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Enviroscan Ukrainian Institute of Speleology and Karstology


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Community news

Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That vrulje is (yugoslavian.) see submarine spring.?

Checkout all 2699 terms in the KarstBase Glossary of Karst and Cave Terms


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KarstBase a bibliography database in karst and cave science.

Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
See all featured articles
Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
See all featured articles from other geoscience journals

Search in KarstBase

Your search for fluviokarst (Keyword) returned 27 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 16 to 27 of 27
Fluviokarst, 2004,
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Gunn J.

Sediment storage and yield in an urbanized karst watershed, 2005,
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Hart Evan A. , Schurger Stephen G. ,
In karst watersheds, sinkholes and other drainage features control the temporal and spatial pattern of sediment storage across the landscape. However, studies dealing with sedimentation in karst watersheds are scarce and the sediment storage function of sinkholes and caves has not been investigated using a sediment budget approach. In this study, we use estimates of channel erosion, sinkhole sedimentation, and suspended sediment yield to examine changes in sediment storage in the 9 km2 Upper Pigeon Roost Creek fluviokarst watershed near Cookeville, TN. The study watershed has undergone urbanization over the last ~ 50 years, and sinkholes and caves in the area show signs of recent sedimentation (buried tree roots, buried cultural artifacts, etc.). While sinkholes are generally considered to be sediment sinks, sinkholes examined in this study are shown to cycle between periods of net sediment storage and net sediment loss. Using copyright dates on trash items buried in sinkhole deposits, we estimated the residence time of sinkhole-stored sediment to range from 6 to 10 years. However, other evidence indicates that some sinkholes may store sediment for several centuries. We propose that sediment storage within sinkholes is controlled by several factors including sinkhole drainage area, sinkhole morphology, and basin sediment yield. In addition, changes in sediment storage in karst watersheds are contingent upon random events such as sinkhole collapses. Annual sediment yield was estimated to be 111 Mg km- 2 year- 1 for the entire study watershed and ranged from 11 to 128 Mg km- 2 year- 1 for 3 sub-watersheds. Sediment eroded from the watershed, perhaps during historic settlement of the area, is stored within a large cave system underlying the city. However, the results of a partial sediment budget indicate that the cave is presently a net sediment source. Overall, the findings indicate that the sediment storage function of caves and sinkholes varies spatially and temporally, and that these changes need to be incorporated into sediment budgets for karst watersheds

Coastal karst geomorphosites at risk? A case study: the floods of 6-11 December 2004 in central-east Sardinia, 2007,
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Cossu A, De Waele J, Di Gregorio F,
Extreme rainfall causing floods and great damage occurred in many areas of central-east Sardinia in the period 6-11 December 2004. A total of approximately 700 mm of rain was measured during this extreme event, with a maximum reaching 510 mm of rainfall in 1 day at the rain gauge of Villagrande (Ogliastra). During and immediately after the event all fluviokarstic canyons were activated for at least 1 week, reaching the highest water levels in at least 50 years and reversing great quantities of sediment-loaded water onto the coast and with important geomorphical modifications. There was public fear that serious damage to the natural resources would occur, such as the famous Cala Luna beach that was almost completely destroyed by the flooding of the Codula Ilune River and by the coinciding sea storm. The river, in fact, eroded the longshore bar (beach) and destroyed the small backshore lagoon. A monitoring study has been initiated in order to analyse the natural evolution of this littoral system and to define the resilience of this interesting geomorphosite. The observations have shown that the flood, albeit impacting negatively in the moments immediately after the disaster, almost completely restored the natural equilibrium of this coastal karst geo-ecosystem within a season

Evolution and age relations of karst landscapes, 2007,
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White, W. B.

Any karst landscape is a work in progress. The observed evolution of the landscape is dictated by competing rate processes of surface denudation, stream downcutting, cave development, and tectonic uplift. quantitative data on these processes, applied to two physiographic provinces of the Appalachian Mountains of eastern United States gives ages and time scales that are in agreement with previous geomorphic interpretation. The results are anchored, very loosely, by the few dates that have been established for cave sediments. Unfortunately, the measured rates vary over an order of magnitude as a result of local circumstances making regional interpretation a rough approximation at best.


GEOMORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE MASSIF PRENJ, 2008,
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Lepirica Alen
The researched area of the mountain massif Prenj with surface of 463 km2 is located in the zone of high karst of Outer Dinarides of Bosnia and Herzegovina. It is circular mountain morphostructure with assymetrical transversal profile. Developed in Mesozoic subhorizontal layers of limestone and dolomite over 3500 thick, fissured by numerous reverse and normal faults. Prenj is folded-thrusted mountain massif (2103 m a.s.l.) uplifted during neotectonic phase of Dinarides development, structurally represented by three blocks. A high degree of correlation between lithology, fault structures and relief has been determinated. The main fault structures caused by rotation of Prenj blocks which were reflected on different orientations of stretching of the mountain ridges and composite valleys of Neretva, Konjika Bijela, Mostarska Bijela, Glogonica and Id-bar. Thrusts express tectonic, lithological, and morphological border of the considered mountain with inter mountain Neogene depressions in the North and South. Netectonic movements and dominanting carbonate composition of the terrain have influenced on reticular relief structure of the massif. Linear landforms of ridges formed in karst are neotectonically, rectilinearly and half-arc elongated up to 12 km. In regards to morphogenesis during the Quaternary, the massif is characterized by development: derasional, glacial, periglacial, karstic, fluviokarstic, fluviodenudational and fluvial erosional and accumulational processes and landforms. Finally, geomorphological regionalization of Prenj was made on the basis of the criteria of similarity of morpho-evolutionary, structural-lithological and orographical characteristics.

