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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That flattener is a cave passage, which though wide, is so low that movement is only possible in a prone position [10]. see also crawl.?

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Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
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Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
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Your search for vaucluse (Keyword) returned 26 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 16 to 26 of 26
Recent results of the dye tracer tests of the Chocholowskie Vaucluse Spring karst system (Western Tatra Mts.), 2004, Barczyk G,
The region of the Bobrowiec Massif, crucial in underground flows within the Chocholowski Stream catchment area, was not studied in details until the 50ies. The Chocholowskie Vaucluse Spring is recharged mainly by karst systems, including that of the Szczelina Chocholowska - Jaskinia Rybia caves. The remaining 20% of water in the system comes from surface waters of the Chocholowski Stream. First successful dye tests were conducted on this system in 1971/1972. The paper presents data and interpretation of the recent dye-tracer experiments for the Chocholowskie Vaucluse Spring recharge area. The results of these tests prove that the connection between the Szczelina Chocholowska - Rybia caves karst system and the Chocholowskie Vaucluse Spring is of a karst-fissure character. This hydraulic connection is a typical example of a sub-channel circulation, where flow through a karst-fissure system takes place beneath the bottom of an existing river channel. Comparing the time of dye flow through the system with water stages indicates that the system of fissures linking the sinkhole zone with the vaucluse spring is at least three fold. The inverse relation between watermark stands reflecting the degree of watering in the massif and the time, at which dye penetrates the system, is also distinctly visible

The Pliocene lithophaga of the 'Fontaine de Vaucluse' karst spring (Vaucluse, France). An argument for a Messinian stage in the genesis of the largest French phreatic karst, 2004, Gilli E, Audra P,
The Pliocene lithophaga of the 'Fontaine de Vaucluse' karst spring (Vaucluse, France). An argument for a Messinian stage in the genesis of the largest French phreatic karst. The discovery of a level of lithophaga in the entrance of the karstic spring of the 'Fontaine de Vaucluse' indicates a pre-Pliocene age and supports a Messinian origin for the present spring. To cite this article: E. Gilli, P. Audra, C R. Geoscience 336 (2004). (C) 2004 Academie des sciences. Publie par Elsevier SAS. Tous droits reserves

The effect of the Messinian Deep Stage on karst development around the Mediterranean Sea. Examples from Southern France, 2004, Audra P, Mocochain L, Camus H, Gilli E, Clauzon G, Bigot Jy,
It is difficult to explain the position and behaviour of the main karst springs of southern France without calling on a drop in the water table below those encountered at the lowest levels of Pleistocene glacio-eustatic fluctuations. The principal karst features around the Mediterranean are probably inherited from the Messinian period ('Salinity crisis') when sea level dropped dramatically due to the closing of the Straight of Gibraltar and desiccation of the Mediterranean Sea. Important deep karst systems were formed because the regional ground water dropped and the main valleys were entrenched as canyons. Sea level rise during the Pliocene caused sedimentation in the Messinian canyons and water, under a low hydraulic head, entered the upper cave levels. The powerful submarine spring of Port-Miou is located south of Marseille in a drowned canyon of the Calanques massif. The main water flow comes from a vertical shaft that extends to a depth of more than 147 in bsl. The close shelf margin comprises a submarine karst plateau cut by a deep canyon whose bottom reaches 1,000 in bsl. The canyon ends upstream in a pocket valley without relation to any important continental valley. This canyon was probably excavated by the underground paleoriver of Port-Miou during the Messinian Salinity Crisis. Currently, seawater mixes with karst water at depth. The crisis also affected inland karst aquifers. The famous spring of Fontaine de Vaucluse was explored by a ROV (remote observation vehicle) to a depth of 308 in, 224 m below current sea level. Flutes observed on the wall of the shaft indicate the spring was formerly an air-filled shaft connected to a deep underground river flowing towards a deep valley. Outcroppings and seismic data confirm the presence of deep paleo-valleys filled with Pliocene sediments in the current Rhone and Durance valleys. In the Ardeche, several vauclusian springs may also be related to the Messinian Rhone canyon, located at about 200 in below present sea level. A Pliocene base level rise resulted in horizontal dry cave levels. In the hinterland of Gulf of Lion, the Cevennes karst margin was drained toward the hydrologic window opened by the Messinian erosional surface on the continental shelf

