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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That solifluction is the slow flowage of mud streams in arctic regions.?

Checkout all 2699 terms in the KarstBase Glossary of Karst and Cave Terms

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KarstBase a bibliography database in karst and cave science.

Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
See all featured articles
Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
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Your search for seismicity (Keyword) returned 23 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 16 to 23 of 23
An external model of speleogenesis during Quaternary glacial cycles in the marbles of central Scandinavia, 2010, Faulkner, T.

The marble caves of the Central Scandinavian Caledonides were formed from open fractures that were created primarily by deglacial seismicity at the culmination of each of the many complex Quaternary glaciations that the region has experienced. Subsequent inundation by deglacial ice-dammed lakes enabled phreatic enlargement by dissolution, with passages either becoming relict during the following interglacial or else being entrenched by (mainly) vadose processes if recharged by allogenic streams. Because the distance of the contemporary fractures and therefore the cave passages from the nearest land surface is commonly constrained to be less than one-eighth of the depth of the local glaciated valley, the caves are rather epigean in nature. This subsurface cave distance is of the same order of magnitude as the thickness of rock removed from valley walls and floors at each major glaciation, suggesting that, when viewed over several glacial cycles, caves are involved in a race to develop deeper during deglaciation and the following interglacial before their upper levels are removed by erosion at the next glaciation. Indeed, relatively few cave passages in the study area can have survived from the previous, Eemian, interglacial.
This paper examines evidence for the interglacial and erosional processes and utilises a 'black box' approach to provide an external model for cave development and removal. It proposes that Caledonide marble caves in stripe karst outcrops should especially be considered as four-dimensional objects throughout their commonly intermittent existence. Mainly vadose caves are regarded as 'half-cycle' caves that developed primarily in the Holocene. Relict caves (primarily phreatic) and combination caves (with both phreatic and vadose elements) are commonly 'single-cycle' caves that developed their relict phreatic passages during Weichselian deglaciation, and only a few are 'multi-cycle' caves that have experienced several Pleistocene glacial cycles. The existing caves are more numerous and commonly larger than those that were present during previous interglacials.


Collapse sinkholes distribution in the carbonate massifs of central and southern Apennines, 2011, Santo Antonio, Ascione Alessandra, Del Prete Sossio, Di Crescenzo Giuseppe, Santangelo Nicoletta

This study focuses on karst collapse sinkholes of the southern and central Apennines region (Italy), and has the aim of outlining and discussing the factors which contribute to the occurrence of collapse phenomena. By the analysis of the morphometrical/morphological features of the about 600 initially identified sinkholes, about 50% were interpreted as collapse sinkholes related to karst phenomena, which are the object of this study. These were geo-referred and organised in a data base, in which information on the geological-structural and hydrogeological features of areas affected by the collapses was also reported. The collapse sinkhole inventory was paralleled by an analysis of the distribution of the main mineral springs (H2S- and CO2- rich waters), of travertine bodies and of extensional faults with late Quaternary activity, which were all considered significant to the study due to the interrelations linking travertines, karst solution processes, CO2- rich waters and faults. Furthermore, with the aim of investigating the role of seismic shaking in the occurrence of the collapses, the karst collapse sinkhole distribution was compared with the distribution of stronger historical earthquake epicentres. The results of this regional scale synthesis suggests a possible key to the interpretation of karst collapse phenomena. The latter, in fact, appear correlated to the combination of peculiar conditions, which may be envisaged in the presence of active faults and mineral waters. The study, in particular, suggests that karst collapse sinkholes result from enhanced dissolution phenomena related to the rising of fluids of deep origin, for which active faults represent preferred pathways, and favoured by the presence
of a relatively shallow water table. In the collapse events,
an important role is possibly played by seismic shaking


Ferruginous thermal spring complexes, northwest Tasmania: Evidence that far-field stresses acting on a fracture mesh can open and maintain vertical flow in carbonate terrains, 2011, Davidson G. J. , Bavea M. , Harris K.

