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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That callow is (english.) top or rubble bed of a quarry.?

Checkout all 2699 terms in the KarstBase Glossary of Karst and Cave Terms


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Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
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Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
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Your search for mg (Keyword) returned 231 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 16 to 30 of 231
Carbonate rocks in the Black Sea basin: indicators for shallow water and subaerial exposure during Miocene--Pliocene time, 1979,
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Stoffers P. , Muller G. ,
Drilling in the Black Sea in general revealed three types of sediments: terrigenous, chemical, and biogenic. Terrigenous muds predominate in the Pleistocene whereas chemical sediments are abundant in the lower Pleistocene--Pliocene to Late Miocene sedimentary section. Biogenic constituents play a minor role only. The chemical sediments include calcite (lake chalk), Mg-calcite, aragonite, siderite and dolomite. Among these, the dolomites of Pliocene to Late Miocene age are most interesting. They were encountered in the two drill sites close to the Bosporus drilled in 2115 to 1750 m water depth, respectively. The dolomites show a great variety of criteria (e.g. intraclasts, algae mats, crusts, pellets, oolites), indicating a shallow water environment with occasional subaerial exposure and supratidal evaporitic conditions. The formation of these shallow water carbonates in the Black Sea is supposed to correlate with the Messinian salinity crisis in the Mediterranean

Hardness Controls of Cave Drips, Murray Cave, Cooleman Plain, Kosciusko National Park, 1979,
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Jennings, J. N.

Drips in the forward part of the Murray Cave between 5 and 50m below the surface were sampled about once a month for 2 years, carbon dioxide in the soil above and in the cave air being measured also. Mean soil CO2 content was fifteen times atmospheric, summer yeilding higher values than winter though the dry 1972-3 summer had low values. Greater depths in the soil had more CO2 than shallower ones. Cave air had on the average little more CO2 than the atmosphere but river flooding of the cave was followed by large CO2 fluctuations. There was a slight tendency for drips to be warmer and to vary less in temperature inwards. Drip pH was greater in summer than winter because of high CO2 production. The (Ca+Mg)/(Na+K) ratio of the drips was nearly ten times that of the Blue Waterholes, showing that igneous rock weathering around the Plain supplies more of the Na and K in the spring output than was envisaged before. The drip Mg/Ca ratio lies close to that of the Blue Waterholes, underlining the dominance of the limestone in the output hydrochemistry. The mean total hardness of 141 mg.L-1, not significantly different from earlier Murray cave drip measurements, sustains the previous estimate that the superficial zone provides about 2/3 of the limestone solution. The summer value (149 mg.L-1) is significantly greater than the winter mean (132 mg.L-1), including high values in the dry 1972-3 summer when CO2 values were low. Lagged correlation on a weekly and three weekly basis of individual drip hardness on air temperature and precipitation yielded few significant results. Only a weak case for dominance of hardness by temperature through rhizosphere CO2 was evident but neither was the conflicting hypothesis of hardness in such contradictory ways that more detailed observations over equally long time periods are necessary to elucidate their influence.


Water Chemistry of the Atea Kananda and the Related Drainage Area, 1980,
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James, Julia M.

The Ca2+, Mg2+, alkalinity, pH and temperature have been measured in water from the Atea Kananda cave and related surface sites on the Muller Plateau (Papua New Guinea). A wide variation in the Ca2+ and Mg2+ values was found and this has been attributed to the lithology and nature (open or closed) of the water courses. From alkalinity measurements anions other than bicarbonate, probably sulphate are expected to be present in significant quantities in the cave waters. Most of the waters are aggressive. The Ca2+/Mg2+ x 10 ratio is shown to be a useful tool in predicting the origin of unknown waters in the cave. The variations of the measured and calculated parameters for groups of related surface and underground sites are presented and discussed. Tentative solution erosion rates for the Muller Plateau have been calculated and the conclusion reached that where the erosion can be placed as largely occuring on pure limestone these are high. Impure limestones and non-calcareous rocks in their catchments give anomalously low results for the main rivers. A scheme for cave development on the Muller Plateau by solution mechanisms is presented.