Temperature as a marker for karstic waters hydrodynamics. Inferences from 1 year recording at La Peyrere cave (Ariege, France), 2005, Genthon P, Bataille A, Fromant A, D'hulst D, Bourges F,
We present temperature measurements recorded at a 15 min time step between October 2002 and April 2003 inside the La Peyrere cave (Baget karstic system, Central Pyrenees) on six 0.01 degrees C sensitivity sensors distributed on the whole recognized cave, down to a depth of 57 m. Rainy events are associated to a steep signal of a few hundredth to a few tenth of degrees in amplitude starting 1 h to one day after rain, and with a sign depending mostly of the outside temperature. The temperature signal does not correlate well with the rainfall, while the water level does with a maximum water rising rate 2.5 h after rain. The spectral density of the temperature signal displays one peak at a period of 3 days, which is also present in the rain signal and which is likely to be related to climatic parameters, and a broad smooth zone of spectral energy close to a I day period. By comparing a 'superficial' and a 'deepest' group of sensors, we note that the flood signal is more pronounced on the deepest sensor group whatever the outside temperature, and that the annual temperature variation is also larger on this sensor group. This could indicate that rain water flows in the cave through its base and explain the development in depth of the cave. Due to the arrival of water with different temperatures and mineralizations at different levels, double diffusive convection is likely to be triggered in the cave. We suggest that the onset of convection could be associated to the oscillations observed on the temperature signal at the onset of the flood. (c) 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved

Modelling of the functioning of karst aquifers with a reservoir model: Application to Fontaine de Vaucluse (South of France), 2007, Fleury Perrine Plagnes Valé, Rie Bakalowicz Michel
This work deals with a rainfall-discharge model applied to a well known karst aquifer. A new approach is developed in order to minimize the fitting parameters: here, some of the model parameters do not result from a simple fitting, as it was the case with earlier models, i.e., some of them were assessed from the hydrograph analysis. The conceptual model of the functioning is based on a production function based on a simple calculation of effective rainfall and a transfer function consisting of two reservoirs. A slow discharge reservoir transfers the low flow and a rapid discharge reservoir feeds the high flow. The model has three fitted parameters plus one for its initialisation. Three parameters are deduced from the hydrograph analysis over the entire time series. For example, the recession coefficient of the slow discharge reservoir is determined from the hydrodynamic analysis of the recession [Mangin, A., 1975. Contribution à l?étude hydrodynamique des aquifères karstiques. 3ème partie. Constitution et fonctionnement des aquifères karstiques. Annales de Spéléologie, 30 (1), 210?124]. This model was tested over a ten years period on the Fontaine de Vaucluse French karst system. The first hydrological year is used for fitting the model; the nine other cycles validate the modelling. The good quality of the model is proved by the Nash criterion of 92.3% on the validation period. Moreover, the simulation results were validated by a statistical analysis of measured and simulated time series. The model successfully simulates both the high and low flow at the same time. Also it estimates the water volumes available in the different parts of the aquifer and it proposes a management tool capable of predicting the evolution of the discharge in different climate conditions.

Analysis of long-term (1878-2004) mean annual discharges of the karst spring Fontaine de Vaucluse (France), 2007, Bonacci, O.

Statistical analyses have been carried out on a long-term (1878-2004) series of mean annual discharges of the famous karst spring Fontaine de Vaucluse (France) and the mean annual rainfall in its catchment. The Fontaine de Vaucluse is a typical ascending karst spring situated in the south-eastern region of France. The spring has an average discharge of 23.3 m3/s. The average annual rainfall is 1096 mm. Its catchment area covers 1130 km2. Using the rescaled adjusted partial sums (RAPS) method the existence of next five statistically significant different sub-series was established: 1) 1878-1910: 2) 1911-1941; 3) 1942-1959: 4) 1960-1964; 5) 1965-2004. The different spring discharge characteristics during this long period (1878-2004) can be caused by natural climatic variations, by anthropogenic influences, and possibly by climate changes. At this moment it should be stressed that objective and scientifically based reasons for different hydrological behaviour in five time sub-periods could not be found.