Far-field stress changes in the southern Australian plate since 5 Ma have produced significant areas of uplift and seismicity. In northwest Tasmania, there is evidence that this stress reorientation to maximum horizontal NW-SE stress has influenced meteoric-derived thermal (15-20°C) discharge patterns of confined karstic aquifers, by placing pre-existing NW-trending faults/fractures into a dilated state or a critically stressed state. Previous studies have shown that spring discharge has operated continuously for at least 65,000 years, and has transported large volumes of solutes to the surface to be deposited as mounds of calcite-goethite-silica up to 7 m high. The thermal spring chemistry at one site, Mella, is consistent with descent to at least 1.2-1. 5 km, although the hinterland within 50 km is less than 500 m elevation. Thermal spring chemistry is consistent with most of the deep water-rock interaction occurring in low-strontium Smithton Dolomite. While some of this water is discharged at springs, some instead intersects shallow zones of NE-fracture-controlled rock (2 ? 4 km in area) with karstic permeability where, although confined and subject to a NE-directed hydraulic gradient, it circulates and cools to ambient temperature, with only minor mixing with other groundwaters


Ferruginous thermal spring complexes, northwest Tasmania: evidence that far-field stresses acting on a fracture mesh can open and maintain vertical flow in carbonate terrains, 2011, Davidson Garry J. , Bavea Michael, Harris Kathryn

Far-field stress changes in the southern Australian plate since 5 Ma have produced significant areas of uplift and seismicity. In northwest Tasmania, there is evidence that this stress reorientation to maximum horizontal NW–SE stress has influenced meteoricderived thermal (15–20°C) discharge patterns of confined karstic aquifers, by placing pre-existing NWtrending faults/fractures into a dilated state or a critically stressed state. Previous studies have shown that spring discharge has operated continuously for at least 65,000 years, and has transported large volumes of solutes to the surface to be deposited as mounds of calcite-goethite-silica up to 7 m high. The thermal spring chemistry at one site, Mella, is consistent with descent to at least 1.2–1.5 km, although the hinterland within 50 km is less than 500 m elevation. Thermal spring chemistry is consistent with most of the deep water–rock interaction occurring in low-strontium Smithton Dolomite. While some of this water is discharged at springs, some instead intersects shallow zones of NE-fracture-controlled rock (2×4 km in area) with karstic permeability where, although confined and subject to a NE-directed hydraulic gradient, it circulates and cools to ambient temperature, with only minor mixing with other groundwaters. 


Possible relation between the sudden sinking of river Ika and the sequence of weak earthquakes in September-October 2010 near Ika vas (central Slovenia), 2012, Gosar A. , Brenč, Ič, M.

During heavy rainfalls between September 17 and 19, 2010 large part of Slovenia has suffered extensive floods that last for nearly two weeks. For the river Iška record discharge of 59.3 m3/s was measured on September 19 on the gauging station in Iška vas located at the southern rim of Ljubljansko barje. In the first hour of September 21, 2010 two weak earthquakes (ML=0.6 and ML=0.2) occurred within one minute near Iška vas. They were felt by some inhabitants who reported also a rumbling noise (brontides). During the flood recession period, the water of river Iška started to sink into the gravely stream bed or rocky left banks and the gauging profile completely dried on September 23, day and a half after the first earthquake. Water reappeared again on September 25. In the period September 21 − October 4 additional seven weak earthquakes occurred in the same area. All earthquakes from this series occurred at or near the surface and deviate in hypocentral depth from the seismicity pattern characteristic for the southern rim of Ljubljansko barje, which was analysed for comparison. The epicentres of the first two earthquakes are in good agreement with the location of the dried river bed. It is therefore probable that both phenomena are related. Analyses of seismograms have shown that it is not likely that the observed events are collapse earthquakes, but they are tectonic events. Although earthquakes were relatively weak, it seems that they could be accompanied by small near-surface tectonic movements, because they occurred at the position of a known fault. These movements are probably connected to the opening of pre-existing fissures in the karstified valley bottom, although the primary reason for sinking of the river is that high waters removed the clogged river bed that enables intensive sinking into the river bottom during the flood.


