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Enviroscan Ukrainian Institute of Speleology and Karstology


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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That elastic properties is the properties describing deformation of a solid [16].?

Checkout all 2699 terms in the KarstBase Glossary of Karst and Cave Terms


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Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
See all featured articles
Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
See all featured articles from other geoscience journals

Search in KarstBase

Your search for solution (Keyword) returned 1329 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 16 to 30 of 1329
Karst-like features in badlands of the Arizona Petrified Forest, 1963,
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Mears Brainerd,
Sinks, disappearing streams, hanging valleys, and natural bridges add a karst-like element to the miniature mountain topography represented in badlands. The Chinle Formation [Triassic] of the Petrified Forest in Arizona largely consists of compact, montmorillonitic and illitic claystones. Sinks in it result from disaggregation of swelling clay minerals rather than solution which affects limestone in true karsts. Ravines whose bottoms are pierced by sinks may develop into hanging valleys because their channels, robbed of surface flow downstream from these swallow holes, cannot keep pace with downcutting in the master drainage to which they are tributary. Growth of the sinks soon creates a disappearing stream that continues to deepen the upstream segment of a ravine. Thus the abandoned downstream segment beyond the sinks, no longer eroded by the stream, develops into a transverse barrier. Where the abandoned channel was initially short, the barrier may be eventually narrowed by weathering and slope erosion to form a natural bridge. Other bridges consist of jumbled material. that has collapsed from steep valley walls, undercut by small stream meanders

The Solution of Limestone, 1964,
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Mead D. G.

A Study of Calcite Solutions at 10 Deg. C, 1964,
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Picknett R. G.

Corrosion by mixing of waters., 1964,
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Bogli Alfred
Karst caves are prior to all due to corrosion. According to the well-known formula a CO2 supply is always needed. This type of dissolution explains only the corrosion in free circulation and, under reserve, the one in pressure conducts in the vadose zone. All corrosion in the phreatic domain is excluded, except for some rare cases in the upper levels. The corrosion by mixing of waters of different content in bicarbonates is effective in the entire karst, from the lowermost to the uppermost parts. Also the corrosion due to the lowering of temperature and by mixing of waters at different temperature has to be take into account. Excpet for some exceptional cases (e.g. thermal waters), this effect is very reduced.

Processes of limestone cave development., 1964,
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Howard Alan D.
Three processes successively predominate in enlarging original fractures within limestone into cavern passages: (I) early dissolving by acid produced by oxidizing reactions within the groundwater as it flows through the limestone; (2) dissolving caused by the initial undersaturation with respect to calcite of the groundwater when it enters the limestone; and (3) increased dissolving which occurs at the transition from laminar to turbulent groundwater flow. Only those original fractures in limestone which are widest and which have a high hydraulic gradient acting across them will be enlarged into cavern passages. Until all available surface drainage has been diverted underground, cavern development takes place under a constant hydraulic head, and the rate of limestone solution increases with time. After all available surface drainage has been diverted underground, the discharge through the cave, rather than the hydraulic head, remains constant, and the rate of limestone solution decreases toward a constant value. These principles apply to caverns formed both by water-table flow and by artesian flow.

Data on the Algal Flora of Kolyuk cave close to Manfa (Hungary)., 1965,
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Claus George
The Kolyuk cave lies in the southern part of Hungary in the Mecsek Mountains, about 3 km. in distance from the village of Mnfa. The material accepted for investigation originated from a recently discovered and until now completely entombed part of the cave. It was collected by the geologist Gbor Magyari and consisted of material scraped from the walls and ceiling of a cavity in the cave, which could be reached only by underwater swimming. From these scrapings cultures were installed with sterile Knopp solution and after the algae present in the collection reproduced, a diversified flora developed which consisted of the following: Cyanophyta; 20 species, varietates and formae; Bacillariophyta; 2 species and varietas; Chlorophyta; 7 species. There was a total of 29 different taxa. Since the cave from which the collections were made was completely devoid of light, it is especially significant that a well developed blue-green algal flora was found. We thus have further evidence for our previously advanced theory (Claus, 1955, 1962 a, 1962b) that some algae were present in the caves at the time of their origin. They were able to survive in an actively assimilating vegetative state and not only in the form of cysts or arthrospores.

Laboratory and field evidence for a vadose origin of foibe (domepits)., 1965,
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Reams Max W.
Foiba (plural, foibe) is a term derived from the northeastern Italian karst region. The word is here suggested for use in preference to other terms referring to vertical cavities in soluble rocks. Foiba is defined as a cavity in relatively soluble rock which is natural, solutional, tends toward a cylindrical shape, and possesses walls which normally approach verticality. In laboratory experiments, limestone blocks were treated with dilute hydrochloric acid, and cavities resembling foibe were produced. Vertical walls developed only when a less soluble layer capped the limestone block or when the acid source was stationary, allowing acid to drip to the area directly below. Water analyses from foibe in central Kentucky and Missouri indicate that the water has had less residence time in the zone of aeration than other waters percolating through the rocks and entering the caves. In central Kentucky, foibe seem to be developed by migrating underground waterfalls held up by less soluble layers or by water moving directly down joints below less soluble layers. In Missouri, foibe are formed by joint enlargement below chert layers. Those foibe in the ceilings of caves are complicated by the enlargement of the lower part of the joints by cave streams during fluctuating water table conditions. In limestone caves of Kansas, foibe are formed in a similar manner as in Missouri. The foibe of the gypsum caves of Kansas are formed mainly on the sides of steep collapse sinkholes and lack joint control although they form beneath less soluble layers in the gypsum. Dripping water is necessary for the development of vertical walls by solution. Less soluble layers seem to be the unique feature which allows water to drip and pour into foibe. The floors of foibe are formed by less soluble layers or near the water table. If foibe intersect previously formed cave passages, no floors may develop.