Distribution and Habitat Diversity of Subterranean Amphipods in the Rocky Mountains of Colorado, U.S.A., 1981,
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Holsinger John R. , Ward James W.
Subterranean amphipods have been collected from 35 locations on the eastern and western slopes of the Continental Divide in Colorado. All belong to the exclusively subterranean genus Stygobromus. Five species have been identified, two of which are undescribed. Specimens have been collected from (a) the hyporheic zone of rivers, (b) interrupted streams, (c) springs, and (d) seeps at elevations from 1597-2134 m a.s.l. Stygobromus occurs in several habitat types in interrupted drainage basins including sources, seeps, and isolated pools containing leaf detritus. All habitats contained waters which were cool to cold with dissolved oxygen values ranging from 4.3 ppm to fully saturated. Most waters exhibited soft or medium hardness, although one spring containing an undescribed species of Stygobromus had very hard waters (203 ppm bound CO2) and was mildly saline (913 mg/l TDS). There is evidence that the subterranean amphipods are phreatobites which, only under special conditions, establish relatively permanent populations in epigean habitats. Although little is known regarding ecology, zoogeography, or even taxonomy of the subterranean fauna of this region, stygobromid amphipods from the Cordilleran of western North America are apparently represented by fewer well differentiated species per unit area than their congeners from the geobiologicably older Appalachian region of eastern North America where numerous species are found in caves.

Lithification of peritidal carbonates by continental brines at Fisherman Bay, South Australia, to form a megapolygon/spelean limestone association, 1982,
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Ferguson J, Burne Rv, Chambers La,
Lithification, which commenced less than 3000 yrs BP is still active, and has formed a cavernous limestone containing megapolygons, tepees, and speleothems including pisoliths, floe aragonite, and aragonite pool deposits. The emerging waters evolved from low alkalinity waters of Pleistocene sand and clay coastal plain aquifers which passed through an underlying Tertiare marine carbonate aquifer, have high P CO2 , total carbonate, Ca, and sulfate concentrations. They are close to saturation with respect to aragonite, and their mMg (super 2) /mCa (super 2) ratios approach or exceed the critical aragonite precipitation value. Features which diagnose ancient examples of this process: primary aragonitic cements with high mSr (super 2) /mCa (super 2) values; nonmarine delta 34 S values in gypsum; two superimposed networks of surface polygons, one delineated by extensional boundaries, the other by tepees; high-water vadose-zone isopachous grain cements; interconnected, speleothem-lined cavities; and the presence of evaporites only in surface sediments. Possible ancient examples are recognized in West Texas, Lombardy, and the Atlas Mountains. The areal extent of each of these deposits suggests that the process may be a geologically important feature, and its products may be diagnostic of semi-arid or arid-zone paralic sedimentation.--Modified journal abstract

Trace-element partition coefficients in the calcite-water system and their paleoclimatic significance in cave studies, 1983,
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Gascoyne M,
Speleothems (stalactites, stalagmites) formed in limestone caves have been found to contain much information on the timing and intensity of past climates, from analysis of their U, Th, 13C and 18O contents. Because the incorporation of certain trace elements (e.g., Mg, Mn and Zn) in calcite is known to be temperature-dependent, it may be possible to use variations in trace-metal content of fossil speleothems as an alternative paleotem-perature indicator. Using specially developed ion-exchange sampling techniques, analysis of trace-metal content of seepage water and associated fresh calcite deposits in caves in Vancouver Island and Jamaica shows that Mg is distributed between phases in a consistent manner within the temperature regimes of the caves (7[deg] and 23[deg]C, respectively). Average values of the distribution coefficient for Mg are respectively 0.017 and 0.045 at these temperatures. These results indicate that the Mg content of calcite varies directly with temperature and in a sufficiently pronounced manner that a 1[deg]C rise in depositional temperature of a speleothem containing 500 ppm Mg, at ~10[deg]C, would be seen as an increase of ~35ppm Mg -- a readily determinable shift. Other factors affecting Mg content of a speleothem are considered

Hydrology and hydrochemistry of the Caves Branch karst, Belize, 1983,
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Miller T. ,
A large conduit spring issuing from Cretaceous limestones in Belize, Central America, displays a positive relation of discharge to solute concentration. Beneath a maturely-dissected cockpit karst, the hydrologic system combines allogenic surface water from an invasion polje with authigenic karst water. Dynamic mixing produces three climatically-induced discharge phases: baseflow, normal, and high-stage flow. Each has an associated hydrochemical regime, predominantly diffuse-flow karst water. An areal solute concentration of ~80 mg l-1 Ca2 is estimated, with a “denudation rate” of 100 mm per 1000 yr