Possible relation between the sudden sinking of river Ika and the sequence of weak earthquakes in September-October 2010 near Ika vas (central Slovenia), 2012, Gosar Andrej, Brenč, Ič, Mihael

During heavy rainfalls between September 17 and 19, 2010 large part of Slovenia has suffered extensive floods that last for nearly two weeks. For the river Iška record discharge of 59.3 m3/s was measured on September 19 on the gauging station in Iška vas located at the southern rim of Ljubljansko barje. In the first hour of September 21, 2010 two weak earthquakes (ML=0.6 and ML=0.2) occurred within one minute near Iška vas. They were felt by some inhabitants who reported also a rumbling noise (brontides). During the flood recession period, the water of river Iška started to sink into the gravely stream bed or rocky left banks and the gauging profile completely dried on September 23, day and a half after the first earthquake. Water reappeared again on September 25. In the period September 21 − October 4 additional seven weak earthquakes occurred in the same area. All earthquakes from this series occurred at or near the surface and deviate in hypocentral depth from the seismicity pattern characteristic for the southern rim of Ljubljansko barje, which was analysed for comparison. The epicentres of the first two earthquakes are in good agreement with the location of the dried river bed. It is therefore probable that both phenomena are related. Analyses of seismograms have shown that it is not likely that the observed events are collapse earthquakes, but they are tectonic events. Although earthquakes were relatively weak, it seems that they could be accompanied by small near-surface tectonic movements, because they occurred at the position of a known fault. These movements are probably connected to the opening of pre-existing fissures in the karstified valley bottom, although the primary reason for sinking of the river is that high waters removed the clogged river bed that enables intensive sinking into the river bottom during the flood.

 

Deep hydrogeology: a discussion of issues and research needs, 2013, Tsang Chinfu, Niemi Auli

In this essay, “deep hydrogeology” is somewhat arbitrarily defined as hydrogeology in the subsurface deeper than 1 km, below which the effect of residual permeability at high stresses becomes evident (Neuzil 2003; Rutqvist and Stephansson 2003; Liu et al. 2009). Studies have shown that meteoric fluids are present in the earth’s crust from land surface to at least a depth of 10–15 km (Kozlowsky 1987; Taylor Jr 1990; Zharikov et al. 2003; Ge et al. 2003). At such depths, interaction with surface water and surface events over time periods of 100 or 1,000 years may be minimal, except in areas of very deep mining activities or where deep convection is enhanced by active magmatism. Deep drilling to several kilometers in depth is often done for petroleum and geothermal reservoir exploration and exploitation. The focus of such activities is reservoir identification, capacity evaluation, and fluid and heat extractability. However, it is largely an open area of research to understand the state, structure and evolution of deep hydrogeology over time scales of tens of thousands of years or more, especially in areas lacking petroleum and geothermal resources. Interest in attaining such an understanding has emerged from the need for long-term predictions related to nuclear waste disposal and from recognition of the role that hydrogeology may play in seismicity, orogenesis and various geological processes, as well as in global fluid and chemical cycles. A number of wide-ranging questions may be asked regarding deep hydrogeology, several of which are as follows: What are the current and past states of fluid pressure, temperature and chemical composition in deep formations? How does fluid transport mass and heat? What are the fluid sources and driving mechanisms? What are the magnitude and distribution of porosity and permeability? What are the occurrence and characteristics of large-scale flow, including thermally and chemically driven convection systems? What is the nature of local anomalous fluid pressures and what are their implications? The purpose of this essay is to discuss key issues and research needs in deep hydrogeology. It is based on a workshop on the subject held at Uppsala University in Sweden, with participants from 11 countries, including the USA, Russia, Japan and a number of European countries (Tsang et al. 2012). The following discussion will be divided into sections on permeability structures, driving forces, coupled processes, borehole testing and data analysis, followed by a few concluding remarks.


Early results of micro-deformation measurements in Magdalena Jama (Slovenia) by a vertical static pendulum, 2013, Kalenda Pavel, Neumann Libor, Šebela Stanka

Vertical static pendulums have been installed in mines or caves in Central Europe since 2007. Two­dimensional optical measurement of the tilt of a rock mass and continuous fully digital on­line evaluation of results makes possible the detection of a small tilt of the surroundings with a resolution of tens of nanoradians or the deformation of the surroundings in the horizontal plane with resolution of hundreds of nanometres. The paper describes the measurement device and the first results of the measurements in Magdalena Jama, which is part of the Postojna Cave System (Slovenia). The correlation of deformation between distant stations shows the existence of stress variations that are not only of local origin (high floods, local seismicity, and aseismic deformations). The stress field has a wider, and not only regional, character with effects that can be observed very far from the origin.


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