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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That pozo is (spanish.) see sima.?

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KarstBase a bibliography database in karst and cave science.

Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
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Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
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Your search for litter (Keyword) returned 20 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 16 to 20 of 20
A new genus and three new species of Neanuridae (Collembola) from North America, 2007, Palaciosvargas J. G. And Benito J. C. S.
Speleonura n. g. (Neanurinae) and the type species S. kenchristianseni n. sp., are described and illustrated from Porters Cave, Bath County, Virginia. The new genus is characterized by the lack of eyes and the presence of well developed tubercles on the head and body, it is similar to Paleonura but the shape and disposition of the tubercles differentiate the new genus from others Neanurinae. The other two species described are Paleonura petebellingeri n. sp. (Neanurinae) from Skyline Caverns, Warren County, Virginia, similar to Paleonura anops (Christiansen & Bellinger, 1980) but they differ in the chaetotaxy on abdominal segments, and Morulina stevehopkini n. sp. (Morulininae) from litter of Mitchell County, North Carolina, which is easy to distinguish from other members of the genus because of its strong hypertrichosis.

Tasmanian Trechinae and Psydrinae (Coleoptera, Carabidae): a taxonomic and biogeographic synthesis, with description of new species and evaluation of the impact of Quaternary climate changes on evolution of the subterranean fauna(3), 2011, Stefan Eberhard, Pier Mauro Giachino

This paper provides taxonomic, distributional and ecological data for 59 species in 17 genera of Trechinae and Psydrinae from Tasmania, and describes 18 new species in six existing genera (Pterocyrtus, Tasmanorites, Sloanella, Trechistus, Goedetrechus, Tasmanotrechus) collected from caves, forest and montane habitats: Pterocyrtus grayi sp. nov., P. meridionalis sp. nov., Tasmanorites beatricis sp. nov., T. daccordii sp. nov.,T. lynceorum sp. nov., T. microphthalmus sp. nov., Sloanella gordoni sp. nov., Trechistus gordoni sp. nov., Goedetrechus minutus sp. nov., G. rolanisp. nov., G. florentinus sp. nov., G. damperi sp. nov., Tasmanotrechus gordoni sp. nov., T. alticola sp. nov., T. montisfieldi sp. nov., T. osbornianussp. nov., T. moorei sp. nov., T. rolani sp. nov. Forty-one (41) previously described species have been re-examined and illustrated with supplementary descriptions. New collection records combined with the published literature revealed 196 records of 83 species in 21 genera, collected from 41 localities (including 11 karst areas). Regional-scale survey coverage has been patchy and three biogeographic regions stand out as poorly surveyed: Flinders, South East, and Northern Midlands. Local-scale survey efforts have been intensive at just a few localities, the richest being 18 species recorded at Cradle Mountain. Seventeen (17) described species of Zolini and Trechini are troglobites with distribution ranges restricted to individual karst areas. Some karst areas and caves harbour multiple congeneric species which differ in their degree of troglomorphic specialization suggesting heterochronic colonisations, possibly linked to multiple Quaternary glacial / inter-glacial cycles. Palaeo-climatic and palaeo-vegetation evidence is examined to test the ‘Climatic Relict Hypothesis’ as a mechanism driving evolution of the subterranean fauna. It is proposed that present-day troglobitic Trechinae in Tasmania are derived from troglophilic progenitors that colonised subterranean habitats from adjacent forest ground litter habitats during Pleistocene inter-glacial periods, while retreat of forests during glacial periods isolated subterranean populations from surface populations facilitating troglogenesis. It is predicted that future collecting efforts will reveal many additional new subteranean species, including in non-karstic Shallow Subterranean Habitats (SSH).