Karst du Rawyl (Hautes Alpes calcaires de Suisse occidentale), matires dissoutes et en suspension emportes par les sources, 1984,
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Wildberger, A.
HIGH ALPINE KARST OF RAWYL (SOUTHWESTERN SWITZERLAND): DISSOLVED AND SUSPENDED MATERIALS IN THE WATER OF KARSTIC SPRINGS - The karst of the Rawyl area is located between 1200 and 3250m elevation, at an average height of 2500m. The mean annual rainfall is about 2m. The output of dissolved and suspended material was measured at various important springs, subjected to a glacial to nivo-glacial discharge pattern. The dissolution rate is around 0,06 to 0,075 mm/year of which 1 to 25% are suspended materials, the rest being transported under dissolved form. The flushed material does not correspond exactly with the lithology of the aquifer: for the dissolved material, Mg is in excess compared to the Mg in the carbonates (exchange of cations Ca-Mg); for the suspended material, the clay minerals clearly out-weight the quartz (selection by different sizes and forms).

A Preliminary Survey of Water Chemistry in the Limestone of the Buchan Area Under Low Flow Conditions, 1984,
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Ellaway Mark, Finlayson Brian

Water samples from selected sites in the Buchan area were collected on two different occasions (survey 1 and survey 2) in an preliminary attempt to characterise the samples taken in terms of chemical composition. Chemical constituents such as Ca++, Mg++, and titration alkalinity (as mg/l CaCO3) varied considerably and ranged from 9.0 - 187.0 mg/l, 2.5 - 43.3 mg/l and 27 - 417 mg/l (survey 1) and 3.5 - 188.7 mg/l, 3.5 - 40.0 mg/l and 44 - 424 mg/l (survey 2) respectively. This range in values is attributed to the differing lithology of the sample sites chosen and reflects the geological control on water chemistry of karst landscapes. A computer program for determining equilibrium speciation of aqueous solutions was used to calculate partial pressure of carbon dioxide and saturation indices with respect to calcite and dolomite.


238U---234U---230Th---232Th systematics and the precise measurement of time over the past 500,000 years, 1987,
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Lawrence Edwards R. , Chen J. H. , Wasserburg G. J. ,
We have developed techniques to measure the 230Th abundance in corals by isotope dilution mass spectrometry. This, coupled with our previous development of mass spectrometric techniques for 234U and 232Th measurement, has allowed us to reduce significantly the analytical errors in 238U---234U---230Th dating and greatly reduce the sample size. We show that 6 x 108 atoms of 230Th can be measured to 30[per mille sign] (2[sigma]) and 2 x 1010 atoms of 230Th to 2[per mille sign]. The time over which useful age data on corals can be obtained ranges from a few years to ~ 500 ky. The uncertainty in age, based on analytical errors, is 5 y (2[sigma]) for a 180 year old coral (3 g), 44 y at 8294 years and 1.1 ky at 123.1 ky (250 mg of coral). We also report 232Th concentrations in corals (0.083-1.57 pmol/g) that are more than two orders of magnitude lower than previous values. Ages with high analytical precision were determined for several corals that grew during high sea level stands ~ 120 ky ago. These ages lie specifically within or slightly postdate the Milankovitch insolation high at 128 ky and support the idea that the dominant cause of Pleistocene climate change is Milankovitch forcing

