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Enviroscan Ukrainian Institute of Speleology and Karstology

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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That alveolization is (from the latin word 'alveolatus,' meaning hollowed out.) pitting of a rock surface produced by wind loaded with sand, by water charged with carbonic acid, or by plant roots [10]. see also alveolar. synonyms: (french.) alveolisation; (german.) wabenverwitterung; (greek.) kypselothis epiphania; (italian.) alveolizzazione; (spanish.) alveolizacion; (turkish.) cukurlasma; (yugoslavian.) alveolizacija.?

Checkout all 2699 terms in the KarstBase Glossary of Karst and Cave Terms

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What is Karstbase?



Browse Speleogenesis Issues:

KarstBase a bibliography database in karst and cave science.

Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
See all featured articles
Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
See all featured articles from other geoscience journals

Search in KarstBase

Your search for deglaciation (Keyword) returned 21 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 16 to 21 of 21
Palaeoclimate Research in Villars Cave (Dordogne, SW-France), 2008,
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Genty, D.

Villars Cave is a typical shallow cave from South-West France (45.44°N; 0.78°E; 175 m asl) that has provided several speleothem palaeoclimatic records such as the millennial scale variability of the Last Glacial period and the Last Deglaciation. Monitoring the Villars cave environment over a 13-year period has helped in the understanding of the stable isotopic speleothem content and in the hydrology. For example, it was demonstrated that most of the calcite CaCO3 carbon comes from the soil CO2, which explains the sensitivity of the δ13C to any vegetation and climatic changes. Drip rate monitoring, carried out under four stalactites from the lower and upper galleries, has shown a well marked seasonality of the seepage water with high flow rates during winter and spring. A time delay of about two months is observed between the water excess (estimated from outside meteorological stations) and the drip rate in the cave. A great heterogeneity in the flow rate amplitude variations and in the annual quantity of water between two nearby stalactites is observed, confirming the complexity of the micro-fissure network system in the unsaturated zone. At a daily scale, the air pressure and drip rates are anti-correlated probably because of pressure stress on the fissure network. Cave air CO2 concentration follows soil CO2 production and is correlated with its δ13C content. Since the beginning of the monitoring, the cave air temperature, in both lower and upper galleries, displays a warming trend of ~+0.4°C±0.1/10yrs. This might be the consequence of the outside temperature increase that reaches the Villars Cave galleries through thermal wave conduction. Chemistry monitoring over a few years has shown that the seepage water of the lower gallery stations is significantly more concentrated in trace and minor elements (i.e. Sr, Mg, Ba, U) than the upper stations, probably due to the 10-20 m depth difference between these galleries, which implies a different seepage pathway and different water/rock interaction durations. There is also, in the elemental concentration (i.e. [Ca]), a seasonal signal which causes variation in the speleothem growth rates. Modern calcite deposit experiments conducted for several years have permitted the calculation of vertical growth rates, which are extremely high in Villars (i.e. 1.0 to 1.75 mm/yr). Pollen filter experiments in the cave have demonstrated that most of the pollen grain found in the cave comes from the air and not from the water. The specificity of the Villars Cave records is that the climatic variations were well recorded in the calcite δ13C whereas the δ18O is usually used in such studies. Overall, these results are helpful for the interpretation of speleothem records for palaeoclimatic reconstructions, but more work is needed, especially numerical modelling of the temperature, chemistry and hydrology.

Relationships between cave dimensions and local catchment areas in Central Scandinavia: implications for speleogenesis, 2009,
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Faulkner, Trevor.
The caves formed in the Caledonide metalimestones of Central Scandinavia are identified as occurring in three cave hydrological classes that are randomly intermingled with each other both geographically and altitudinally: relict, mainly vadose (MV) and combination caves. The morphology of the relict caves shows that they were enlarged phreatically. Their dimensions of length, cross-section and volume are unrelated to their local catchment area, whose mean size is only 2.6km2. Indeed, large relict caves may be found near ridge tops, and their mean cross-section to catchment area ratio (XS/CA) is as large as 20.3m2km-2. MV caves contain active stream passages and sumps without significant phreatic upper levels or passages. Although there is no simple relationship between their mean dimensions and their local catchment area, which has a mean size of 4.7km2, their mean XS/CA ratio is only 2.8m2km-2. However, their maximum dimensions are constrained by the logarithm of catchment area. The combination caves contain relict phreatic (and, more rarely, relict vadose) passages that lie above an active vadose streamway and they have mean dimensions significantly larger than those of both relict and MV caves. Their mean CA is 4.6km2 (close to that of the other active cave class) and their mean XS/CA ratio is 11.6m2km-2, which is intermediate between relict caves and MV caves. These observations suggest that the active vadose passages developed during the present conditions of the Holocene, with dimensions related to the flow-rates of present allogenic recharge, as supported by likely entrenchment and waterfall recession rates. In contrast, the relict phreatic passages probably enlarged when the caves were submerged by flowing glacial meltwater that was less related to present catchment area, during a previous deglaciation phase. Most relict caves and the whole set of MV caves seem to have each separately experienced only one phase of cave enlargement after inception, with phreatic development favoured at valley shoulder and ridge cave locations and vadose development favoured at valley floors with large catchments. The larger dimensions and greater complexity of the combination caves indicate that they are more representative of the full range of enlargement opportunities that were available during the evolution of their local topography during one or more full cycles of glaciation, deglaciation and interglaciation.

