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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

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That isotropic mass is a mass having the same property or properties in all directions [22].?

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Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
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Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
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Your search for electrical resistivity (Keyword) returned 22 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 16 to 22 of 22
Geophysics of Locating Karst and Caves, 2012, Am Ende, Barbara Anne

Many solution cavities ranging from small voids to full-size caves have no entrances and therefore no access from the surface. Geophysical methods can be used, with varying degrees of reliability, to detect such cavities and can also provide information on the bedrock/regolith interface. These methods include microgravity, electrical resistivity, audio-magnetotelluric soundings, ground-penetrating radar, shallow seismic probes, synthetic aperture radar, and thermal probes. Magnetic induction (cave radio) can provide precise locations of underground passages if they have a surface access.


An electrical resistivity imaging-based strategy to enable site-scale planning over covered palaeokarst features in the Tournaisis area (Belgium), 2012, Kaufmann O. , Deceuster J. , Quinif Y.

Since the beginning of the 20th century, more than 150 sinkhole occurrences, mainly dropout (or covercollapse)sinkholes, have been reported in the Tournaisis area (south-eastern Belgium). Land-use planning in such a context has to take into account hazards linked with sinkhole subsidence and collapse. Management maps, drawn at a regional scale, point out zones where karstic risks have to be taken into account when dealing with infrastructure or building projects. However, karst hazard is highly variable in three dimensions at the local scale. Therefore, for such purposes, an accurate methodology is needed to detect and delineate covered karst features, especially when located in urbanized areas. As geophysical investigations are sensitive to contrasts in physical properties of soils, these methods can be useful to detect such targets. The specific karstic context encountered in the Tournaisis area strongly guides the choice of investigation techniques. Electrical resistivity imaging (ERI) methods were tested on a wellknown site where dropout sinkholes occurred formerly. This site was also studied using static cone penetration tests (CPT) and boreholes. A 3D inverted resistivity model was computed based on the 2D ERI models obtained after inversion. Resistivity profiles were extracted at each CPT location and compared to geotechnical results to determine an empirical and site-specific resistivity law that allows discrimination between weathered zones and sound limestone. Performance tests were conducted to evaluate the potential of the proposed methodology for two typical engineering problems based on two current hypotheses. Borehole data were used as ground truth. Similar performance tests were also computed using the CPT depth to bedrock model. The results of these performance tests are compared and discussed. Finally, an ERI-based investigation strategy is proposed to assess karst hazard in palaeokarstic context, such as encountered in the Tournaisis area, at the scale needed for building and infrastructure purposes. 