Uzhla underground river a remarkable phenomenon of the Russian Plain, 2012, Kozlov, I.

This communication presents history of investigations of the phenomenon of the river and Vaucluse-type resurgence Uzhla in the Vologda region results of the speleo-diving expedition conducted in March 2012, aimed in studying of the resurgence. The result of expedition was a discovery of an underground river-bed of the river Uzhla – an extensive submarine cave at depth of 64-66 meters (from the water table at the source).


HYPOGENE SULFURIC ACID SPELEOGENESIS AND RARE SULFATE MINERALS (FIBROFERRITE, JAROSITE SUBGROUP) BAUME GALINIERE CAVE (ALPES-DE-HAUTE-PROVENCE, FRANCE), 2013, Audra P. Gá, Zquez F. Rull F. Bigot J. Y. Camus H.

 

The oxidation of sulfide sources (H2S gas, pyrite, hydrocarbons) produces sulfuric acid that strongly reacts with bedrock, causing limestone dissolution and complex interactions with other minerals. This type of cave development, known as sulfuric acid speleogenesis, is a subcategory of hypogenic speleogenesis, where aggressive water rises from depth. It also produces uncommon minerals, mainly sulfates. Baume Galinière is located in Southern France, in the Vaucluse spring watershed. This small maze cave displays characteristic features such as corrosion notches, calcite dikes and iron crusts, and sulfate minerals. Thirteen minerals were identified, including elemental sulfur, calcite, quartz, pyrite, goethite, gypsum, fibroferrite, plus all of the six members of the jarosite subgroup (jarosite, argentojarosite, ammoniojarosite, hydroniumjarosite, natrojarosite, plumbojarosite). The Baume Galinière deposits are the first documented cave occurrence of argentojarosite and the second known occurrence of plumbojarosite, hydronium jarosite, ammoniojarosite, and fibroferrite. Together with other hypogenic caves in the Vaucluse watershed, Baume Galinière Cave owes its origin in buried conditions to deep water rising along major faults, mixing with meteoric water at the contact of the karst aquifer and overlying impervious cover, and causing pyrite deposition. Sulfuric acid speleogenesis occurred later after base level drop, when the cave arrived in shallow phreatic then in vadose zone, with oxidation of pyrites involving sulfidic gases. Attenuated oxidation is still occurring through condensation of incoming air from outside. Baume Galinière Cave records the position of the paleo-cover and documents its retreat in relationship to valley incision caused by uplift and tilting of the Vaucluse block during Neogene.


HYPOGENIC SPELEOGENESIS WITH FERRUGINOUS ORE. THE PIEI MINE-CAVE (LAGNES, VAUCLUSE, FRANCE) SPELEOGENESI IPOGENICA IN UN GIACIMENTO DI FERRO. LA GROTTA MINIERA DI PIEI (LAGNES, VAUCLUSE, FRANCIA), 2013, Audra Philippe, Bigot Jeanyves, Camus Hubert, Gauchon Christophe, Wienin Michel

The Piei mine-cave (Lagnes, Vaucluse, France) locates at the contact of the Vaucluse Mounts and the Carpentras basin, close to the Fontaine de Vaucluse spring. It develops in Cretaceous limestone (Urgonian facies), close to a main regional lineament, the Salon-Cavaillon fault. The cave was mined in the XIXth Century, giving access to passages previously filled with diverse neogene sands and massive iron crusts. The exploitation mainly followed the natural passages. The origin of the cave is related to hypogenic flow rising from deep fissures or hydraulic breccias, with ferruginous deposition at the contact or on top of the neogene sands filling. Microbial activity was present during the cave activity, associated to the ferruginous deposits. This cave probably corresponds to the Neogene period, when the Vaucluse plateau was uplifted. The Piei mine-cave record the position of the corresponding base level and thus the progressive tilting of the massive, together with a range of similar caves located around the western edge of the Vaucluse Plateau


Hypogene Sulfuric Acid Speleogenesis and rare sulfate minerals in Baume Galini`ere Cave (Alpes-de-Haute-Provence, France). Record of uplift, correlative cover retreat and valley dissection, 2015, Audra Philippe, Gґazquez Fernando, Rull Fernando, Bigot Jeanyves, Camus Hubert