The endokarstic erosion of marble in cold climates: Corbel revisited. , 2009,
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Faulkner, Trevor

After the work of Jean Corbel, who compared karstification in the Scandinavian Caledonide marbles with that in sedimentary limestones in temperate and tropical regions, the understanding of underground limestone dissolution has developed considerably. Corbel concluded that “karstification proceeds much faster in a cold than in a warm climate”, based on the knowledge that the solubilities of both CO2 and CaCO3 increase with lower temperature, without realising that because cave streams in Scandinavia rarely reach saturation, this fact is not directly relevant. We now know that the dissolutional enlargement of inception channels in limestones proceeds commonly via a slow initial ‘pre-breakthrough’ laminar flow stage before conduits can enlarge chemically at maximum rates under turbulent flow conditions. Recent research has shown that the pre-breakthrough stage is speeded up at low temperatures, as occurs in cold climates now, and as occurred during the deglaciation of the Weichselian ice sheet in Scandinavia, especially under steep hydraulic gradients and, in many cases, despite the lower partial pressure of CO2. Additionally, this whole stage might be bypassed if fractures created by deglacial seismicity were wide enough and short enough. After breakthrough, although limestone dissolution is slower in cold rather than warm climates, conduit enlargement still proceeds as a significant rate, provided the water remains unsaturated, and especially if high flow rates promote mechanical erosion. The exploration of large numbers of (short) caves in central Scandinavia shows that Corbel’s conclusion is partly true for the more recent geological past, because of the special conditions that apply during the Quaternary glacial cycles.



Holocene deposits from Neptunes Cave, Nordland, Norway , 2009,
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Faulkner Trevor, Hunt Chris

Neptune’s Cave in the Velfjord–Tosenfjord area of Nordland, Norway is described, together with its various organic deposits. Samples of attached barnacles, loose marine molluscs, animal bones and organic sediments were dated, with radiocarbon ages of 9840±90 and 9570±80 yr BP being derived for the barnacles and molluscs, based on the superseded but locally-used marine reservoir age of 440 years. A growth temperature of c. 7.5°C in undiluted seawater is deduced from the δ13C and δ18O values of both types of marine shell, which is consistent with their early Holocene age. From the dates, and an assessment of local Holocene uplift and Weichselian deglaciation, a scenario is constructed that could explain the situation and condition of the various deposits. The analysis uses assumed local isobases and sea-level curve to give results that are consistent with previous data, that equate the demise of the barnacles to the collapse of a tidewater glacier in Tosenfjord, and that constrain the minimum extent of local Holocene uplift. An elk fell into the cave in the mid-Holocene at 5100±70 yr BP, after which a much later single ‘bog-burst’ event at 1780±70 yr BP could explain the transport of the various loose deposits farther into the cave.


An external model of speleogenesis during Quaternary glacial cycles in the marbles of central Scandinavia, 2010,
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Faulkner, T.

The marble caves of the Central Scandinavian Caledonides were formed from open fractures that were created primarily by deglacial seismicity at the culmination of each of the many complex Quaternary glaciations that the region has experienced. Subsequent inundation by deglacial ice-dammed lakes enabled phreatic enlargement by dissolution, with passages either becoming relict during the following interglacial or else being entrenched by (mainly) vadose processes if recharged by allogenic streams. Because the distance of the contemporary fractures and therefore the cave passages from the nearest land surface is commonly constrained to be less than one-eighth of the depth of the local glaciated valley, the caves are rather epigean in nature. This subsurface cave distance is of the same order of magnitude as the thickness of rock removed from valley walls and floors at each major glaciation, suggesting that, when viewed over several glacial cycles, caves are involved in a race to develop deeper during deglaciation and the following interglacial before their upper levels are removed by erosion at the next glaciation. Indeed, relatively few cave passages in the study area can have survived from the previous, Eemian, interglacial.
This paper examines evidence for the interglacial and erosional processes and utilises a 'black box' approach to provide an external model for cave development and removal. It proposes that Caledonide marble caves in stripe karst outcrops should especially be considered as four-dimensional objects throughout their commonly intermittent existence. Mainly vadose caves are regarded as 'half-cycle' caves that developed primarily in the Holocene. Relict caves (primarily phreatic) and combination caves (with both phreatic and vadose elements) are commonly 'single-cycle' caves that developed their relict phreatic passages during Weichselian deglaciation, and only a few are 'multi-cycle' caves that have experienced several Pleistocene glacial cycles. The existing caves are more numerous and commonly larger than those that were present during previous interglacials.

Deglaciation of the eastern Cumbria glaciokarst, northwest England, as determined by cosmogenic nuclide (10Be) surface exposure dating, and the pattern and significance of subsequent environmental changes, 2013,
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Wilson P. , Lord T. , Rods .

Four erratic boulders of Shap granite on the limestone terrain of eastern Cumbria have yielded cosmogenic nuclide (10Be) surface exposure ages that indicate the area was deglaciated c.17 ka ago. This timing is in accord with other ages pertaining to the loss of glacial ice cover in the Yorkshire Dales and north Lancashire, to the south, and the Lake District, to the west, and constrains the resumption of landscape (re)colonization and surface and sub-surface karstic processes. Marked shifts in climate are known to have occurred since deglaciation and combined with human impacts on the landscape the glaciokarst has experienced a complex pattern of environmental changes. Understanding these changes and their effects is crucial if the 'post-glacial' evolution of the glaciokarst is to be deciphered.

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