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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That finite difference method is a numerical method used to approximate the solution of partial differential equations [16].?

Checkout all 2699 terms in the KarstBase Glossary of Karst and Cave Terms

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KarstBase a bibliography database in karst and cave science.

Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
See all featured articles
Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
See all featured articles from other geoscience journals

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Your search for pollution (Keyword) returned 143 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 16 to 30 of 143
Southeast South Australia has large reserves of potable groundwater, generally close to the surface. European settlement has had a major impact on groundwater quality due to the presence of extensive karst in the unconfined aquifer. Historically, industries such as cheese factories were often sited close to karst features (e.g. caves and sinkholes) because they provided a convenient means of waste disposal. Although most have long since closed, they have left a legacy of pollution plumes of varying sizes. In Mount Gambier, the main regional centre, the presence of both exposed and subterranean karst features provided a ''perfect system'' for the disposal of stormwater. Prior to the provision of a sewerage system within Mount Gambier, all toilet and household wastewaters were disposed to ground. These activities and the subsequent problems that began emerging in the 1960s have led to a concerted effort over the last 20 years to change the philosophy of waste disposal and to generate an understanding and responsibility by those who live in the region and depend on groundwater for the major part of their water supply. Mount Gambier's water supply comes from the Blue Lake. Groundwater inflow from a highly karstic Tertiary limestone aquifer provides 90% of the recharge to the Blue Lake. The lake is a high-value resource in a high-risk environment and in order to minimize this risk, a water-quality management plan for the lake is currently being developed

Geochemistry, Groundwater and Pollution, 1994, Appelo C. A. J. , Postma D.

Standardization of Criteria of Establishment of Vulnerability to Pollution Maps. Preliminary Documentary Study. Report R37928, Bureau de Recherche Geologiques et Minieres, 1994, Lallemandbarres A.

The impact on water quality by agricultural activity in karst terrain is an important consideration for resource management within the Appalachian Region. Karst areas comprise about 18 percent of the Region's land area. An estimated one-third of the Region's farms, cattle, and agricultural market value are located on karat terrain. Nitrate concentrations were measured in several karat springs in Southeastern West Virginia in order to determine the impact of animal agriculture on nitrate pollution of the karst ground water system. Karst basins with 79, 51, 16, and 0 percent agriculture had mean nitrate concentrations of 15.8, 12.2, 2.7, and 0.4 mg/l, respectively. A strong linear relationship between nitrate concentration and percent agricultural land was shown. Median nitrate concentration increased about 0.19 mg l(-1) per percent increase in agricultural land. Weather patterns were also found to significantly affect the median nitrate concentrations and the temporal variability of those concentrations. Lower nitrate concentrations and lower temporal variability were observed during a severe drought period. It was concluded that agriculture was significantly affecting nitrate concentrations in the karst aquifer. Best management practices may be one way to protect the ground water resource

Quality of karst fissure waters from the Krakw-Cz?stochowa Jurassic formations and the source of their degradation. [in Polish], 1996, R?kowski Jacek, R?kowski Andrzej, Pacholewski Andrzej

Environmental problems in gypsum karst terrains., 1996, Andrejchuk Vjacheslav, Klimchouk Alexander
Description of environmental problems in gypsum karst areas, especially of the effects related to human impacts that are unique to gypsum karst systems or most commonly occur herein. The paper deals with pollution (oil, radioactive substances and fertilizers), mining activity, underground water abstraction, construction of dams and reservoirs, collapse and subsidence hazards giving examples of former Soviet Union.

Optimum well design to avoid salt water pollution of a coastal karst aquifer, 1997, Dermissis V,
The maximum freshwater well pumping flowrate, from an underground karst channel, is defined as function of the channel length, between the well and the submarine spring, in which the channel is terminated. The differential equations that describe the phenomenon of saltwater intrusion into the channel have been analytically solved. The derived dimensionless graphs are suitable for practical applications. Their use can lead to a freshwater exploitation up to 90% of the submarine spring discharge without brackishnesh of the well freshwater

Study on the contamination of fracture-karst water in Boshan District, China, 1997, Zhu X. Y. , Xu S. H. , Zhu J. J. , Zhou N. Q. , Wu C. Y. ,
Boshan is an industrial city in the center of Shandong Province where ground water is the only source for the urban water supply. The major water resource is fracture-karst water in the middle Ordovician carbonate rocks. Based on the hydrogeological investigation and mapping in this area we studied the geologic and hydrogeologic settings, the major pollution sources and the pathways of contamination, the principal contaminants, and their spatial distribution in ground water. The ground-water quality has also been estimated by the fuzzy mathematic method. The geostatistical method, such as the kriging method, was taken to simulate spatial distribution of the contaminants. The grey system method was adopted to forecast future contamination. An attempt at the remediation of Cr6 contamination in fracture-karst water was also discussed. Finally, some proposals for the protection of the ground-water environment in Boshan District are offered