Regional dolomitization of subtidal shelf carbonates: Burlington and Keokuk Formations (Mississippian), Iowa and Illinois, 1987,
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Harris David C. , Meyers William J. ,
Cathodoluminescent petrography of crinoidal limestones and dolomites from the Mississippian (Osagean) Burlington and Keokuk Formations in Iowa and Illinois has revealed a complex diagenetic history of calcite cementation, dolomitization, chertification and compaction. Dolomite occurs abundantly in subtidal, open-marine facies throughout the study area. Three luminescently and chemically distinct generations of dolomite can be recognized regionally. Dolomite I, the oldest generation, is luminescent, thinly zoned, and occurs mainly as a replacement of lime mud. Dolomite II has dull red unzoned luminescence, and occurs mainly as a replacement of dolomite I rhombs. Dolomite III is non-luminescent, and occurs as a syntaxial cement on, and replacement of, older dolomite I and II rhombs. Petrography of these dolomite generations, integrating calcite cement stratigraphy, chertification and compaction histories has established the diagenetic sequence. Dolomites I and II pre-date all calcite cements, most chert, intergranular compaction and styloites. Dolomite III precipitation occurred within the calcite cement sequence, after all chert, and after at least some stylolitization. The stratigraphic limit of these dolomites to rocks older than the St Louis Limestone (Meramecian) suggests that dolomitization took place before or during a regional mid-Meramecian subaerial unconformity. A single dolomitization model cannot reasonably explain all three generations of dolomite in the Burlington and Keokuk limestones. Petrographic and geochemical characteristics coupled with timing constraints suggest that dolomite I formed in a sea water-fresh water mixing zone associated with a meteoric groundwater system established beneath the pre-St Louis unconformity. Dolomite II and III may have formed from externally sourced warm brines that replaced precursor dolomite at shallow burial depths. These models therefore suggest that the required Mg for dolomite I was derived mainly from sea water, whereas that for dolomites II and III was derived mainly from precursor Burlington--Keokuk dolomites through replacement or pressure solution

Das Tinaz-Tepe-Hhlensystem und die Geomorphologie seiner Umgebung (Trkei)., 1988,
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Gldali N. , Nazik L.
[Trkei]

Das Tinaz-Tepe-Hhlensystem und die Geomorphologie seiner Umgebung (Trkei), 1988,
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Gldali N. , Nazik L.

Groundwater chemistry and cation budgets of tropical karst outcrops, Peninsular Malaysia, I. Calcium and magnesium, 1989,
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Crowther J,
The discharge and chemical properties of 217 autogenic groundwaters were monitored over a 1-yr period in the tower karsts of central Selangor and the Kinta Valley, and in the Setul Boundary Range. Because of differences in soil PCO2, calcium concentrations are significantly higher in the Boundary Range (mean, 82.5 mg l-1) than in the tower karst terrain (44.6 mg l-1). Local differences in both source area PCO2 and amounts of secondary deposition underground cause marked intersite variability, particularly in the tower karst. Dilution occurs during flood peaks in certain conduit and cave stream waters. Generally, however, calcium correlates positively with discharge, since the amount of secondary deposition per unit volume of water decreases at higher flows. Magnesium concentrations and Mg:Ca Mg ratios of groundwaters are strongly influenced by bedrock composition, though bedrock heterogeneity and the kinetics and equilibria of carbonate dissolution reactions preclude extremely low or high Mg:Ca Mg values. Net chemical denudation rates range from 56.6 to 70.9 m3km2yr-1.The results are considered in relation to cation fluxes in surface runoff, soil throughflow and nutrient cycling. Preliminary calcium and magnesium budgets show that (1) dissolutional activity is largely confined to the near-surface zone; and (2) the annual uptake of calcium and magnesium by tropical limestone forests is similar in magnitude to the net solute output in groundwaters

COMPARISON OF THE C-14 ACTIVITY OF GROUNDWATER AND RECENT TUFA FROM KARST AREAS IN YUGOSLAVIA AND CZECHOSLOVAKIA, 1989,
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Horvatincic N. , Srdoc D. , Silar J. , Tvrdikova H. ,
C-14 activity of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) in water and in recent tufa samples in several karst areas of Yugoslavia and Czechoslovakia was measured. Groundwater from 11 karst springs were measured for their isotopic content (C-14, H-3, C-13), chemical composition (HCO3, Ca2, Mg2) and physico-chemical properties (temperature, pH). Seasonal variations of the C-14 activity of DIC in two karst springs in Plitvice Lakes area, Yugoslavia, were measured systematically from 1979-1987. C-14 activity of recent tufa samples from several locations downstream were also measured. The activity of DIC in karst spring water in both countries ranged from 63-87 pMC, which is attributed to differences in geologic structure of the recharge area, topsoil thickness and composition. Grouping of C-14 activities of DIC ca (824)% is evident. Tritium activity at all the springs indicated short mean residence time (1-10 yr). Concentration of HCO3, Ca2 and Mg2 in spring water varied with geomorphology. C-14 activity of streamwater and recent tufa increased downstream from karst springs due to the exchange between atmospheric CO2 and DIC

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