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Enviroscan Ukrainian Institute of Speleology and Karstology


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Community news

Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That LNAPL is abbreviation for light nonaqueous phase liquid. liquids falling into this category have specific gravities that are less than water (the specific gravity for water is usually taken to be one), are relatively immiscible with water, and tend to migrate downwards through the vadose and to float on top of the water table. see also lnapl; immiscible; napl.?

Checkout all 2699 terms in the KarstBase Glossary of Karst and Cave Terms


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KarstBase a bibliography database in karst and cave science.

Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
See all featured articles
Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
See all featured articles from other geoscience journals

Search in KarstBase

Your search for classification (Keyword) returned 109 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 16 to 30 of 109
The Genesis and Classification of Lava Tube Caves, 1974,
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Wood C.

Observations on Stenasellus virei in its natural biotopes (Crustacea Isopoda Asellota of Subterranean Waters)., 1974,
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Magniez Guy
Thanks to intensive exploration and to new methods for capturing aquatic underground fauna. 117 localities are now known for Stenasellus virei. The description of some typical biotopes suggests that the species lives as well in karstic waters as in phreatic ones, inside the different environment of the hydrogeological classification of subterranean waters. St. virei buchneri and St. v. hussoni are almost cavernicolous. St. v. angelieri is distributed in the underground waters of Catalonia. St. v. boui is located in the underflow of Salat river basin. St. v. virei is widely distributed in the alluvial water-level of Garonne and Ebro rivers basins. The dispersion of St. virei into the alluvial environment explains the process of colonization of continental underground waters. It explains also the existence of an apparently insulated population into the sink-hole of Padirac. The actual distribution of the five subspecies is explained by important restrictions of the area in quaternary glacial ages, followed by local (in the water-level of the tributaries of Garonne river) spreading during postglacial time. The postglacial reconquest of the Salat river underflow by this species seems to have been responsible for the latest subspeciation (St. v. boui). The endemic populations of fossil karstic systems seem to have an abnormal composition. They include unusually large adults, juvenile stages being rare. They differ from the phreatic populations, which exhibit a normal distribution is size groups, with a formal percentage of juveniles. These differences between karstic and interstitial populations may result from the fact that in caves, Sr. virei is often insulated from its original phreatic biocoenosis: an intraspecific competition between size classes has taken the place of normal heterospecific struggle for existence.

A classification of karstic phenomena., 1978,
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Cigna Arrigo A.
The paper describes and classifies the several types of karstic processes, distinguishing karstic, parakarstic, hypokarstic, hyperkarstic and pseudokarstic phenomena. An appendix on solubility of silica is also given.

Types of karst, with emphasis on cover beds in their classification and development, 1978,
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Quinlan J. F.

Classification and genesis of biogenic sulfur deposits, 1979,
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Ruckmick J. C. , Wimberly B. H. , Edwards A. F.

Classification of Pseudokarst forms in Czechoslovakia., 1983,
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Vitek Jan
The paper is a geomorphological classification of pseudokarst forms in Czechoslovakia/Bohemien Massif and the Carpathians. In the author's opinion, forms occurring in non-carbonate rocks, are morphologically and often genetically analogous to the forms of karst relief, and are pseudokarst phenomena. They are divided according to their size into macroforms in sandstone morphostructures of the Bohemian Cretaceous Basin some types of rocky valleys, water-shed plains and ridges, forming rock cities in some places, mesoforms with six types of caves, sinkholes, rock perforations and several rock phenomena and microforms such as weather pits and niches, lapies, etc.. The most prominent pseudokarst phenomena have been formed in the sandstones of the Bohemian Cretaceous Basin whose relief may be considered "pseudokarst". They are also common in other sediments; in neovolcanic rocks and granitic rocks, as well as in other types of rocks. Pseudokarst forms are the product of geomorphological processes, especially weathering and denudation, block rock slides, erosion, suffosion, etc. Most of them have been developing in the recent mild humid climatic conditions.

Origin of the hydrothermal karstic phenomena in the Buda-Hills (Hungary), 1984,
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Kovacs Judit, Mller Pal

Hydrologic classification of caves and karst, 1984,
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Mylroie J. E.

