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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That capillary percolation is see imbibition.?

Checkout all 2699 terms in the KarstBase Glossary of Karst and Cave Terms

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KarstBase a bibliography database in karst and cave science.

Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
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Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
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Your search for tracers (Keyword) returned 100 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 16 to 30 of 100
The use of groundwater tracers for assessment of protection zones around water supply boreholes - a case study, 1997, Ward R. S. , Williamsa. T, Chadha D. S.

An inexpensive flow-through field fluorometer., 1997, Schnegg Pa. , Doerfliger N.
In order to simplify sampling dye tracers in water streams without having to invest money in expensive systems, we developed a highly sensitive flow-through field fluorometer. This apparatus was tested successfully in the field with fluorescein and sulforhodamine. A submersible probe is connected to a digital data logger and the data is written to a PCMCIA memory card allowing 2 weeks of unattended recording at 1 sample every 4 minutes. A sensitivity as low as 0.05 ppb has been achieved. Simultaneous concentration measurements of 2 tracers is possible, at the expense of reduced sensitivity, however.

Multivariate analysis of chemical-physical parameters to characterize and discriminate karstic waters, 1998, Barbieri P, Adami G, Reisenhofer E,
In the Karst near Trieste two contiguous, apparently similar, springs were sampled during autumnal and spring periods. Twelve chemical-physical parameters were monitored, with the purpose of determining the composition and verifying seasonal variations of the waters. The methodological approach for characterizing and discriminating karstic freshwaters, based on a multivariate analysis of the analytical data, as PCA (Principal Component Analysis) or EDA (Linear Discriminant Analysis), is alternative to intrusive methods based on chemical, radioactive or biological tracers. A discriminant model was proposed for these karstic waters, verifying the significance of the variables

River water intrusion to the unconfined Floridan Aquifer, 1998, Kincaid Todd R. ,
Rapid infiltration of river water into unconfined parts of the Floridan aquifer represents a significant component of subsequent ground-water discharge in regions where the aquifer is dissected by surface streams. A two-year investigation of the Devil's Ear cave system, an extensive saturated conduit network in the Floridan aquifer which underlies a 1.5-km reach of the Santa Fe River in north-central Florida, revealed that there is an appreciable and rapid exchange of water between the river and the underlying Floridan aquifer. Natural tracers Radon-222 ( 222 Rn) and delta 18 O were used to quantify these exchanges. Cave diving was employed to collect 50 water samples which were analyzed for tracer content and to observe water clarity conditions within the saturated karst conduits as far as 1.2 km from the cave entrance. 222 Rn concentrations measured in the cave system revealed three distinct zones where river water is rapidly intruded into the Floridan aquifer. A two-component mixing model was used to quantify the intruded river water that was found to account for as much as 62 percent of the discharge at Devil's Ear spring. Observations of diminished water clarity in the cave system following large precipitation events in the highland provinces of the Santa Fe River basin indicate that river water intrusion to the aquifer can occur in as little as one or two days. The results of this investigation imply that, in regions such as the western Santa Fe River basin, there can be no clear distinction between ground and surface waters and intruded river water provides a significant vehicle for contamination of the unconfined Floridan aquifer

Changes in the isotopic and chemical composition of ground water resulting from a recharge pulse from a sinking stream, 1998, Katz B. G. , Catches J. S. , Bullen T. D. , Michel R. L. ,
The Little River, an ephemeral stream that drains a watershed of approximately ss km(2) in northern Florida, disappears into a series of sinkholes along the Cody Scarp and flows directly into the carbonate Upper Floridan aquifer, the source of water supply in northern Florida. The changes in the geochemistry of ground water caused by a major recharge pulse from the sinking stream were investigated using chemical and isotopic tracers and mass-balance modeling techniques, Nine monitoring wells were installed open to the uppermost part of the aquifer in areas near the sinks where numerous subterranean karst solution features were identified using ground penetrating radar. During high-flow conditions in the Little River, the chemistry of water in some of the monitoring wells changed, reflecting the mixing of river water with ground water. Rapid recharge of river water into some parts of the aquifer during high-flow conditions was indicated by enriched values of delta O-18 and delta deuterium (-1.67 to -3.17 per mil and -9.2 to -15.6 per mil, respectively), elevated concentrations of tannic acid, higher (more radiogenic) Sr-87/Sr-86 ratios, and lower concentrations of Rn-222, silica, and alkalinity compared to low-how conditions. The proportion of river water that mixed with ground water ranged from 0.10 to 0.67 based on binary mixing models using the tracers O-18, deuterium, tannic acid, silica, Rn-222, and Sr-87/Sr-86. On the basis of mass-balance modeling during steady-state how conditions, the dominant processes controlling carbon cycling in ground water are the dissolution of calcite and dolomite in aquifer material, and aerobic degradation of organic matter. (C) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved

Oxidation of organic matter in a karstic hydrologic unit supplied through stream sinks (Loiret, France), 1998, Alberic P, Lepiller M,
The aim of this paper is to appraise the ability of the oxidation of riverine organic matter in the control of limestone dissolution, in a karst network. Biogeochemical processes during infiltration of river water into an alluvial aquifer have already been described for an average flow velocity of 4-5 m d(-1) (Jacobs, L. A., von Gunten, H. R., Keil, R, and Kuslys, M. (1988) Geochemical changes along a river-groundwater infiltration flow path: Glattfelden, Switzerland. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 52, 2693-2706; Von Gunten, H. R., Karametaxas, G., Krahenbuhl, U., Kuslys, M., Giovanoli R., Hoehn E. and Keil R. (1991) Seasonal biogeochemical cycles in riverborne groundwater. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 55, 3597-3609; Bourg, A. C. M. and Bertin, C. (1993) Quantitative appraisal of biogeochemical chemical processes during the infiltration of river water into an alluvial aquifer. Environ. Sci. Technol. 27, 661-666). Karstic drainage networks, such as in the River Loire-Val d'Orleans hydrologic system (Fig. 1), make possible flow velocities up to 200 m h(-1 a) and provide convenient access to different water samples several tens of km apart, at both extremities of the hydrologic unit (Chery, J.-L. (1983) Etude hydrochimique d'un aquifere karstique alimente par perte de cours d'eau (la Loire): Le systeme des calcaires de Beauce sous le val d'Orleans. These, Universite d'Orleans; Livrozet, E. (1984) Influence des apports de la Loire sur la qualite bacteriologique et chimique de l'aquifere karstique du val d'Orleans. These, Universite d'Orleans). Recharge of the karstic aquifer occurs principally from influent waters from stream sinks, either through coarse alluvial deposits or directly from outcrops of the regional limestone bedrock (Calcaires de Beauce). Recharge by seepage waters From the local catchment basin is small (Zunino, C., Bonnet, M. and Lelong, F. (1980) Le Val d'Orleans: un exemple d'aquifere a alimentation laterale. C. R. somm. Soc. Geol. Fr. 5, 195-199; Gonzalez R. (1992) Etude de l'organisation et evaluation des echanges entre la Loire moyenne et l'aquifere des calcaires de Beauce. These, Universite d'Orleans) and negligible in summer. This karstic hydrologic: system is the largest in France in terms of flow (tens to hundreds of m(3)/s) and provides the main water resource of the city of Orleans. Chemical compositions of influent waters (River Loire) and effluent waters (spring of the river Loiret) were compared, in particular during floods in summer 1992 and 1993 (Figs 2-4). Variation of chloride in the River Loire during the stream rise can be used as an environmental tracer of the underground flow (Fig. 2). Short transit times of about 3 days are detectable (Fig, 2) which are consistent with earlier estimations obtained with chemical tracers (Ref. in Chery, J.-L. (1983) These, Universite d'Orleans). Depending on the hydrological regime of the river, organic carbon discharge ranges between 3-7 and 2-13 mg/l for dissolved and particulate matter respectively (Fig. 3). Eutrophic characteristics and high algal biomasses are found in the River Loire during low water (Lair, N. and Sargos, D. (1993) A 10 year study at four sites of the middle course of the River Loire. I - Patterns of change in hydrological, physical and chemical variables in relation to algal biomass. Hudroecol. Appl. 5, 1-27) together with more organic carbon rich suspended particulate matter than during floods (30-40 C-org % dry weight versus 5-10%). Amounts of total organic carbon and dissolved oxygen (Fig. 3) dramatically decrease during the underground transport, whereas conversely, dissolved calcium, alkalinity and inorganic carbon increase (Fig. 4). Anoxia of outflows map start in April. Dissolution of calcium carbonates along the influent path outweighs closed system calcite equilibrium of inflow river waters (Table 3). The impact of organic matter oxidation on calcite dissolution may be traced by variations of alkalinity and total carbonates in water. Following, Jacobs, L. A., von Gunten, H. R., Keil, R. and Kuslys, M. (1988) Geochemical changes along a river-groundwater infiltration flow path: Glattfelden, Switzerland. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 52, 2693-2706), results are shown graphically (Fig. 5). Extent of reactions is controlled by the consumption of dissolved O-2 and nitrate for organic matter oxidation and by the release of Ca2 for calcite dissolution (Table 2). The karstic network is considered to behave like a biological reactor not exchanging with the atmosphere, with steady inhabitant microbial communities (Mariotti A., Landreau A, and Simon B. (1988) N-15 isotope biogeochemisrry and natural denitrification process in groundwater: Application to the chalk aquifer of northern France. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 52, 1869-1878; Gounot, A.-M. (1991) Ecologie microbienne des eaux ei des sediments souterrains. Hydrogeologie, 239-248). Thus, energy requirements only are considered, not carbon assimilation. Moreover, there is no necessity to invoke any delay for nitrification enhancement, as observed elsewhere, after waste water discharge into the river (Chesterikoff, A., Garban, B., Billen, G. and Poulin, M. (1992) Inorganic nitrogen dynamics in the River Seine downstream from Paris (France). Biogeochem. 17, 147-164). Main microbial processes are assumed to be aerobic respiration, nitrification and denitrification. Reactions with iron and manganese, real but not quantitatively important, were neglected. Sulphate reduction and methane formation, certainly not active, were not considered. Denitrification, which is suggested by low nitrate and ammonium concentrations and anoxia in the outflow, is known to be rapid enough to be achieved in a short time (Dupain, S. (1992) Denitrification biologique heterotrophe appliquee au traitement des eaux d'alimentation: Conditions de fonclionnement et mise au point d'un procede. These, Universite Claude Bernard, Lyon). Reaction are somewhat arbitrary but conform to general acceptance (Morel, M. M. and Hering, J. G. (1993) Principles and Applications of Aquatic Chemistry. Wiley, New York). Anaerobic ammonium oxidation (Mulder A., van de Graaf, A. A., Robertson, L: A. and Kuenen, J. G. (1995) Anaerobic ammonium oxidation discovered in a denitrifying fluidized bed reactor. FEMS Microbiol. Ecol. 16, 177-184). although possible, was not considered. In fact, C/N ratio of the reactive organic matter has only mild repercussions on the results; i.e. in the same range as the analytical errors for alkalinity and total carbonates. The objective was simply to roughly confront characteristics of outflowing waters and the calculation. Respective roles of aerobes and denitrifiers, for instance, are not certain. Several periods during low water or floods were selected with various ranges for calcium dissolution or nitrate and oxygen concentrations. The result is that in most cases simulation and data are in reasonable accordance (Fig. 5). Amounts of organic matter in River Loire are generally sufficient to sustain the process (Table 3. Particulate organic matter is probably the most reactive. The balance of oxidation of organic matter indicates that about 65 mu g C-org/l.h are oxidized during the transport without much variation with the river regime or organic discharge. It is concluded that limestone dissolution is directly dependent on organic matter oxidation, but variation occurs (7-29 mg CuCO3/l) with the level of bases that can be neutralized in the River Loire water. (C) 1998 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved

