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Enviroscan Ukrainian Institute of Speleology and Karstology

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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That flow, uniform is a characteristic of a flow system where specific discharge has the same magnitude and direction at any point [22].?

Checkout all 2699 terms in the KarstBase Glossary of Karst and Cave Terms

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What is Karstbase?



Browse Speleogenesis Issues:

KarstBase a bibliography database in karst and cave science.

Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
See all featured articles
Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
See all featured articles from other geoscience journals

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Your search for jurassic limestones (Keyword) returned 21 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 16 to 21 of 21
Geochemical/isotopic evolution of Pb-Zn deposits in the Central and Eastern Taurides, Turkey, 2011,
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Hanilci N. , Ozturk H.

The Central and Eastern Taurides contain numerous carbonate-hosted Pb-Zn deposits, mainly in Devonian and Permian dolomitized reefal-stramatolitic limestones, and in massive Jurassic limestones. We present and compare new fluid inclusion and isotopic data from these ore deposits, and propose for the first time a Mississippi Valley-type (MVT) mode of origin for them. Fluid inclusion studies reveal that the ore fluids were highly saline (13-26% NaCl equiv.), chloride-rich (CaCl2) brines, and have average homogenization temperatures of 112°C, 174.5°C, and 211°C for the Celal Dag, Delikkaya, and Ayrakl deposits, respectively. Furthermore, the ?34S values of carbonate-hosted Pb-Zn deposits in the Central and Eastern Taurides vary between -5.4‰ and +13.70‰. This indicates a possible source of sulphur from both organic compounds and crustal materials. In contrast, stable sulphur isotope data (average ?34S -0.15‰) for the Cadrkaya deposit, which is related to a late Eocene-Oligocene (?) granodioritic intrusion, indicates a magmatic source. The lead isotope ratios of galena for all investigated deposits are heterogeneous. In particular, with the exception of the Sucat district, all deposits in the Eastern (Delikkaya, Ayrakl, Denizovas, Cadrkaya) and Central (Katranbasi, Kucuksu) Taurides have high radiogenic lead isotope values (206Pb/204Pb between 19.058 and 18.622; 207Pb/204Pb between 16.058 and 15.568; and 208Pb/204Pb between 39.869 and 38.748), typical of the upper continental crust and orogenic belts. Fluid inclusion, stable sulphur, and radiogenic lead isotope studies indicate that carbonate-hosted metal deposits in the Eastern (except for the Cadrkaya deposit) and the Central Taurides are similar to MVT Pb-Zn deposits described elsewhere. The primary MVT deposits are associated with the Late Cretaceous-Palaeocene closure of the Tethyan Ocean, and formed during the transition from an extensional to a compressional regime. Palaeogene nappes that typically limit the exposure of ore bodies indicate a pre-Palaeocene age of ore formation. Host rock lithology, ore mineralogy, fluid inclusion, and sulphur + lead isotope data indicate that the metals were most probably leached from a crustal source such as clastic rocks or a crystalline massif, and transported by chloride-rich hydrothermal solutions to the site of deposition. Localization of the ore deposits on autochthonous basement highs indicates long-term basinal fluid migration, characteristic of MVT depositional processes. The primary MVT ores were oxidized in the Miocene, resulting in deposition of Zn-carbonate and Pb-sulphate-carbonate during karstification. The ores underwent multiple cycles of oxidation and, in places, were re-deposited to form clastic deposits. Modified deposits resemble the 'wall-rock replacement' and the 'residual and karst fill' of non-sulphide zinc deposits and are predominantly composed of smithsonite

Dades sobre paleocarst i espeleocronologia de les illes Balears , 2011,
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Gines J. , Gines A. , Fornos J. J.

The litho-stratigraphic record of the Balearic Islands, basically composed by carbonate rocks, include noticeable paleokarstic phenomena particularly owing to the complex tectonic structuration experienced by the Western Mediterranean basin all along its geological history. The most outstanding paleokarst features and associated breccia deposits are observed in the Jurassic limestones and, especially, in the postorogenic Upper Miocene carbonate rocks, where abundant funnel-shaped collapse structures (Messinian in age) have tightly conditioned the geomorphological evolution of the eastern coast of Mallorca. Regarding the karstification occurred in Pliocene and Quaternary times, the islands arise as exceptional scenarios in order to obtain valuable speleochronological data from quite different sources. The base level variations –controlled in turn by oscillations of the sea level–, as well as the evolutionary trends of endemic vertebrates that lived in the Balearic Islands, provide a solid chronological frame to undertake the geomorphologic study of Balearic caves and its sediments. Particularly, the glacio-eustatic oscillations experienced by the Mediterranean Sea remain accurately recorded by means of horizontal paleolevels of phreatic speleothems, mostly corresponding to Upper Pleistocene and Holocene sea-stands. The isotopic investigations (U-Th, 14C) carried out on these carbonate precipitates, as well as on speleothems in general, have supplied abundant absolute dating which strongly contribute to the chronological assessment of the endokarst evolution undergone in our islands. All the evidences gathered till now seem to place in the Pliocene, and in some cases even before, the main speleogenetic phases occurred in the archipelago. During the Middle and Upper Pleistocene, the caves in the Balearic Islands had only experienced minor morpho-sedimentary modifications embracing –in a significant number of cave sites– the deposition of abundant speleothems together with the emplacement of paleontological deposits that include endemic vertebrate fauna.

