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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That diffusivity, soil water is the hydraulic conductivity divided by the differential water capacity (care being taken to be consistent with units), or the flux of water per unit gradient of moisture content in the absence of other force fields [22].?

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Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
See all featured articles
Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
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Your search for tilting (Keyword) returned 25 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 16 to 25 of 25
Use of speleologic data to evaluate Holocene uplifting and tilting: An example from the Frasassi anticline (northeastern Apennines, Italy), 2007, Mariani S. , Mainiero M. , Barchi M. , Van Der Borg K. , Vonhof H. , Montanari A.

Deep inside the Frasassi cave complex in the foreland fold and thrust belt of the northeastern Apennines (central Italy), the remains of hundreds of eels (Anguilla anguilla) are found scattered on the shores of phreatic lakes up to 5 m above the water table. These sub-fossil eels, and the speleothemic calcite encrusting some of them, offer the rare opportunity for radiocarbon dating leading to a geochronologic scale for the shorelines, which record the lowering of the water table and the uplifting of the Frasassi area through the Holocene. The lakes' margins are contoured by white microcrystalline calcite rinds, which also record the progressive lowering of the water table. Detailed surveying revealed that these rinds are no longer horizontal, but slightly tilted toward ENE. Thus these rinds record a recent history not only of uplifting, but also of tectonic tilting of this region. The results of our analyses indicate that the Apennine area around Frasassi has been rising, for the past 8000 years, at a mean rate of 0.6 mm/yr, which is consistent with uplifting rates estimated from the step topography arrangement of interglacial fluvial terraces for the whole Quaternary period in this region. This work demonstrates how an interdisciplinary approach to speleologic research can provide a significant contribution to active tectonic studies.


CARVING UP THE PRE-ILLINOIAN CENTRAL HIGHLANDS: TRANSVERSE SPELEOGENESIS AND EMERGENT BEDROCK MEANDERS IN THE OZARKS, 2007, Elfrink, N.

New data fail to support the prevailing theory that meandering bedrock valleys inherit their sinuosity from ancient alluvial rivers. In the Ozarks, observations indicate that bedrock meanders emerge during incision as a result of erosion by emergent groundwater and surface flow. Crustal tilting pressurizes deep aquifers that feed a huge base flow to large springs. Because of their large size and persistence in time, these artesian conduits have the potential to create new base levels of erosion. Transverse speleogenesis causes groundwater flow lines and surface streams to converge toward the springs, thereby further increasing the rate of landscape lowering and creating bedrock meanders. Groundwater outflow accelerates stream piracy, creates asymmetric drainage patterns and cuts channels across structural upwarps. By contrast, the antecedent meander theory favors long-term drainage stability that cannot explain the incredible diversity of the freshwater fauna found in the Central Highlands. Widely disjunct species of highland fish that thrive only in clear, high-gradient streams indicate that the Ouachitas, the Ozarks and the Eastern Highlands were once a continuous upland connected by a “land bridge” in southern Illinois. This connection allowed ancestral species to become widespread enough to be affected by a vicariant event, usually attributed to onset of glaciation. However, a 400-km eastward shift in Gulf of Mexico sedimentation indicates this vicariant event may have occurred in the middle Pleistocene, when it is proposed that the Mississippi River dissected the Central Highlands, separating the Interior Highlands from the Eastern Highlands.


DAMAGE TO THE HISTORIC TOWN OF STAUFEN (GERMANY) CAUSED BY GEOTHERMAL DRILLINGS THROUGH ANHYDRITE-BEARING FORMATIONS, 2010, Sass I. , Burbaum U.
Shallow geothermal systems for the heating and cooling of buildings will play an important role in the future renewable energy supply. Especially in dense settlements the geothermal energy utilization for facility heating and cooling is very promising. Therefore, it is important to analyse the damage to Staufen im Breisgau (Germany). In September of 2007, seven geothermal borehole heat exchanger (BHE) drillings were performed in a small square directly adjacent to the 16th century town hall in the centre of the town. These led to enormous structural damage to buildings as a function of four different geological parameters: artesian groundwater, two interacting karst formations, strong tectonization, and a swellable anhydrite formation. Some weeks after termination of the well construction, uplift started, and recently (March 2010) reached a magnitude of approximately 26 cm. Actually, some 250 buildings (March 2010) are involved; showing cracks, tilting, and other effects of the differential swelling movements beneath the foundations. Surface uplifts with rate up to 10 mm/month have been determined using high resolution spaceborne radar data and radarinterferometric techniques. These amplitudes correlate with data from benchmarks of terrestrial geodetic surveyng. Besides the uplift due to the swelling processes, future problems could arise from the fact that the gypsum formed from the swelled anhydrite is soluble in water. Thus, sinkholes and other karst related phenomena may occur.

