cause sulfide precipitation. Thus, it appears unlikely that Mississippi Valley-type-forming brines created much of their ore-hosting breccias or that water-rock interaction was a major cause of Mississippi Valley-type ore deposition

CHEMICAL-REACTION PATH MODELING OF ORE DEPOSITION IN MISSISSIPPI VALLEY-TYPE PB-ZN DEPOSITS OF THE OZARK REGION UNITED-STATES MIDCONTINENT, 1994,
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Plumlee G. S. , Leach D. L. , Hofstra A. H. , Landis G. P. , Rowan E. L. , Viets J. G. ,
The Ozark region of the U.S. midcontinent is host to a number of Mississippi Valley-type districts, including the world-class Viburnum Trend, Old Lead Belt, and Tri-State districts and the smaller Southeast Missouri barite, Northern Arkansas, and Central Missouri districts. There is increasing evidence that the Ozark Mississippi Valley-type districts formed locally within a large, interconnected hydrothermal system that also produced broad fringing areas of trace mineralization, extensive subtle hydrothermal alteration, broad thermal anomalies, and regional deposition of hydrothermal dolomite cement. The fluid drive was provided by gravity flow accompanying uplift of foreland thrust belts during the Late Pennsylvanian to Early Permian Ouachita orogeny. In this study, we use chemical speciation and reaction path calculations, based on quantitative chemical analyses of fluid inclusions, to constrain likely hydrothermal brine compositions and to determine which precipitation mechanisms are consistent with the hydrothermal mineral assemblages observed regionally and locally within each Mississippi Valley-type district in the Ozark region. Deposition of the regional hydrothermal dolomite cement with trace sulfides likely occurred in response to near-isothermal effervescence of CO2 from basinal brines as they migrated to shallower crustal levels and lower confining pressures. In contrast, our calculations indicate that no one depositional process can reproduce the mineral assemblages and proportions of minerals observed in each Ozark ore district; rather, individual districts require specific depositional mechanisms that reflect the local host-rock composition, structural setting, and hydrology. Both the Northern Arkansas and Tri-State districts are localized by normal faults that likely allowed brines to rise from deeper Cambrian-Ordovician dolostone aquifers into shallower carbonate sequences dominated by limestones. In the Northern Arkansas district, jasperoid preferentially replaced limestones in the mixed dolostone-limestone sedimentary packages. Modeling results indicate that the ore and alteration assemblages in the Tri-State and Northern Arkansas districts resulted from the flow of initially dolomite-saturated brines into cooler limestones. Adjacent to fluid conduits where water/rock ratios were the highest, the limestone was replaced by dolomite. As the fluids moved outward into cooler limestone, jasperoid and sulfide replaced limestone. Isothermal boiling of the ore fluids may have produced open-space filling of hydrothermal dolomite with minor sulfides in breccia and fault zones. Local mixing of the regional brine with locally derived sulfur undoubtedly played a role in the development of sulfide-rich ore runs. Sulfide ores of the Central Missouri district are largely open-space filling of sphalerite plus minor galena in dolostone karst features localized along a broad anticline. Hydrothermal solution collapse during ore deposition was a minor process, indicating dolomite was slightly undersaturated during ore deposition. No silicification and only minor hydrothermal dolomite is present in the ore deposits. The reaction path that best explains the features of the Central Missouri sulfide deposits is the near-isothermal mixing of two dolomite-saturated fluids with different H2S and metal contents. Paleokarst features may have allowed the regional brine to rise stratigraphically and mix with locally derived, H2S-rich fluids

THE EARLY PROTEROZOIC MISSISSIPPI VALLEY-TYPE PB-ZN-F DEPOSITS OF THE CAMPBELLRAND AND MALMANI SUBGROUPS, SOUTH-AFRICA - A REVIEW, 1995,
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Martini J. E. J. , Eriksson P. G. , Snyman C. P. ,
Pb-Zn-F deposits occur in the very late Archaean (2.55 Ga) shallow marine dolostone of the relatively undeformed Campbellrand and Malmani Sub-groups, which are overlain unconformably by the lower Proterozoic Postmasburg and Pretoria Group siliciclastics. They consist of stratiform deposits formed by replacement and porosity-filling, as well as pipes, ring-shaped and irregular bodies associated with collapse breccia. In the Transvaal basin the latter were generated during the karst denudation period between the deposition of the Chuniespoort Group (ending at similar to 2.4 Ga) and of the Pretoria Group (starting at 2.35 Ga). A part of these mineralisations were overprinted by the metamorphism of the Bushveld Complex intrusion at 2.06 Ga. In the Transvaal basin, the age of the mineralisation is constrained between the start of the Pretoria Group deposition and the Bushveld intrusion. It is concluded that, although most of the mineralisations are characteristic of the Mississippi Valley-type, some of the northernmost occurrences, rich in siderite, are less typical. A classic genetic model is proposed. In an environment characterised by tensional tectonics and basin development, brines of basinal origin were heated by circulation into pre-Chuniespoort rocks, leached metals from the rocks they permeated, and rose as hydrothermal plumes. At relatively shallow depth they deposited minerals after mixing with water of surficial origin

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