Höhlen der Schwäbischen Alb als Pegelschreiber für Flussgeschichte und Tektonik in Südwestdeutschland seit dem Miozän, 2011,
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Strasser Marcel

In south western Germany the karstified plateau of the Swabian Alb consisting of Upper Jurassic limestones hosts numerous caves, dolines, and dry valleys. Known strath terraces, conglomerates, volcanoes, and impact craters within the study area already provided important time stamps for former studies reconstructing landscape history. It is widely understood, that spatial distribution of most karst features is closely related to the palaeo-water-table and its discontinuous lowering over time, which in turn is the result of incision and/or uplift. The situation of the Swabian Alb at the northern rim of the Northern Alpine Foreland Basin and east of the Rhine Graben valley is the reason for this uplift. Many caves can be used as gauge for vertical displacement, considering horizontal cave passages as product of a stationary palaeowater-table and vertical sections as result of falling base level. In contrast recent studies deal with a different type of speleogenesis independent of base level. This hypogenic speleogenesis must be discussed for the caves of the Swabian Alb. The recently discovered cave named Laierhöhle near Geislingen/Steige is a typical 3d-maze providing several horizontal levels. Passage pattern and distinctive corrosion features match with morphologies (feeders, rising wall- and ceiling channels, outlets) characteristical for hypogenic speleogenesis. However, artesian situations, hydrothermal water or confined aquifers as critical conditions for hypogenic speleogenesis can not be verified. Other features like horizontal passages, water table markers, key-hole-features, and massive stratified sediment bodies are pointing to an epigenic, water-table related speleogenesis. In this study therefore a mixed model for speleogenesis of Laierhöhle is presented, assuming a strong initial deep-phreatic corrosion along fractures and fissures, followed by intensive widening at the palaeo water-table resulting in the formation of horizontal passages. Correlations between horizontal cave-levels, valley-bottoms, strath-terraces, local conglomerates and other caves lead to new and more precise data on the fluvial history, changing drainage pattern, and the uplift of parts of southwest Germany.

In the course of Examinations of cave sediments spherical metallic particles were detected. These magnetic spherules are ablation-products from meteorites during impact. After fallout and flushing into karstic voids and caves the spherules got archived till today. Spherules within Laierhöhle, Laichinger Tiefenhöhle and Mordloch are supposed to originate from the impact event producing the impact craters Steinheimer Becken and/or the Nördlinger Ries 14.59 Ma ago. Within most of the cave sediments spherules are accompanied by crystals of titano-magnetite, which built during volcanic activity of the Urach-Kirchheim volcanic field. Both spherules and titano-magnetites are proxies for re-deposited Mid Miocene Sediments. In this study I could correlate speleogenetic with dated geomorphic features and thus came to a chronology of events. The Laierhöhle records five episodes of long-term stability of the karst water table covering the time-span from late Middle Miocene until the Pliocene/Pleistocene transition. The first two stable episodes can be dated to the late Middle Miocene and Late Miocene (horizontal levels 1 and 2a). An episode responsible for the formation of level 2b falls within Early Pliocene time. Levels 3a and 3b are spatially well separated but must have formed within a relatively short timespan towards the end of the Pliocene. In the working area, total depth of penetrative karstification was in the order of 120 m. This penetration has been accomplished over a period of approximately 12 Ma resulting in an average uplift rate of 0.01 mm/a.

Isotopic and hydrochemical data as indicators of recharge areas, flow paths and waterrock interaction in the Caldas da RainhaQuinta das Janelas thermomineral carbonate rock aquif, 2013,
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Marques J. M. , Graa H. , Eggenkamp H. G. M. , Neves O. , Carreira P. M. , Matias M. J. , Mayer B. , Nunes D. , Trancoso V. N.