The study of Karstic aquifers geodetic measurements in Bus de la Genziana station − Cansiglio plateau (northeastern Italy), 2011, Barbara Grillo Carla Braitenberg Roberto Devoti & Ildikò, Nagy

We propose an interdisciplinary study of karstic aquifers using tiltmeters and GPS observations. The study region is located in northeastern Italy, in the seismic area of the Cansiglio Plateau. The Zöllner type Marussi tiltmeters are installed in a natural cavity (Bus de la Genziana) that is part of an interesting karstic area of particular hydrogeologic importance. The Livenza river forms from a number of springs at the foothills of the karstic massif and flows through the Friuli-Veneto plain into the Adriatic Sea. Comparing the tiltmeter signal recorded at the Genziana station with the local pluviometrical series and the hydrometric series of the Livenza river, a clear correlation is recognized. Moreover, the data of a permanent GPS station located on the southern slopes of the Cansiglio Massif (CANV) show also a clear correspondence with the water runoff. Here we present the hydrologic induced deformations as observed by tiltmeter and GPS. After heavy rain events we record rapid deformations both by tiltmeters and GPS corresponding to the rainfall duration. In the following days a slow geodetic motion recovers the accumulated deformation with a distinctive pattern both in tilt and GPS data, which correlates with the runoff of the karstic aquifer. The purpose of this research is to open a new multidisciplinary frontier between geodetic and karstic systems studies to improve the knowledge of the underground fluid flow circulation in karstic areas. Furthermore a better characterization of the hydrologic effects on GPS and tilt observations will have the benefit that these signals can be corrected when the focus of the study is to recover the tectonic deformation.


Cave sediments as geologic tiltmeters, 2013, Stock, G. M.

Caves are sheltered environments that can preserve unique evidence of climatic and tectonic events. A variety of cave deposits, primarily calcite shelfstone formed along pool margins, delineate formerly level surfaces. In tectonically active areas, the orientation of these surfaces can be measured with respect to horizontal to determine the magnitude of local or regional tilt. In many cases, these deposits can also be dated by a variety of geochronologic methods, such as U–Th and 14C, allowing for calculation of tilting rates. This chapter reviews previous research using cave sediments as geologic tiltmeters, describes various approaches to the problem, and discusses potential future applications


HYPOGENE SULFURIC ACID SPELEOGENESIS AND RARE SULFATE MINERALS (FIBROFERRITE, JAROSITE SUBGROUP) BAUME GALINIERE CAVE (ALPES-DE-HAUTE-PROVENCE, FRANCE), 2013, Audra P. Gá, Zquez F. Rull F. Bigot J. Y. Camus H.

 