Isotope Tracers in Catchment Hydrology., 1998, Kendall C. , Mcdonnell J. J.
This book represents a new "earth systems" approach to catchments that encompasses the physical and biogeochemical interactions that control the hydrology and biogeochemistry of the system. The text provides a comprehensive treatment of the fundamentals of catchment hydrology, principles of isotope geochemistry, and the isotope variability in the hydrologic cycle -- but the main focus of the book is on case studies in isotope hydrology and isotope geochemistry that explore the applications of isotope techniques for investigating modern environmental problems. Isotope Tracers in Catchment Hydrology is the first synthesis of physical hydrology and isotope geochemistry with catchment focus, and is a valuable reference for professionals and students alike in the fields of hydrology, hydrochemistry, and environmental science. This important interdisciplinary text provides extensive guidelines for the application of isotope techniques for all investigators facing the challenge of protecting precious water, soil, and ecological resources from the ever-increasing problems associated with population growth and environmental change, including those from urban development and agricultural land uses. More information at:

Isotope Tracers in Catchment Hydrology, 1998,

Stable isotopes as natural tracers of the karst recharge to the tertiary clastic aquifers: a case study of southern part of Ljubljana marsh , 1998, Pezdič, Jož, E,

The main purpose of the research was to determine the recharge and storage of groundwater at the southern part of Ljubljana marsh where tertiary aquifers are filled mainly with karst water. Stable isotopes of hydrogen, oxygen and carbon in water or in dissolved species, as well as tritium content in water and precipitation were used as natural tracers to follow the recharge and discharge of surface streams and aquifers. Together with hydrogeological and other chemical evidence they provide useful information about water mass transport, storage, refilling of aquifers and mixing of groundwater. In the aquifers, springs and surface river water d18O varied from -9,65 to -8,82 š while dD has the range from -67,4 to -61,2 š. Tritium activities are measured from 1,6 to 13,4 T.U.. Long term averages (n = 13 years) for d18O (dD) in Ljubljana is -8,73 (-60,6) š and tritium content is 17,5 T.U.. The mean temperature in Ljubljana is 10,03ºC and average years precipitation amount is 1332 mm. Years 1992-93 have been characterised by low tritium content in precipitation (8,2 for 1992 and 10,6 for 1993) and so important for investigation. The average mean meteoric line for the last 14 years is defined as dD=8,188xd18O+10,66. Temperature correlation vs. oxygen is: d18O=0,254xt-10,78. The above database is discussed in order to evaluate thesis about karst influence on the recharge and storage of clastic sediment aquifers in the Iška delta sediment structure.

Hydrochemical evidence for mixing of river water and groundwater during high-flow conditions, lower Suwannee River basin, Florida, USA, 1999, Crandall Ca, Katz Bg, Hirten Jj,
Karstic aquifers are highly susceptible to rapid infiltration of river water, particularly during periods of high flow. Following a period of sustained rainfall in the Suwannee River basin, Florida, USA, the stage of the Suwannee River rose from 3.0 to 5.88 m above mean sea level in April 1996 and discharge peaked at 360 m(3)/s. During these high-now conditions, water from the Suwannee River migrated directly into the karstic Upper Floridan aquifer, the main source of water supply for the area. Changes in the chemical composition of groundwater were quantified using naturally occurring geochemical tracers and mass-balance modeling techniques. Mixing of river water with groundwater was indicated by a decrease in the concentrations of calcium, silica, and Rn-222; and by an increase in dissolved organic carbon (DOC), tannic acid, and chloride, compared to low-flow conditions in water from a nearby monitoring well, Wingate Sink, and Little River Springs. The proportion (fraction) of river water in groundwater ranged from 0.13 to 0.65 at Wingate Sink and from 0.5 to 0.99 at well W-17258, based on binary mixing models using various tracers. The effectiveness of a natural tracer in quantifying mixing of river water and groundwater was related to differences in tracer concentration of the two end members and how conservatively the tracer reacted in the mixed water. Solutes with similar concentrations in the two end-member waters (Na, Mg, K, Cl, SO4, SiO2) were not as effective tracers for quantifying mixing of river water and groundwater as those with larger differences in end-member concentrations (Ca, tannic acid, DOC, Rn-222, HCO3)

On predicting contaminant transport in carbonate terrains: Behavior and prediction, 1999, Annable W. K , Sudicky E. A.
A three-dimensional numerical model was used to quantify the fate of conservative transport in carbonate terrainsNumerical flow and transport experiments were conducted in proto-conduit scale limestone terrains (conduits less than 10cm) which determined that a priori information on the 'spill' and/or 'tracer injection location' and discharge locations provided little insight in characterizing the complexity of the internal labyrinth of interconnected conduitsScaling, aside from the characterization of the geologic media, was one of the most limiting factors in quantifying recharge tracers or contaminant distributionHowever, if sufficient numbers of discharge locations (springs) are known, the extent of downstream contaminant migration can be characterized

