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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That pendular regime is a saturation regime where a porous medium has the lowest possible saturation in the form of pendular rings at grain contacts [16].?

Checkout all 2699 terms in the KarstBase Glossary of Karst and Cave Terms


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KarstBase a bibliography database in karst and cave science.

Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
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Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
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Your search for chronology (Keyword) returned 123 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 16 to 30 of 123
MURUROA ATOLL (FRENCH-POLYNESIA) .1. STRUCTURE AND GEOLOGICAL EVOLUTION, 1992,
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Buigues D, Gachon A, Guille G,
From a geographical point of view, the atoll of Mururoa belongs to the Tuamotu archipelago. In its largest dimension Mururoa (28 x 10 km) is oriented N080-degrees-E, a direction which is different from that of the other atolls of the Tuamotu, generally oriented parallel to the Pacific plate motion, N130-degrees-E. The atoll of Mururoa is built on a submarine plateau of 130 km long and 30 km wide. The western side of this plateau is 90 km long and N080-degrees-E oriented, the eastern one 40 km long and N095-degrees-E oriented. Three deep main structures of the atoll are revealed by strong aeromagnetic anomalies elongated and oriented once more N080-degrees-E. They represent ancient riftzones, similar to the present time Hawaiian ones. The most important of them, situated at southern end of the atoll, is the prolongation of the eastern plateau. The principal petrographic facies have been defined from the numerous drill holes bored in the upper 1,100 m. From the base to the top are represented volcanic deposits, a volcano-sedimentary serie of both carbonate and volcanic origin and finally reefal carbonates (limestones and dolomites). The volcanic facies represent successively submarine, transitional and aerial volcanic activity. They are commonly affected by early stage of hydrothermalism, due to lava-sea-water chemical interaction, and are frequently supported by differentiated dykes, occasionally interrupted by reefal limestones. The main geometrical distribution of the facies through the atoll and the radiochronology lead to the following model of formation : during early stages of the atoll building two main separate edifices emerged before joining and forming a single volcano. This double structure was similar to the present time morphology of Tahiti. The volcanic activity ceased 10.6 Ma ago, an age which perfectly suits a hot spot origin, at present located to the south-east of Pitcairn island

DENUDATION CHRONOLOGY FROM CAVE AND RIVER TERRACE LEVELS - THE CASE OF THE BUCHAN KARST, SOUTHEASTERN AUSTRALIA, 1992,
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Webb J. A. , Fabel D. , Finlayson B. L. , Ellaway M. , Li S. , Spiertz H. P. ,
Detailed mapping of surface and underground karst features at Buchan, in eastern Victoria, has shown that the three river terraces along the Buchan River can be correlated with three levels of epiphreatic development in the nearby caves. Each level represents a stillstand in the denudational history of the area. Uranium series dating of speleothems and palaeomagnetic studies of cave sediments indicate that all three stillstands are more than 730 ka old. The periods of incision separating the stillstands were probably the result of active tectonic uplift. This contrasts with some northern parts of the Southeastern Highlands, which have been stable since the Eocene. The overall amount of incision and uplift at Buchan is small, indicating that the majority of scarp retreat in this section of the highlands must have occurred earlier. The denudation history of the Buchan area over the last 730 ka has seen only 2-3 m of incision, despite the major climatic and sea-level changes that have occurred in that time. Whereas most karst landscapes in the Northern Hemisphere have been extensively modified during the late Pleistocene, the Buchan karst was little affected, and its geomorphology has an older origin

A High-Resolution Record of Holocene Climate Change in Speleothem Calcite from Cold Water Cave, Northeast Iowa, 1992,
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Dorale Ja, Gonzalez La, Reagan Mk, Pickett Da, Murrell Mt, Baker Rg,
High-precision uranium-thorium mass spectrometric chronology and 18O-13C isotopic analysis of speleothem calcite from Cold Water Cave in northeast Iowa have been used to chart mid-Holocene climate change. Significant shifts in [dagger]18O and [dagger]13C isotopic values coincide with well-documented Holocene vegetation changes. Temperature estimates based on 18O/16O ratios suggest that the climate warmed rapidly by about 3{degrees}C at 5900 years before present and then cooled by 4{degrees}C at 3600 years before present. Initiation of a gradual increase in [dagger]13C at 5900 years before present suggests that turnover of the forest soil biomass was slow and that equilibrium with prairie vegetation was not attained by 3600 years before present

Applications of dating to denudation chronology and landscape evolution, 1992,
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Atkinson T. C. , Rowe P. J.

