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Enviroscan Ukrainian Institute of Speleology and Karstology

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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That gour is flowstone deposit, normally of calcite, built up along the edge of a pool due to precipitation from a thin film of overflow water. once initiated, by calcite-saturated water overflowing from floor hollows, development is selfenhancing, and the gours can grow into large dams many meters high and wide. inside the gour pool, more calcite may be precipitated as crystals or pearls. large flights of gours occur in many caves, with spectacular and well known examples around the hall of thirteen in the gouffre berger, france. large travertine, gours can form in the open air, as at band-i- amir, afghanistan [9]. see also rimstone barrage; rimstone barrier; rimstone dam.?

Checkout all 2699 terms in the KarstBase Glossary of Karst and Cave Terms

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KarstBase a bibliography database in karst and cave science.

Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
See all featured articles
Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
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Your search for fire (Keyword) returned 20 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 16 to 20 of 20
An Unsung Carbon Sink , 2011, Larson, Christina

The abstract below is for the main article, which is:
Jiao, et al.  China Looks to Balance Its Carbon Books

An equitable solution to reining in carbon dioxide emissions worldwide is proving elusive, and with the Kyoto Protocol set to expire in 2012, time is running out. As nations grope for a consensus, China is pressing ahead on its own to sharply reduce energy intensity by shuttering inefficient coal-fired power plants and capping energy use. Last week, the State Council approved a plan to promote low-carbon energy and slash CO2 emissions by 17% per unit of GDP by 2015. But these efforts mask major uncertainties in China's carbon balance sheet: just how much CO2 the country emits and how much its landscape absorbs.

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The Larson's entry on the same pages specifically features the work of Chinese scientists studying carbonate karst hydrochemistry and cites thoughts of some international karst scholars (Dr. George Veni, Dr. Niko Goldshcheider, and Dr. Chris Groves) on the role of karst processes as a global carbon sink.  


Mineralogical and chemical characteristics of black coatings in Postojna cave system , 2011, Zupanč, Ič, Nina, ebela Stanka, Miler Milo

Mineralogical and chemical analyses of black coatings from two sites in Postojna cave system were studied. Scattered samples
were taken from the entrance parts of the cave and from Črna Jama. Thin sections, powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) technique and scanning electron microscope coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (SEM/EDS) were used. Microscopic investigation of thin sections of black coloured material from both locations revealed that the main material is carbonate – calcite, with evenly dispersed prevailingly minute opaque black grains. The XRD analysis on samples from both locations confirmed just a presence of calcite with minor quartz and dolomite, excluding Mn and Fe oxides or apatite-group minerals as reason for black colouring. The SEM/EDS analysis
of samples from the entrance parts of Postojna cave system was consistent with XRD analysis, which did not show any Mn oxides. The high content of C measured in the black coatings from the cave entrance parts indicates organic C, which deposited
on the cave walls at time of the petrol explosion during WW2. We can attribute black coatings from Črna Jama to one form of organic C as well, but it is certainly different from the one in the entrance parts of Postojna cave system. As in Črna Jama no other evidence indicates for old human inhabitation of the place: torches of first tourists are a more probable origin of charcoal. On both locations black coatings can be at least partly described by microclimate conditions at cave entrances, which caused the deposition of organic material of allogenic origin (for example soot due to the forest fires).


Micro-Charcoal Abundances in Stream Sediments from Buckeye Creek Cave, West Virginia, USA, 2012, Springer G. S. , Mihindukulasooriya L. N. , White D. M. , Rowe H. D.

 

We compare micro-charcoal abundances in laminated cave-stream sediments to the presences of Native Americans and later settlers in the same watershed. Samples were obtained from a core taken from a 2.5 m high point bar located 1 km inside of Buckeye Creek Cave, West Virginia. Thirty-three subsamples were treated with hydrogen peroxide to bleach or whiten non-charcoal organic matter. In the absence of opaque mineral grains, this technique creates a large visual contrast between dark charcoal grains and other substances. The subsamples were photographed using a microscope-mounted camera, and pixels darker than 99/255 (grayscale) were used to calculate charcoal concentrations. The record spans the last 6,000 years, and four of the five highest charcoal concentrations are from the last 2,000 years. The highest concentration is from AD 1093, and the second-highest concentration is from the nineteenth century. Post-Colonial settlers began making extensive use of the watershed sometime in the eighteenth century and may, therefore, be responsible for the second-highest charcoal concentration. However, archaeologists independently concluded that Native Americans made peak use of the watershed between AD 1000 and 1200, which coincides with the highest charcoal concentration in the record. Native Americans are known to have extensively used fire, so there is good circumstantial evidence tying high concentrations in the last 2,000 years to human activities. Our method is suitable for use elsewhere, and we present a detailed statistical analysis of our data as a guide toward interpreting charcoal concentrations in karst and non-karst deposits.


Karst of Sicily and its Conservation, 2012, Di Maggio C. , Madonia G. , Parise M. , Vattano M.

In Sicily, karst is well developed and exhibits different types of landscapes due to the wide distribution of soluble rocks in different geological and environmental settings. Karst affects both carbonate rocks, outcropping in the northwest and central sectors of the Apennine chain and in the foreland area, and evaporite rocks, mainly gypsum, that characterize the central and the southern parts of the island. The carbonate and gypsum karsts show a great variety of surface landforms, such as karren, dolines, poljes, blind valleys, and fluvio-karst canyons, as well as cave systems. Karst areas in Sicily represent extraordinary environments for the study of solution forms. In addition, they are of great environmental value because they contain a variety of habitats that hold species of biogeographic significance. Unfortunately, karst areas are increasingly threatened by human activity, mainly in the form of grazing and other agricultural practices, wildfires, quarrying, urbanization, building of rural homes, and infrastructure development. The value of karst features has been recognized by the Sicilian Regional Government since 1981 when it enacted laws to create several nature reserves to preserve the peculiar karst landscapes, including caves. At present, the state of conservation of karst areas in Sicily may be considered to be at an acceptable level, yet numerous issues and difficulties need to be overcome for the effective protection and enhancement of karstlands.


Earliest evidence of pollution by heavy metals in archaeological sites, 2015, Guadalupe Monge, Francisco J. Jimenezespejo, Antonio Garcíaalix, Francisca Martínezruiz, Nadine Mattielli, Clive Finlayson, Naohiko Ohkouchi, Miguel Cortés Sánchez, Jose María Bermúdez De Castro, Ruth Blasco, Jordi Rosell, José Carrión, Joaquí

Homo species were exposed to a new biogeochemical environment when they began to occupy caves. Here we report the first evidence of palaeopollution through geochemical analyses of heavy metals in four renowned archaeological caves of the Iberian Peninsula spanning the last million years of human evolution. Heavy metal contents reached high values due to natural (guano deposition) and anthropogenic factors (e.g. combustion) in restricted cave environments. The earliest anthropogenic pollution evidence is related to Neanderthal hearths from Gorham's Cave (Gibraltar), being one of the first milestones in the so-called “Anthropocene”. According to its heavy metal concentration, these sediments meet the present-day standards of “contaminated soil”. Together with the former, the Gibraltar Vanguard Cave, shows Zn and Cu pollution ubiquitous across highly anthropic levels pointing to these elements as potential proxies for human activities. Pb concentrations in Magdalenian and Bronze age levels at El Pirulejo site can be similarly interpreted. Despite these high pollution levels, the contaminated soils might not have posed a major threat to Homo populations. Altogether, the data presented here indicate a long-term exposure of Homo to these elements, via fires, fumes and their ashes, which could have played certain role in environmental-pollution tolerance, a hitherto neglected influence.


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