Genesis of the Ordovician zinc deposits in east Tennessee, 1965,
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Hoagland Alan D. , Hill William T. , Fulweiler Robert E. ,
Zinc occurs in low-iron sphalerite associated with gangue dolomite in dissolution breccias and collapse structures in dolomitized limestone and interbedded fine-grained 'primary' dolomite. These breccias and collapse structures were developed as part of a karst-sinkhole complex formed at depths up to 800 feet below the top of the Knox Dolomite during widespread emergence at the end of Early Ordovician time. Mineralization was completed before the rocks were tilted, and clearly antedates the Appalachian orogeny. Source of hydrothermal solutions is not known

Solutions, Minerals and Equilibria, 1965,
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Garrels R. M. , Christ C. L.

Calcium and Magnesium In Karst Waters, 1965,
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Douglas, I.

The basic textbooks and reference sources in speleology (Kunsky, 1954; Trombe, 1952 and Warwick, 1962) describe the process of solution of carbonate rocks in terms of the system CaCO3 - H20 - CO2, making little or no reference to the role of MgCO3 in the solution process. The widespread occurrence of dolomitic rocks amongst the older sedimentary formations of Australia, e.g., at Buchan, Victoria, and Camooweal, Queensland, makes some knowledge of the complexity of solution processes in rocks containing dolomite highly desirable for the understanding of the development of caves in this continent. This paper is intended to review the scattered literature on this topic and to describe what is known of the behaviour of the system CaO - Mg0 - CO2 - H20.


Algological studies in the cave of Matyas Mount, Budapest, Hungary., 1966,
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Hajdu Lajos.
Experiments were designed to test the ability of the aphotic speleoenvironment to support algal growth. The first series contained gelatin cultures of Scenedesmus placed in the cave at different localities in order to establish whether or not the microhabitats have any particular effect on the multiplication of the algae. No differences were found in the cultures after a three month incubation period in the cave, which could be traced to influences of microenvironmental conditions. Chlorella cultures in sterile Knop's solution showed measurable growth in the cave whereas if the cultures were installed into sterilized cave water or were shielded by lead against possible radiation effects, no appreciable growth occurred. The presence or absence of magnetic field did not noticeably influence algal development. The experiments seemed to indicate that the algae tested are able to utilize soma kind of radiation in the complete darkness of the cava since, in the absence of organic material, appreciable amounts of molecular hydrogen or symbiotic activity, with iron bacteria, considerable growth occurred in a simple, strictly inorganic medium, whereas the cave waters seam to be deficient in some kind of inorganic salt required for algal nutrition. An investigation of algae living in the cave led to the determination of ten different taxa, the majority of which were Cyanophytes. Besides them, however, the cave may contain a more diversified algal population.

Algae from the cave of Matyas Mount, Budapest, Hungary., 1966,
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Palik P.
Seven collections containing scrapings of speleoclay or samples from the cave waters were received from L. Hajdu and were cultured in light in a modified Knop's solution. The cultures yielded 21 different algal taxa, of which five species belong to the Cyanophyta four to the Bacillariophycaea class of the Chrysophyta and twelve to the Chlorophyta. From the species distribution the cave shows a similarity to the nearby cave of Plvolgy, namely both of them contained more than 50 per cent Chlorophyta. Among the Cyanophyta the occurrence of Baradlaia speluncaecola Palik is noteworthy. This species seems to be a true troglobitic alga, since the genus is known only from caves.

Quartzite Karst in Southeastern Venezuela, 1967,
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Haman Jon F. , Jefferson Gene L. , White William B.
Minor weathering forms on the Roraima Quartzite in the Carrao River Basin of Southeastern Venezuela have the appearance of the karren that form on limestone surfaces in karst terrains. Climatological and chemical evidence indicates that these forms were generated by a solutional mechanism and that this area thus exhibits a minor karst topography on quartzite.

Underground solution canyons in the Central Kentucky karst, U.S.A., 1967,
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Watson Richard A.
Solution canyons are underground voids 1 to 15 + meters wide, 3 to 45 + meters high, and 30 to 300 + meters long. Floors are stepped, ceilings level. Size increases downstream. Their course is sinuous, with some angularity. They occur parallel to and directly under or slightly offset from the thalwegs of re-entrant valleys tributary to major karst valleys. A section across a re-entrant and underlying solution canyon shows a rough hour-glass shape. Solution canyons are related genetically to solutional vertical shafts, forming where removal of the impermeable sandstone caprock permits the vertical descent of water through jointed limestone. Surface runoff concentrates along re-entrant thalwegs where a largo quantity of water goes underground. This water, plus subsurface water flowing over the caprock breached by the valleys, follows the easiest route to baselevel down major vertical joints oriented parallel to the thalwegs. Solution by water seeping down these joint planes forms solution canyons.

Lithophagic Snail from Southern British Honduras, 1967,
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Craig Ak,
A freshwater gastropod, Pachycheilus glaphyrus, responsible for unusual erosion in limestone has been located in southern British Honduras where it is abundant in streams flowing through areas of karst topography. These snails ingest algae that proliferate in solution grooves formed at the fluctuating air-water interface. Rasping action of the radula results in deepening of these grooves and appears to improve the algal habitat

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