Preliminary report of the first German speleological expedition to the Himalaya., 1986,
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Gebauer Herbert Daniel
The first German speleological expedition to the Himalaya went to the terrace sediments of Pokhara, Nepal. New discoveries could be made in the longest cave of the Himalaya (Patalae Chhango or Harpan-River-Cave) and other caves were surveyed for the first time. Due to the observations the classification of conglomerate-caves as pseudokarst-appearances has to be questioned.

Limestone weathering: its engineering significance and a proposed classification scheme, 1988,
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Fookes Pg, Hawkins Ab,
As a foundation material, limestone differs from other rocks in that voids may be found at almost any depth within the rock mass. They may result directly from solution weathering near the surface and along discontinuities, or as specific cave systems at depths related to present or past ground water levels. The paper reviews the processes involved in the weathering by solution of the crystalline limestones, typically of Palaeozoic age. It offers a tentative, simple engineering classification of the solution features characteristic of limestones; and presents case histories to illustrate some of the problems which may be encountered during construction in areas of limestone bedrock

Propositions pour une classification litho-gntique des phnomnes karstiques, 1990,
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Silvestru, E.
Proposals for a litho-genetical classification of karst and karst-like features - Based on two ubiquitous factors: lithology and core of modelling process, a separation of karst and karst-like features is proposed, into the following three categories: orthokarst, parakarst and pseudokarst, with several subcategories.

RHYTHMIC KARST SPRINGS, 1991,
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Bonacci O, Bojanic D,
Rhythmic springs (ebb and flow springs, intermittent springs, potajnice) belong to the group of springs which appear exclusively in karstified terrains. The paper describes various types of rhythmic springs and gives their classification. It also develops a mathematical model for the functioning of this type of springs based on the principle of recharge and emptying of the underground reservoir through siphon action. Applying this model, according to the observed hydrographs of some rythmic springs in Yugoslavia, the paper explains in detail the structure of the underground reservoir located in the karst

DOLOMITE-ROCK TEXTURES AND SECONDARY POROSITY DEVELOPMENT IN ELLENBURGER GROUP CARBONATES (LOWER ORDOVICIAN), WEST TEXAS AND SOUTHEASTERN NEW-MEXICO, 1991,
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Amthor Je, Friedman Gm,
Pervasive early- to late-stage dolomitization of Lower Ordovician Ellenburger Group carbonates in the deep Permian Basin of west Texas and southeastern New Mexico is recorded in core samples having present-day burial depths of 1.5-7.0 km. Seven dolomite-rock textures are recognized and classified according to crystal-size distribution and crystal-boundary shape. Unimodal and polymodal planar-s (subhedral) mosaic dolomite is the most widespread type, and it replaced allochems and matrix or occurs as void-filling cement. Planar-e (euhedral) dolomite crystals line pore spaces and/or fractures, or form mosaics of medium to coarse euhedral crystals. This kind of occurrence relates to significant intercrystalline porosity. Non-planar-a (anhedral) dolomite replaced a precursor limestone/dolostone only in zones that are characterized by original high porosity and permeability. Non-planar dolomite cement (saddle dolomite) is the latest generation and is responsible for occlusion of fractures and pore space. Dolomitization is closely associated with the development of secondary porosity; dolomitization pre-and post-dates dissolution and corrosion and no secondary porosity generation is present in the associated limestones. The most common porosity types are non-fabric selective moldic and vuggy porosity and intercrystalline porosity. Up to 12% effective porosity is recorded in the deep (6477 m) Delaware basin. These porous zones are characterized by late-diagenetic coarse-crystalline dolomite, whereas the non-porous intervals are composed of dense mosaics of early-diagenetic dolomites. The distribution of dolomite rock textures indicates that porous zones were preserved as limestone until late in the diagenetic history, and were then subjected to late-stage dolomitization in a deep burial environment, resulting in coarse-crystalline porous dolomites. In addition to karst horizons at the top of the Ellenburger Group, exploration for Ellenburger Group reservoirs should consider the presence of such porous zones within other Ellenburger Group dolomites

Origin and classification of springs and historical review with current applications, 1994,
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Alfaro C, Wallace M,

Classification of cave dypsum deposits derived from oxidation of H2S, 1994,
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Buck M. J. , Ford D. C. , Schwarcz H. P.

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