Niveaux marins, chronologie isotopique et karstification en rpublique dominicaine, 1993,
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Diaz_del_olmo F. , Camara_artigas R.
The study of marine levels and the karstification of coral reefs on the Santo Domingo coast emphasizes qua-ternary dynamics linked to climatic variations and eustatic oscillations. The evolution proposed here includes the last 400 000 years (U/Th limit) and shows the importance of stages 1, 5 and 7 (interglacial stages) in the layout of coral reefs. As far as karstifiction is concerned, the differences observed between ancient and more recent times can be accounted for by a tendancy to the drying out of the intertropical morphoclimatic system.

SILICATE KARST ASSOCIATED WITH LATERITIC FORMATIONS (EXAMPLES FROM EASTERN NIGER), 1994,
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Sponholz B. ,
Silicate and iron crust karst pits and sinkholes in eastern Niger are filled with reworked lateritic sediments or with unconsolidated palaeosoils and aeolian deposits. The fillings facies depend on the environmental conditions during deposition. Geomorphological and sedimentological studies on the karst fillings and the interpretation of various karst/filling associations allow an approach to the chronology of landscape development in eastern Niger plateaus

Pb-Pb and U-Pb geochronology of carbonate rocks: an assessment., 1994,
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Jahn B. , Cuvellier H.

GEOMORPHOLOGY, STRATIGRAPHY AND C-14 CHRONOLOGY OF ANCIENT TUFAS AT LOUIE-CREEK, NORTHWEST QUEENSLAND, AUSTRALIA, 1994,
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Drysdale R, Head J,
Louie Creek is a karst springfed stream situated in the seasonally humid tropics of northwest Queensland, Australia. It rises as a series of small exsurgences along the eastern edge of the Barkly Tableland. As it enters the lowlands of the Carpentaria plain, the creek deposits tufa which produces a series of cascades. This modern tufa extends discontinuously for about 1.5 km. A series of ancient tufas, in places lying adjacent to sites of modern deposition, extends discontinously for about 8 km downstream. At least two ancient tufa units are preserved at one location, Little Indarri site. The older unit comprises a sequence of well-preserved barrages with an orientation transverse to present-day stream flow. In places, erosion has reduced these barrages to their calcrete substrate. The older tufa is overlain in places by sediment which has become cemented to form a second calcrete unit. This sediment is in turn succeeded by the younger ancient tufa. Subsequent river incision has removed part of the sediment from the older unit and exposed several contact points between the ancient tufa and calcrete units. Radiocarbon dating of the Little Indarri site tufas, as well as other ancient Louie Creek units, yielded apparent ages ranging from approximately 30 to approximately 14 ka BP, suggesting that conditions were sufficiently wet during the period immediately preceding and throughout the Last Glacial Maximum for tufa deposition to occur. However, ancient tufa formation occurred during a phase of net river aggradation. There is geomorphic evidence that such aggradation was a result of an increased sediment supply to the fluvial system, most likely in response to conditions drier than present. Results from studies elsewhere in the region support such a Late Pleistocene trend. Incision of Louie Creek, which postdates the youngest of the dated ancient tufas, is most likely to have resulted from a shift to wetter conditions during the early Holocene