Detritus processing in lentic cave habitats in the neotropics, 2013, Marconi Souza Silva, Rafaelly Karina Sales Rezende, Rodrigo Lopes Ferreira

Lentic cave habitatsare almost always heterotrophic habitats where there are food and oxygen input from the surface. This hydrological exchange seems to be the key factor shaping most groundwater communities. Litter processing in cave water environments has not been experimentally studied as much as it has in lotic subterranean systems, although detritus is likely a critical resource for organisms inhabiting shallow groundwater habitats. The present study sought to evaluate the processing rates and the nitrogen and phosphorous dynamics in plant debris deposited in lentic habitats of two Neotropical limestone caves during 99 days. 84–10×10 cm2 litterbags with mesh sizes of 0.04 mm2 and 9 mm2 were used. In each weighed litter bag, 50 green, intact plant leaf disks (± 2.0 gr/bag) were conditioned. At the end of the experiment, the average weight loss was only 17.4%. No macroinvertebrates were found associated to the debris, but significant differences in the processing rate in relation to the cave and mesh size were observed. The weight loss rate of the plant debris was considered slow (average 0.003 K-day). The amount of nitrogen and remaining phosphorous in the plant debris in the two caves showed variations over time with a tendency to increase probably due to the development of microorganisms which assimilate nitrogen and phosphorus. The slow processing rate of the plant debris can be due mainly to the fact that these lentic cave habitats are restrictive to colonization by shredder invertebrates. Furthermore, the abrasive force of the water, which plays an important role in the processing and availability of fragmented debris for colonization by microorganisms, is absent.


New species and new records of springtails (Hexapoda: Collembola) from caves in the Salem Plateau of Illinois, USA, 2013, Sotoadames F. N. , Taylor S. J.

The springtail (Hexapoda: Collembola) fauna of eight caves (Wizard Cave, Pautler Cave, Spider Cave, Wanda’s Waterfall Cave, Illinois Caverns, Stemler Cave, Hidden Hand Cave, and Bat Sump Cave) in the Salem Plateau of southwestern Illinois (Monroe and St. Clair counties) was surveyed in 2009 using a combination of methods, including pitfall traps, Berlese-funnel processing of litter, and hand collections by quadrat, on drip pools, free standing bait, and random locations. In total, forty-nine species of springtails were found. Four are described as new to science (Onychiurus pipistrellae n. sp., Pygmarrhopalites fransjanssens n. sp, P. incantator n. sp, and P. salemensis n. sp), four may represent new species but there is insufficient material available to prepare full descriptions (two species in the genus Superodontella, one in Pseudachorutes, one in Sminthurides), and three others (Ceratophysella cf. brevis, C. cf. lucifuga, and Folsomia cf. bisetosa) are identified to species, but differences from the nominal species suggest further studies may indicate the Illinois populations represent distinct forms. In addition, five other species represent new records for Illinois, and eighteen are new cave records for the species in North America. The new records more than double the number of springtails species known from caves in the Salem Plateau region. More than half (twenty-nine) of the species reported are ranked as rare (S1–S2) at the state level. The total number of springtail species in Salem Plateau caves could be more than twice what is recorded in the present study, and more new species and state records should be found when caves in other Illinois karst regions are more thoroughly examined.


The mineralogical study of the Grotta Inferiore di Sant’Angelo (southern Italy), 2014, Catalano M. , Bloise A. , Miriello D. , Apollaro C. , Critelli T. , Muto F. , Cazzanelli E. , Barrese E.

In the present work, thirteen samples collected from the Grotta Inferiore di Sant’Angelo near the town of Cassano allo Jonio (Calabria region, southern Italy) were analyzed for their mineralogy. The Grotta Inferiore di Sant’Angelo is made up of subhorizontal, interlinked galleries between 400 and 450 meters above sea level. The floor is littered with deposits such as bat-guano, gypsum, and many speleothems that also cover the walls. The samples were identified and characterized by X-ray powder diffraction, scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive spectrometer, microthermometry, and micro-Raman spectroscopy. The ten primary minerals identified in this study belong to six different groups: carbonate, sulfate, apatite, oxide and hydroxide, halide, and silicate. Clay minerals and eight other detrital minerals were also found: enstatite, rutile, magnesite, pyrite, chrysotile, quartz, dolomite, and chlorite. Characterization of cave minerals could be useful to improve the knowledge of the relation between them and the lithology of the host rocks


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