The oxidation of sulfide sources (H2S gas, pyrite, hydrocarbons) produces sulfuric acid that strongly reacts with bedrock, causing limestone dissolution and complex interactions with other minerals. This type of cave development, known as sulfuric acid speleogenesis, is a subcategory of hypogenic speleogenesis, where aggressive water rises from depth. It also produces uncommon minerals, mainly sulfates. Baume Galinière is located in Southern France, in the Vaucluse spring watershed. This small maze cave displays characteristic features such as corrosion notches, calcite dikes and iron crusts, and sulfate minerals. Thirteen minerals were identified, including elemental sulfur, calcite, quartz, pyrite, goethite, gypsum, fibroferrite, plus all of the six members of the jarosite subgroup (jarosite, argentojarosite, ammoniojarosite, hydroniumjarosite, natrojarosite, plumbojarosite). The Baume Galinière deposits are the first documented cave occurrence of argentojarosite and the second known occurrence of plumbojarosite, hydronium jarosite, ammoniojarosite, and fibroferrite. Together with other hypogenic caves in the Vaucluse watershed, Baume Galinière Cave owes its origin in buried conditions to deep water rising along major faults, mixing with meteoric water at the contact of the karst aquifer and overlying impervious cover, and causing pyrite deposition. Sulfuric acid speleogenesis occurred later after base level drop, when the cave arrived in shallow phreatic then in vadose zone, with oxidation of pyrites involving sulfidic gases. Attenuated oxidation is still occurring through condensation of incoming air from outside. Baume Galinière Cave records the position of the paleo-cover and documents its retreat in relationship to valley incision caused by uplift and tilting of the Vaucluse block during Neogene.


HYPOGENIC SPELEOGENESIS WITH FERRUGINOUS ORE. THE PIEI MINE-CAVE (LAGNES, VAUCLUSE, FRANCE) SPELEOGENESI IPOGENICA IN UN GIACIMENTO DI FERRO. LA GROTTA MINIERA DI PIEI (LAGNES, VAUCLUSE, FRANCIA), 2013, Audra Philippe, Bigot Jeanyves, Camus Hubert, Gauchon Christophe, Wienin Michel

The Piei mine-cave (Lagnes, Vaucluse, France) locates at the contact of the Vaucluse Mounts and the Carpentras basin, close to the Fontaine de Vaucluse spring. It develops in Cretaceous limestone (Urgonian facies), close to a main regional lineament, the Salon-Cavaillon fault. The cave was mined in the XIXth Century, giving access to passages previously filled with diverse neogene sands and massive iron crusts. The exploitation mainly followed the natural passages. The origin of the cave is related to hypogenic flow rising from deep fissures or hydraulic breccias, with ferruginous deposition at the contact or on top of the neogene sands filling. Microbial activity was present during the cave activity, associated to the ferruginous deposits. This cave probably corresponds to the Neogene period, when the Vaucluse plateau was uplifted. The Piei mine-cave record the position of the corresponding base level and thus the progressive tilting of the massive, together with a range of similar caves located around the western edge of the Vaucluse Plateau


Hypogene Sulfuric Acid Speleogenesis and rare sulfate minerals in Baume Galini`ere Cave (Alpes-de-Haute-Provence, France). Record of uplift, correlative cover retreat and valley dissection, 2015, Audra Philippe, Gґazquez Fernando, Rull Fernando, Bigot Jeanyves, Camus Hubert

The oxidation of hydrocarbons and sulfide sources (H2S, pyrite) produces sulfuric acid that strongly reacts with bedrock, causing limestone dissolution and complex interactions with other minerals from the bedrock or from cave fillings, mainly clays. This type of cave development, known as Sulfuric Acid Speleogenesis (SAS), is a subcategory of hypogene speleogenesis, where aggressive water rises from depth. It also produces uncommon minerals, mainly sulfates, the typical byproducts of SAS. Baume Galinière is located in Southern France, in the Vaucluse spring watershed. This small maze cave displays characteristic SAS features such as corrosion notches, calcite geodes, iron crusts, and various sulfate minerals. Sulfur isotopes of SAS byproducts (jarosite and gypsum) clearly show they derive from pyrite oxidation. Using XRD and micro-Raman spectroscopy, thirteen minerals were identified, including elemental sulfur, calcite, quartz, pyrite, goethite, gypsum, fibroferrite, plus all of the six members of the jarosite subgroup (jarosite, argentojarosite, ammoniojarosite, hydroniumjarosite, natrojarosite, plumbojarosite). The Baume Galinière deposits are the first documented cave occurrence of argentojarosite and the second known occurrence of plumbojarosite, hydronium jarosite, ammoniojarosite, and fibroferrite. In the Vaucluse watershed, there were numerous upwellings of deep water along major faults, located at the contact of the karstic aquifer and the overlying impervious covers. The mixing of deep and meteoric waters at shallow depths caused pyrite depositions in numerous caves, including Baume Galinière. Sulfuric acid speleogenesis occurred later after base-level drop, when the cave was under shallow phreatic conditions then in the vadose zone, with oxidation of pyrites generating sulfuric acid. Attenuated oxidation is still occurring through condensation of moisture from incoming air. Baume Galinière Cave records the position of the semi-impervious paleo-cover and documents its retreat in relationship to valley incision caused by uplift and tilting of the Vaucluse block during the Neogene.