Geochemical patterns in soils of the karst region, Croatia, 1997, Prohic E. , Hausberger G. , Davis J. C. ,
Soil samples were collected at 420 locations in a 5-km grid pattern in the Istria and Gorski Kotar areas of Croatia, and on the Croatian islands of Cres, Rab and Krk, in order to relate geochemical variation in the soils to underlying differences in geology, bedrock lithology, soil type, environment and natural versus anthropogenic influences. Specific objectives included assessment of possible agricultural and industrial sources of contamination, especially from airborne effluent emitted by a local power plant. The study also tested the adequacy of a fixed-depth soil sampling procedure developed for meager karstic soils. Although 40 geochemical variables were analyzed, only 15 elements and 5 radionuclides are common to all the sample locations. These elements can be divided into three groups: (1) those of mostly anthropogenic origin - Pb, V, Cu and Cr; (2) those of mixed origin - radionuclides and Zn; and (3) those of mostly geogene origin - Ba, Sr, Ti, Al, Na, Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn, Ni and Co. Variation in Pb shows a strong correlation with the pattern of road traffic in Istria. The distributions of Ca, Na and Mg in the flysch basins of southern Istria and Slovenia are clearly distinguishable from the distributions of these elements in the surrounding carbonate terrains, a consequence of differences in bedrock permeability, type of drainage and pH. The spatial pattern of Cs-137 from the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident reflects almost exclusively the precipitation in Istria during the days immediately after the explosion. (C) 1997 Elsevier Science B.V

Relations between the structure of storage and the transport of chemical compounds in karstic aquifers, 1997, Vaute L. , Drogue C. , Garrelly L. , Ghelfenstein M. ,
Study of the movement of chemical compounds naturally present in the water, or which result from pollution, are examined according to the reservoir structure in karstic aquifers. Structure is represented by a simple geometrical model; slow Row takes place in blocks with a network of low-permeability cracks. The blocks are separated by highly permeable karstic conduits that allow rapid flow, and these form the aquifer drainage system. The karat studied covers 110 km(2). It is fed by an interrupted stream draining a 35 km(2) non-karstic basin, contaminated at the entry to the karst by effluents from a sewage treatment station. The underground water reappears as a resurgence with an annual average flow of approximately 1 m(3) s(-1), after an apparent underground course of 8 km in the karst. Several local sources of pollution (effluent from septic tanks) contaminate the underground water during its course. Sixteen measurement operations were performed at 12 water points, between the interrupted stream and the spring. Some sampling points were at drains, and others were in the low-permeability fissured blocks. Comparison at each point of the concentrations of 14 chemical compounds gave the following results: when pollutant discharge occurs in a permeable zone, movement is rapid in the drainage network formed by the karstic conduits, and does not reach the less permeable fissured blocks which are thus protected; however, if discharge is in a low-permeability zone, the flow does not allow rapid movement of the polluted water, and this increases the pollutant concentration at the discharge, This simple pattern can be upset by a reversal of the apparent piezometric gradient between a block and a conduit during Floods or pumping; this may reverse flow directions and hence modify the movement of contaminants. The study made it possible to site five boreholes whose positions in the karstic structure were unknown, showing the interest of such an approach for the forecasting of the impact of potential pollution.

A Summary of Diversity and Distribution of the Obligate Cave-inhabiting Faunas of the United States and CanadaStewart, 1998, Peck, S. B.
A summary is given of families, genera, species numbers, and state distributions of the obligate subterranean (cave and groundwater) faunas of the contiguous United States and Canada. A total of 425 aquatic and 928 terrestrial species (1353 species in all) is now known. Total genus level diversity is greatest (in descending order) in the states of Texas, Alabama, Kentucky, Tennessee and Virginia. This genus and species richness is vulnerable to a variety of land use and pollution problems

Nouvelles observations sur lhydrogologie du vallon du Cruet, Haute-Savoie (France), 1998, Sesiano, Jean
Following a recent dye-tracing experiment the hydrogeological model for the Cruet valley, in the northern French Prealps has had to be modified. Faults, parallel and transverse to the valley, allow a mixing of waters from different origins. There is thus possible contamina_tion of several Cruet valley springs used for human consumption by surface pollutions.

Examples of the anthropic impact of karst environment in southern part of the Cracow Upland. [in French], 1998, R?kowski, Jacek

Recharge: the key to groundwater pollution and aquifer vulnerability, 1998, Robins N. S. ,
Recharge is pivotal to understanding the processes by which groundwater pollution can occur. It is implicit in the classification of aquifer units according to their vulnerability to pollution. The management of both groundwater resources and of individual groundwater sources cannot sensibly be undertaken without some knowledge of recharge: its quantity, its seasonality and, above all, the different routes through the sub-soil and the unsaturated zone by which it can occur. However, current estimates of recharge, other than on a research site basis, may be poor, both in the UK and overseas. This volume provides a review of current research into these issues; this introductory paper attempts to highlight the thread throughout all of this work which collectively provides the basic information in support of the current and future management of groundwater resources and sources

Groundwater lowering in karstic aquifers due to agricultural activity in the Fucino plain (Abruzzi, Central Italy) , 1998, Burri Ezio, Petitta Marco

The alluvial-lacustrine sediments that fill the Fucino Plain (>200 km2) contain an important aquifer, mostly fed by the karstic water. The Plain displays high vulnerability by agricultural activity (potential pollution, depletion of groundwater resources). In order to find water, more than 200 wells have been drilled since the 1950s, with a seasonal delivery of about 2,000,000 m3. The possible consequences can be summarised: 1. Decreased efficiency of the operating wells because of the lowering of the piezometric levels. This kind of problem is already evident and it may determine economic losses and environmental degradation, especially if the summer water shortage causes precarious hygienic conditions in the canal network of the Plain. 2. Reduced discharge in springs. This phenomenon involves the decrease of both available drinking water supplies and regular downflow in the canals. 3. Increased vulnerability of the surrounding carbonate aquifers by the infiltration of poor-quality irrigation waters in the karst aquifers.

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