Geoelectrical Characterization of Sulphate Rocks, 2012, Guinea Maysounave, Ander

Gypsum rocks are widely exploited in the world as industrial minerals. The purity of the gypsum rocks (percentage in gypsum mineral –CaSO4•2H2O- in the whole rock) is a critical factor to evaluate the potential exploitability of a gypsum deposit. It is considered than purities higher than 80% in gypsum are required to be economically profitable. Gypsum deposits have been studied with geoelectrical methods; a direct relationship between the electrical resistivity values of the gypsum rocks and its lithological composition has been established, with the presence of lutites being the main controlling factor in the geoelectrical response of the deposit. This phenomenon has been quantified by means of a combination of theoretical calculations, laboratory measurements and field data acquisition. A geoelectrical classification of gypsum rocks defining three types of gypsum rocks has been elaborated. Anhydrite (CaSO4) is frequently found in gypsum quarries and in no-outcropping sulphates. Because of its highest hardness than gypsum it supposes a problem for the extraction of gypsum; the fronts of the quarries in which anhydrite is found are stopped at the moment when it appears. The electrical properties of calcium sulphates have been studied by means of geoelectrical methods. The conductivity of crystals has been tested in laboratory. A direct relationship between the electrical conductivity values of the calcium sulphate rocks and its lithological composition has been established being the lutitic matrix the main controlling factor when it is percolant (connected at long range). When the rock is matrix dominant, the electrical resistivity trend is bond to the Hashin-Shtrikman lower bound for multiphase systems. On the other hand, when the rock is calcium sulphate dominant the trend shows the one of the Hashin-Shtrikman upper bound. A geoelectrical classification for calcium sulphate rocks has been elaborated. With this classification it is possible to differentiate between calcium sulphate rocks with different composition according to their electrical resistivity value. Glauberite (Na2Ca(SO4)2) is nowadays exploited as industrial mineral. Glauberite rocks usually have high lutite content in their composition, together with other evaporictic minerals as gypsum, anhydrite or halite among others. There is no reference to the conductivity of glauberite rocks in the bibliography, but due to their impurity it is expected to observe values as the observed for other sulphates in the matrix domain (less than 55% in purity). Two areas of the Ebro river basin (the Zaragoza and La Rioja sectors) have been studied by means of electrical resistivity tomography profiles, in which glauberite has been found in boreholes. As example of application for the study of sulphate deposits, an electrical resistivity tomography survey has been carried out in the Pira Gypsum member (SE of Catalan margin of the Tertiary Ebro Basin, Spain). Additionally, a continuous coring drill was performed in order to support the study. Electrical imaging has been successfully applied to identify the gypsum deposits interlayered in lutite units. Another resistivity survey has been carried out in an active gypsum quarry in the Gelsa Gypsum unit (Zaragoza, N Spain). During the extraction of the rock, the most important parameters to know are the purity changes in the deposit. Sudden changes in the purity make the processing of the raw material less profitable. The performed profiles have shown different gypsum layers from which the purest layers have been identified. Electrical resistivity tomography lines are useful in prospection of gypsum deposits. However, electrical imaging prospection should be supported by an accurate petrological study of the deposits, in order to properly interpret the resistivity profiles.


Electrical resistivity surveys of anthropogenic karst phenomena, southeastern New Mexico, 2012, Land L. , Veni G.

A small but significant number of sinkholes and other karst phenomena in southeastern New Mexico are of human origin and are often associated with solution mining of salt beds in the shallow subsurface. In 2008 two brine wells in a sparsely populated area of northern Eddy County, New Mexico, abruptly collapsed as a result of solution mining operations. The well operators had been injecting fresh water into underlying salt beds and pumping out brine for use as oil field drilling fluid. A third brine well within the city limits of Carlsbad, New Mexico, has been shut down to forestall possible sinkhole development in this more densely populated area. Electrical resistivity surveys conducted over the site of the brine well confirm the presence of a large, brine-filled cavity beneath the we0llhead. Laterally extensive zones of low resistivity beneath the well site represent either open cavities and conduits caused by solution mining or highly fractured and/or brecciated, brine-saturated intervals that may have formed by sagging and collapse into underlying cavities. The data also indicate that significant upward stoping has occurred into overlying strata.


Electrical Tomography Applied to the Detection of Subsurface Cavities, 2013, Martineslpez J. , Rey J. , Dueas J. , Hidalgo C. , Benavente J.

We have analyzed the geoelectric response produced by three cavities cut into different geological substrata of granite, phyllite, and sandstone that had previously been characterized by direct methods. We also examined a mining void excavated in granite. In each case, we applied three different geoelectric arrays (Wenner-Schlumberger, Wenner and dipole-dipole) and several inter-electrode spacings. The survey results suggest that electrical resistivity tomography is a viable geophysical tool for the detection and monitoring of mining voids and other subsurface cavities. The results vary depending on a wide range of factors, such as the depth and diameter of the cavity, the multi-electrode array used, the inter-electrode spacing, the geological model, and the density of the data. The resolution capacity of the Wenner- Schlumberger array for the detection of these cavities was greater than that of the Wenner array and slightly better than the dipole-dipole. There is a direct relationship between inter-electrode spacing and diameter of the cavity. In general, we observed a loss of resolution as the distance between the electrodes increased. The most efficient detection was achieved when the inter-electrodes distance was less than or equal to the diameter of the cavity itself. In addition, cavity detection became increasingly less precise with its depth beneath the surface. Cavities with a radius of about 1.5 m were located by both the Wenner- Schlumberger method and the dipole-dipole at depths of more than 4.6 m, which means that prospecting can be carried out at depths 3 times the radius of the cavity.