The catchment of the Brassus karst spring (Swiss Jura): a synthesis of the tracer tests, 2000, Perrin J. , Jeannin P. Y. , Lavanchy Y. ,
Two successive tracer tests were carried out in the Pleine Lune cave which is located in the central part of the Brassus karstic spring catchment area (South-western Jura, Switzerland). During both experiments, the tracers were not recovered neither. at the Brassus spring nor at the secondary springs. Following this amazing result, the available data on this spring have been studied and a synthesis is proposed in this paper. The Brassus karstic spring, situated in the south-western part of Vallee de Joux, is an important resurgence from this part of the folded Jura. The water emerges from Cretaceous limestones covered by a thin layer of moraine: the main alimentation comes however from the underlying Maim limestone aquifer, Cretaceous limestones bring only a limited part of the total discharge. Within the supposed Brassus spring catchment areal 18 tracer tests were realised, but only half of them gave positive results. Positive tracer rests show low velocities and poor restitution percentage, particularly during low water periods. Such peculiarities are attributed to an important saturated zone, favouring dilution and dispersion of the tracers. The average discharge at the: spring is assumed to be less than 500 l/s and the average specific discharge is about 40 l/s/km(2), following previous data on other springs of the area. A calculated catchment area with such values would have a surface of 13,5 km(2); but the catchment area derived from the topography of the base of the Maim aquifer (top of the argovian marls considered as an aquitard) covers 56 km(2). This important difference as well as the negative results obtained from the Pleine Lune cave tracer tests show how difficult it is to define a catchment area for limestone aquifers: on one hand a delimitation based on water balance calculations tends to underestimate the catchment area by neglecting outlets as direct infiltration in the alluviums and secondary springs. On the other hand a delimitation based on geological considerations seems to overestimate the surface; this is illustrated by negative tracer tests results with injection points situated well inside the catchment area

, 2000,

Groundwater Flow and Contaminant Transport in Carbonate Aquifers, 2000, Sasowsky I. D. , Wicks C. M.
Carbonate aquifers are an important source of water throughout the world. They are complicated systems and not always easy to interpret. Caves and channels form in the rock, leading to complex flow pathways and unpredictable contaminant behaviour. This volume covers the range of techniques used to analyse groundwater flow and contaminant transport in carbonate aquifers. The book opens with a review of thoughts and methods, and continues by discussing the use of tracers, hydrograph and hydrochemograph evaluation, estimation of aquifer properties from outcrop studies, numerical simulation, analogue simulation, and 3-D visualization of conduits. Other papers address the critical evaluation of matrix, fracture and conduit components of flow and storage. An understanding of these approaches is important to engineers or hydrogeologists working in carbonate aquifers.

A stable isotope investigation of the Classical Karst aquifer: evaluating karst groundwater components for water quality preservation, 2000, Doctor Daniel H. , Lojen Sonja, Horvat Milena

The karst aquifer resurgence zone that is located along the western border of the Classical Karst region of southwestern Slovenia and to the north of Trieste, Italy is comprised of several distinct groundwater components. The purpose of this ongoing study is to examine the varying influence of these groundwater components on the karstic outflow under changing hydrologic conditions, using natural stable isotopes as tracers. In particular, the influence of the Soča river on the groundwater of this region was examined using mercury, a pollutant of elevated concentration in the Soča, as an additional tracer of Soča river water. The results of the isotopic measurements confirm the division of karstic groundwaters into three main categories: (1) springs and the estavelles of an ephemeral karstic lake (Sablici springs, Moschenizze North spring, Doberdò Lake), which are largely influenced by the Soča and Vipava rivers during periods of low flow, (2) the group of the Timavo springs that is subject to main influences of the Reka River and water derived from local precipitation, and (3) the grouping of Sardos spring and Moschenizze South spring, which form an intermediate category between the first two groups, exhibiting characteristics that indicate variable contributions from the other two end-members. Mercury levels in these karstic groundwaters are generally quite low, however significant variablity in mercury levels with varying hydrologic conditions have been observed, indicating also a varying influence of the Soča river.

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