The oxidation of hydrocarbons and sulfide sources (H2S, pyrite) produces sulfuric acid that strongly reacts with bedrock, causing limestone dissolution and complex interactions with other minerals from the bedrock or from cave fillings, mainly clays. This type of cave development, known as Sulfuric Acid Speleogenesis (SAS), is a subcategory of hypogene speleogenesis, where aggressive water rises from depth. It also produces uncommon minerals, mainly sulfates, the typical byproducts of SAS. Baume Galinière is located in Southern France, in the Vaucluse spring watershed. This small maze cave displays characteristic SAS features such as corrosion notches, calcite geodes, iron crusts, and various sulfate minerals. Sulfur isotopes of SAS byproducts (jarosite and gypsum) clearly show they derive from pyrite oxidation. Using XRD and micro-Raman spectroscopy, thirteen minerals were identified, including elemental sulfur, calcite, quartz, pyrite, goethite, gypsum, fibroferrite, plus all of the six members of the jarosite subgroup (jarosite, argentojarosite, ammoniojarosite, hydroniumjarosite, natrojarosite, plumbojarosite). The Baume Galinière deposits are the first documented cave occurrence of argentojarosite and the second known occurrence of plumbojarosite, hydronium jarosite, ammoniojarosite, and fibroferrite. In the Vaucluse watershed, there were numerous upwellings of deep water along major faults, located at the contact of the karstic aquifer and the overlying impervious covers. The mixing of deep and meteoric waters at shallow depths caused pyrite depositions in numerous caves, including Baume Galinière. Sulfuric acid speleogenesis occurred later after base-level drop, when the cave was under shallow phreatic conditions then in the vadose zone, with oxidation of pyrites generating sulfuric acid. Attenuated oxidation is still occurring through condensation of moisture from incoming air. Baume Galinière Cave records the position of the semi-impervious paleo-cover and documents its retreat in relationship to valley incision caused by uplift and tilting of the Vaucluse block during the Neogene.


Hypogene Sulfuric Acid Speleogenesis and rare sulfate minerals in Baume Galinière Cave (Alpes-de-Haute-Provence, France). Record .., 2015, Audra P. , Gázquez F. , Rull F. , Bigot J. Y. , Camus H.

The oxidation of hydrocarbons and sulfide sources (H2S, pyrite) produces sulfuric acid that strongly reacts with bedrock, causing limestone dissolution and complex interactions with other minerals from the bedrock or from cave fillings, mainly clays. This type of cave development, known as Sulfuric Acid Speleogenesis (SAS), is a subcategory of hypogene speleogenesis, where aggressive water rises from depth. It also produces uncommon minerals, mainly sulfates, the typical byproducts of SAS. Baume Galinière is located in Southern France, in the Vaucluse spring watershed. This small maze cave displays characteristic SAS features such as corrosion notches, calcite geodes, iron crusts, and various sulfate minerals. Sulfur isotopes of SAS byproducts (jarosite and gypsum) clearly show they derive from pyrite oxidation. Using XRD and micro-Raman spectroscopy, thirteen minerals were identified, including elemental sulfur, calcite, quartz, pyrite, goethite, gypsum, and fibroferrite, plus all of the six members of the jarosite subgroup (jarosite, argentojarosite, ammoniojarosite, hydroniumjarosite, natrojarosite, plumbojarosite). The Baume Galinière deposits are the first documented cave occurrence of argentojarosite and the second known occurrence of plumbojarosite, hydronium jarosite, ammoniojarosite, and fibroferrite. In the Vaucluse watershed, there were numerous upwellings of deep water along major faults, located at the contact of the karstic aquifer and the overlying impervious covers. The mixing of deep and meteoric waters at shallow depths caused pyrite depositions in numerous caves, including Baume Galinière. Sulfuric Acid Speleogenesis occurred later after base-level drop, when the cave was under shallow phreatic conditions then in the vadose zone, with oxidation of pyrites generating sulfuric acid. Attenuated oxidation is still occurring through condensation of moisture from incoming air. Baume Galinière Cave records the position of the semi-impervious paleo-cover and documents its retreat in relationship to valley incision caused by uplift and tilting of the Vaucluse block during the Neogene.


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