Hypogene Sulfuric Acid Speleogenesis and rare sulfate minerals in Baume Galinière Cave (Alpes-de-Haute-Provence, France). Record .., 2015, Audra P. , Gázquez F. , Rull F. , Bigot J. Y. , Camus H.

The oxidation of hydrocarbons and sulfide sources (H2S, pyrite) produces sulfuric acid that strongly reacts with bedrock, causing limestone dissolution and complex interactions with other minerals from the bedrock or from cave fillings, mainly clays. This type of cave development, known as Sulfuric Acid Speleogenesis (SAS), is a subcategory of hypogene speleogenesis, where aggressive water rises from depth. It also produces uncommon minerals, mainly sulfates, the typical byproducts of SAS. Baume Galinière is located in Southern France, in the Vaucluse spring watershed. This small maze cave displays characteristic SAS features such as corrosion notches, calcite geodes, iron crusts, and various sulfate minerals. Sulfur isotopes of SAS byproducts (jarosite and gypsum) clearly show they derive from pyrite oxidation. Using XRD and micro-Raman spectroscopy, thirteen minerals were identified, including elemental sulfur, calcite, quartz, pyrite, goethite, gypsum, and fibroferrite, plus all of the six members of the jarosite subgroup (jarosite, argentojarosite, ammoniojarosite, hydroniumjarosite, natrojarosite, plumbojarosite). The Baume Galinière deposits are the first documented cave occurrence of argentojarosite and the second known occurrence of plumbojarosite, hydronium jarosite, ammoniojarosite, and fibroferrite. In the Vaucluse watershed, there were numerous upwellings of deep water along major faults, located at the contact of the karstic aquifer and the overlying impervious covers. The mixing of deep and meteoric waters at shallow depths caused pyrite depositions in numerous caves, including Baume Galinière. Sulfuric Acid Speleogenesis occurred later after base-level drop, when the cave was under shallow phreatic conditions then in the vadose zone, with oxidation of pyrites generating sulfuric acid. Attenuated oxidation is still occurring through condensation of moisture from incoming air. Baume Galinière Cave records the position of the semi-impervious paleo-cover and documents its retreat in relationship to valley incision caused by uplift and tilting of the Vaucluse block during the Neogene.


Quaternary faulting in the Tatra Mountains, evidence from cave morphology and fault-slip analysis, 2015, Szczygieł Jacek

Tectonically deformed cave passages in the Tatra Mts (Central Western Carpathians) indicate some fault activity during the Quaternary. Displacements occur in the youngest passages of the caves indicating (based on previous U-series dating of speleothems) an Eemian or younger age for those faults, and so one tectonic stage. On the basis of stress analysis and geomorphological observations, two different mechanisms are proposed as responsible for the development of these displacements. The first mechanism concerns faults that are located above the valley bottom and at a short distance from the surface, with fault planes oriented sub-parallel to the slopes. The radial, horizontal extension and vertical σ1 which is identical with gravity, indicate that these faults are the result of gravity sliding probably caused by relaxation after incision of valleys, and not directly from tectonic activity. The second mechanism is tilting of the Tatra Mts. The faults operated under WNW-ESE oriented extension with σ1 plunging steeply toward the west. Such a stress field led to normal dip-slip or oblique-slip displacements. The faults are located under the valley bottom and/or opposite or oblique to the slopes. The process involved the pre-existing weakest planes in the rock complex: (i) in massive limestone mostly faults and fractures, (ii) in thin-bedded limestone mostly inter-bedding planes. Thin-bedded limestones dipping steeply to the south are of particular interest. Tilting toward the N caused the hanging walls to move under the massif and not toward the valley, proving that the cause of these movements was tectonic activity and not gravity.


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