Tectonic Speleogenesis of Devils Hole, Nevada, and Implications for Hydrogeology and the Development of Long, Continuous Paleoenvironmental Records, 1994,
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Riggs Alan C. , Carr W. J. , Kolesar Peter T. , Hoffman Ray J. ,
Devils Hole, in southern Nevada, is a surface collapse into a deep, planar, steeply dipping fault-controlled fissure in Cambrian limestone and dolostone. The collapse intersects the water table about 15 m below land surface and the fissure extends at least 130 m deeper. Below water, most of the fissure is lined with a >30-cm-thick layer of dense maxillary calcite that precipitated continuously from groundwater for >500,000 yr. The thick mammillary calcite coat implies a long history of calcite-supersaturated groundwaters, which, combined with the absence of dissolutional morphologies, suggests that Devils Hole was not formed by karst processes. Devils Hole is located in a region of active extension; its tectonic origin is shown by evidence of spreading of its planar opening along a fault and by the orientation of its opening and others nearby, perpendicular to the northwest-southeast minimum principal stress direction of the region. Most Quaternary tectonic activity in the area, including seismicity and Quaternary faults and fractures, occurs on or parallel to northeast-striking structures. The hydrogeologic implications of this primarily structural origin are that fracture networks and caves opened by extensional tectonism can act as groundwater flowpaths functionally similar to those developed by karst processes and that, during active extension, transmissivity can be maintained despite infilling by mineral precipitation. Such extensional environments can provide conditions favorable for accumulation of deposits preserving long, continuous paleoenvironmental records. The precipitates in Devils Hole store chronologies of flow system water-level fluctuations, hydrochemistry, a half-million-yr proxy paleoclimate record, evidence of Devils Hole's tectonic origin, and probably atmospheric circulation

The Chronology of Early Agriculture and Intensive Mineral Mining in the Salts Cave and Mammoth Cave Region, Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky, 1996,
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Kennedy, M. C. , Watson, P. Jo.
Thermography was used to locate hydrological features in karst watersheds. The approach was demonstrated by flying a thermal camera over the Keel Mountain area of north Alabama. Known features were identified and features not on United State Geological Survey topographic maps and unknown to the authors were discovered. Springs with flow rates less than 3 liters/sec and a region of strong infiltration in a losing stream were easily identified.

Dated co-occurrence of Homo erectus and Gigantopithecus from Tham Khuyen Cave, Vietnam, 1996,
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Ciochon R, Long Vt, Larick R, Gonzalez L, Grun R, Devos J, Yonge C, Taylor L, Yoshida H, Reagan M,
Tham Khuyen Cave (Lang Son Province, northern Vietnam) is one of the more significant sites to yield fossil vertebrates In east Asia, During the mid-1960s, excavation in a suite of deposits produced important hominoid dental remains of middle Pleistocene age, We undertake more rigorous analyses of these sediments to understand the fluvial dynamics of Pleistocene cave infilling as they determine how skeletal elements accumulate within Tham Khuyen and other east Asian sites, Uranium/thorium series analysis of speleothems brackets the Pleistocene chronology for breaching, infilling, and exhuming the regional paleokarst, Clast analysis indicates sedimentary constituents, Including hominoid teeth and cranial fragments, accumulated from very short distances and under low fluvial energy, Electron spin resonance analysis of vertebrate tooth enamel and sediments shows that the main fossil-bearing suite (S1-S3) was deposited about 475 thousand years ago, Among the hominoid teeth excavated from S1-S3, some represent Homo erectus and Gigantopithecus blacki, Criteria are defined to differentiate these teeth from more numerous Pongo pygmaeus elements, The dated cooccurrence of Homo erectus and Gigantopithecus blacki at Tham Khuyen helps to establish the long co-existence of these two species throughout east Asia during the Early and Middle Pleistocene

Mineralogy of speleothems from caves in the Padurea Craiului Mountains and their palaeoclimatic significance, PhD thesis, 1996,
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Onac, B. P.