GEOPHYSICAL INVESTIGATIONS OF THE EDWARDS-TRINITY AQUIFER SYSTEM AT MULTIPLE SCALES: INTERPRETING AIRBORNE AND DIRECT-CURRENT RESISTIVITY IN KARST, 2013, Gary M. O. , Rucker D. F. , Smith B. D. , Smith D. V. , Befus K.

Electrical and electromagnetic geophysical characterization is a proven tool for delineating obscured subterranean karstic features, such as caves, sinkholes, and solution enlarged fissures. Geophysical characterizations allow a wide range of deployment scales; airborne methods can accommodate a regional view on the order of kilometers, and ground-based methods can follow up with focused data on the order of meters. A helicopter frequency domain electro-magnetic (HFDEM) survey and ground-based direct-current electrical resistivity imaging (DC-ERI) geophysical studies at the Camp Bullis Military Training Site (Camp Bullis) in central Texas have been used to characterize permeability properties of the Edwards and Trinity Aquifers in the area. Results of three separate investigations identified zones of high density karst features and characterized specific karstic voids, including caves. In 2003, the USGS completed an HFDEM survey of Camp Bullis and nearby areas to map and image subsurface features related to the groundwater resources. The survey refined locations of mapped and previously unmapped faults and characterized the heterogeneity of the subsurface electrical signature. Karst mapping at Camp Bullis identified over 1500 features, and high density zones of features correspond with areas of high resistivity from the HEM data. DC-ERI surveys at several locations were used to infer and characterize known and hypothesized karst features. Site 8 suggests an inferred fault and 195dissolution feature. Two other sites were surveyed near major caves that directly recharge the Trinity Aquifer (indirectly to Edwards Aquifer) along Cibolo Creek. Integration of multi-scale geophysical datasets could be used to augment aquifer-wide recharge characterization and quantification.


Hidden sinkholes and karst cavities in the travertine plateau of a highly-populated geothermal seismic territory (Tivoli, central Italy), 2015,

Sinkholes and other karst structures in settled carbonate lands can be a significant source of hazard for humans and human works. Acque Albule, the study area of this work, is a Plio-Pleistocene basin near Rome, central Italy, superficially filled by a large and thick deposit of late Pleistocene thermogene travertine. Human activities blanket large portions of the flat territory covering most evidence from geological surface processes and potentially inducing scientists and public officials to underestimate some natural hazards including those connected with sinkholes. To contribute to the proper assessment of these hazards, a geomorphologic study of the basin was performed using digital elevation models (DEMs), recent aerial photographs, and field surveys. Historical material such as old aerial photographs and past geomorphologic studies both pre-dating the most part of quarrying and village building was also used together with memories of the elderly population. This preliminary study pointed out the presence of numerous potentially active sinkholes that are at present largely masked by either quarrying or overbuilding. Where this first study pointed out the apparent absence of sinkholes in areas characterized by high density of buildings, a detailed subsurface study was performed using properly-calibrated electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) and dynamic penetration measurements (DPSH), together with some borehole logs made available from the local municipality. This second study highlighted the presence of sinkholes and caves that are, this time, substantially hidden to the resolution of standard methods and materials such as aerial photographs, DEMs, and field surveys. Active sinkhole subsidence in the Acque Albule Basin may explain, at least in part, the frequent damages that affect numerous buildings in the area. The main conclusion from this study is that the mitigation of sinkhole hazard in highly populated areas has to pass through a thorough search of (hidden) sinkholes that can be masked by the Anthropocenic molding and blanketing of the territory. For these purposes, data from historical (pre-Anthropocene) documents as well as, where possible, subsurface investigations are fundamental.


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