An updated conceptual circulation model for the Caldas da Rainha and Quinta das Janelas thermomineralwaters was developed. These thermomineral waters (T _ 33 _C) are related to a huge syncline ascribed tothe regional flow paths. Two diapiric structures were responsible for the uplift and subsequent folding ofregional Jurassic carbonate rocks. Environmental isotopic (d2H and d18O) data indicates that the mainrecharge area of the thermomineral system is linked to the Jurassic limestones (Candeeiros Mountains,E border of the syncline). The thermomineral waters belong to the Cl–Na sulphurous-type, with a totalmineralization of about 3000 mg/L. The thermomineral aquifer system seems to be ‘‘isolated’’ fromanthropogenic contamination, which is typical for the local shallow groundwater systems, due to theexistence of impermeable layers composed of a series of loamy and detritic rocks of the Upper Jurassic.The presence of 3H in some thermomineral borehole waters, not accompanied by an increase in SO2_4 andNO_3 , could be ascribed to different underground flow paths and different mean residence time. Thed34S(SO4) and d18O(SO4) values of dissolved sulphate of groundwaters of the Caldas da Rainha Spas indicatethat the sulphate is the result of water–rock interaction with evaporitic rocks (e.g. gypsum and anhydrite)ascribed to the regional synclinal structure.

Karstification as a Predisposing Factor of Seismically Triggered Landslides: Case Study from the Crimean Mountains (Ukraine): Introduction to the Problem, 2013,
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Hradeck J. , Pnek T. , ilhn K. , Smolkov V.

Deep-seated gravitational deformations are significant denudational agents of rock slopes at the margins of karstified plateaus of the Crimean Mountains (CM). The CM evolved during Mesozoic–Cenozoic times as a response to the deformation between the Black Sea domain and East-European platform. The southwestern part of the area is characterized by steep, up to 1000-m-high coastal escarpments consisting of Late Jurassic limestones overlying tuff layers and weak Late Triassic flysch with sporadic small intrusions of Middle Jurassic diorites, gabbros and granites. Steep rock slopes contrast with elevated, highly karstified plateaus situated approximately 500–1300 m a.s.l. The aim of this article is to show long-term evolution of a giant rock slope failure close to the Black Sea coast in the southwestern tip of the CM near Foros Town. The failure evolved in highly anisotropic limestones overlying plastic flysch layers where the main head scarp follows a strike-slip fault. The Foros slope failure is an excellent demonstration of the significance of a preparatory stage in the evolution of large deep-seated slope deformations. Inherited and undisturbed horizontal slickensides on the sub-vertical, inactive fault surface serve as good evidence of significant extensional movement of the surface blocks away from the main headscarp. The studied deformation shows that in a relatively small area tensional (cutting) surfaces can be formed by a great variety of rock discontinuities such as the strike-slip fault, joints and steeply inclined bedding planes. The presence of well-developed, nowadays weathered, speleothems furthermore points to significant karstification that provided additional widening of spaces within rock mass. Gravitational movement destroyed and unroofed several cave systems originally presented at the former edge of a karst plateau. Our findings reveal that large rock slope failures can be added to the factors contributing to the evolution of unroofed caves. Although triggering factors of the activation of individual parts of slope deformations can be determined only hypothetically, lessons learned from widespread landslide activity during and after the 1927 Yalta earthquake and rainfall-driven landslides in the vicinity of Feodosia Town make us consider both seismic loading of slopes and high pore-pressures during heavy winter rainfalls or rapid spring snowmelt to be significant factors. Beside seismic activity, intensive Late Holocene slope processes can be attributed to intensive human activity.


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Onac B. P. Puș, Caș, C. M. Effenberger H. S. Povară, I. Wynn J. G.


The Diana Cave in SW Romania develops along a fault line at the contact between Late Jurassic limestones and Early Cretaceous marls. It formed through corrosion of bedrock (limestone and marls) by sulphuric acid-rich steam condensate resulted after oxidation/hydrolysis of H2S escaping from the thermo-mineral water emerging from depth in the cave. The sulfuric acid causes a strong acid sulfate weathering of the bedrock generating a sulfate-dominated secondary cave-mineral assemblage that includes gypsum, anhydrite, bassanite, epsomite, alunite, and halotrichite group minerals. Closely associated with these minerals are two rare sulfate species, namely rapidcreekite and tamarugite that represent new occurrences in limestone caves. Traditional X-ray diffraction and single crystal analyses were used along with scanning electron microscope (SEM), stable isotope, and electron microprobe investigations to fully characterize the primary and secondary speleogenetic by-products of Diana Cave.

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