The thesis comprises an introductory section, which provides the reader with the basic geologic, tectonic and speleologic setting of the study area in the karst of Padurea Craiului Mountains and is then divided into a mineralogical/crystallographical study and a geochronological study. The mineralogical and crystallographical investigations were based on traditional and modern methods of laboratory techniques (X-ray, thermal, infra-red, scanning electron microscope and thermal ionisation mass-spectrometric analysis) and have given several new aspects concerning the morphology and origin of cave speleothems (for example, anthodites, oulopholites, fungites). Following detailed investigations on some moonmilk speleothems, a new classification system has been proposed. The results of this first part of the thesis lead into a discussion of the conditions of formations of the studied cave minerals and their morphology.
The second part (geochronology) is dedicated to speleothem dating and contains details of the 230Th/234U chronometer and its application. The various sampling sites (caves) are presented, as well as a list of uranium-series dates. Although there are relatively few data (65), a discussion of the distribution of the ages in time and with respect to Pleistocene climate has been undertaken. It is reported that the speleothems from the Padurea Craiului Mountains display less pronounced growth intervals than those from north-western Europe.
The thesis also examines the use of caves (via speleothem dating) to obtain rates of landscape evolution. The maximum average erosion rates for the Crisul Repede basin are in the range, 0.43-046 m/1000 years. These rates represent both glacial and interglacial conditions, and compare well with rates determined from other countries. A list of minerals which form cave speleolhems is given in an Appendix. The list was compiled from the literature and updated with the author's investigations. It includes the mineral name, composition, crystal system and class, and frequency.


Protactinium-231 Dating of Carbonates by Thermal Ionization Mass Spectrometry: Implications for Quaternary Climate Change, 1997,
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Edwards Rl, Cheng H, Murrell Mt, Goldstein Sj,
Measurement of protactinium-231 ($^{231}$Pa) in carbonates by thermal ionization mass spectroscopy yields $^{231}$Pa ages that are more than 10 times more precise than those determined by decay counting. Carbonates between 10 and 250,000 years old can now be dated with $^{231}$Pa methods. Barbados corals that have identical $^{231}$Pa and thorium-230 ($^{230}$Th) ages indicate that the timing of sea level change over parts of the last glacial cycle is consistent with the predictions of the Astronomical Theory. Two Devils Hole calcite subsamples record identical $^{231}$Pa and $^{230}$Th ages, suggesting that the chronology of this climate record is accurate

Signification chrono-climatique de splothmes lamins de Chine du nord, 1998,
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Ming Tan, Tungsheng Liu, Xiaoguang Qin, Xianfeng Wang
Speleothems from North China show that many of them have very fine microlayer growth. Most of these layers have bi-optical characters that can be observed under fluorescent and transmitted light. Hydrological analysis and radio-isotopic dating demonstrate that those layers are annually laminated. A Holocene stalagmite from Shihua Cave in Southwest Beijing presents thousands of micro-layers which are very similar to tree rings. Based on the measurements of the thickness of annual layers, short-term climatic changes over the last 1,130 years in the Beijing area are discussed.

Isotopic Stratigraphy of a Last Interglacial Stalagmite from Northwestern Romania: Correlation with the Deep-sea Record and Northern-latitude Speleothem, 1999,
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Lauritzen, S. E. , Onac, B. P.
LFG-2, a 39.5 cm tall stalagmite from northwestern Romania, has been dated by U-series a-spectrometric dating, and analyzed for stable isotope variations (d18O, d13C) along its growth axis. The sample grew all the way through oxygen isotope stage 5(a-e), and perhaps for some time into stage 4. In spite of a rather low uranium content and therefore imprecise chronology, the sample provides an interesting stable isotope record with high temporal resolution that correlates favorably with other speleothems and with the deep-sea record. Termination II is well defined in the record as a rapid shift from light (cold) to heavier (warm) d18O values, when C3 vegetation seemed to dominate. The d13C in a slow growth zone, corresponding to oxygen isotope stage 5d, as well after the stage 5/4 transition, suggests that C4 plants possibly dominated the surface environment. The d18O record also correlate quite well with the a-dated FM-2 record from northern Norway

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