Karst drainage relations with catchment land use change, Mole Creek, Tasmania, Australia, 2008,
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Hunter, Deborah L, Trevor W Lewis And Joanna Ellison.
Since 2001, the previously perennial Parsons' Spring of the Mole Creek fluviokarst in northwestern Tasmania, Australia, has become intermittent in discharge. This change follows the establishment of 636 ha of eucalypt plantations since 1995 above the Spring, including where Quaternary slope deposits obscure the geological contact of the limestone with overlying rocks. In this 2008 study, water quality was compared and contrasted between Parsons' Spring and other sites in the study catchment and a resurgence in a nearby reference catchment over different flow conditions and in response to a rainstorm. Results show that the study spring has a mixed recharge regime and complex discharge controls, including diffuse and conduit hydrological components. Parsons' Spring is probably the main wet season overflow spring of a distributary system connected to the phreatic aquifer underlying the area. Apparent chemical 'signatures' indicating soil disturbance in the study spring's waters implied the presence of an epikarst reservoir beneath the slope deposits cultivated for plantation establishment. Given their location, extent and growth stage, the plantations are expected to reduce aquifer recharge substantially by 2013-2018 as interception of recharge increases. The consequent reduction of available aquifer yield would result in economic stress for the rural community and compromise of karst ecosystems. (This paper was first presented audio-visually at a conference of the Australian Speleological Federation in January 2009, and a shorter version has been submitted for the conference proceedings).

The evolution of Appalachian fluviokarst: competition between stream erosion, cave development, surface denudation, and tectonic uplift, 2009,
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White W. B.
The long and complex depositional and tectonic history of the Appalachians has produced a substrate of folded and faulted sandstones, shales, and carbonate rocks (leaving aside the metamorphic and igneous core). The Appalachian fluviokarst is an evolving landscape developed on the carbonate rocks. The erosion of surface streams competes with dissolutional processes in the carbonate rocks, and both compete with tectonic uplift of the eastern margin of the North American plate. The Appalachians have undergone erosion since the Jurassic and 5 to 15 kmof sediment have been removed.Many karst landscapes have come and gone during this time period. The earliest cosmogenic- isotope dates place the oldest Appalachian caves in the early Pliocene. Various interpretations and back-calculations extend the recognizable topography to the mid to lateMiocene.Much of the present-day karst landscape was created during the Pleistocene. There have been many measurements and estimates of the rate of denudation of karst surfaces by dissolution of the carbonate bedrock and many estimates of the rate of downcutting of surface streams. Curiously, both of these estimates give similar values (in the range of 30 mm ka21 ), in spite of the differences in the erosional processes. These rates are somewhat higher than present-day rates of tectonic uplift, leaving the contemporary landscape the result of a balance between competing processes. Introduction of tectonic forces into the interpretation of karst landscapes requires consideration of the long-term uplift rates. In the Davisian point of view, uplift was episodic, with short periods of rapid uplift followed by long static periods that allowed the development of peneplains. In the Hackian point of view, uplift has occurred at a more or less constant rate, so that present topography ismainly the result of differential erosion rates. Attempts to back-calculate the development of karst landscapes requires a conceptual model somewhere between these rather extreme points of view.

Flash flood hydrology in karstic terrain: Flumineddu Canyon, central-east Sardinia, 2010,
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De Waele Jo, Martina Mario L. V. , Sanna Laura, Cabras Salvatore, Cossu Quirico Antonio

In the last five winters (2004–2008) several exceptional meteorological events producing flash floods have been registered in central-east Sardinia. The first of these (December 2004) was the most severe and caused important geomorphic changes in the Riu Flumineddu watershed where the influence of human activity is limited. The hydrological characterisation of this flood is extremely difficult because of the lack of streamflow gauges and the relative paucity of meteorological stations in the region. Peak discharge of the fluviokarstic Riu Flumineddu Canyon has been estimated based on a distributed hydrological model (TOPKAPI) and on empirical methods based on geomorphic and sedimentological observations. The comparison between the results derived from these independent methods allows us to obtain the best possible estimate of peak discharge. Differences between modelled and measured peak flows can be attributed to water losses and/or gains along the river channel from interactions with the underground karst drainage network.

The December 2004 flood, with an estimated recurrence interval of at least 65 years, generated overbank flow and destroyed several bridges in upstream reaches, caused important changes in channel morphology and sediment distribution and was able to move boulders up to 1 m in diameter in downstream reaches.


Identifying the Stream Erosion Potential of Cave Levels in Carter Cave State Resort Park, Kentucky, USA, 2011,
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Jacoby B. S. , Peterson E. W. , Dogwiler T.

Cave levels, passages found at similar elevations and formed during the same constant stream base level event, reveal information about paleoclimates and karst geomorphology. The investigation presented here examines how Stream Power Index (SPI) relates to cave levels. The study area, Carter Caves State Resort Park (CCSRP), is a fluviokarst system in northeastern Kentucky containing multiple cave levels. SPI determines the erosive power overland flow based on the assumption that flow accumulation and slope are proportional to potential for sediment entrainment. Part of this digital terrain analysis requires the creation of a flow accumulation raster from a digital elevation model (DEM). In creating the flow accumulation raster, one has the option to fill depressions (also considered errors) within the DEM. Filling these depressions, or “sinks,” creates a well-connected stream network; however it also removes possible sinkholes from the DEM. This paper also investigates the effects a filled and an unfilled DEM have on SPI and what each reveals about erosion potential in the area. The data shows that low elevations within the filled DEM maintain a high SPI value when compared to the unfilled DEM. The filled DEM also created a stream network similar to reality. The unfilled DEM demonstrated similar SPI results between all levels, indicating a well-connected karst system. In order to truly understand the mechanics of this system, a combination of these two DEMs is required.


Using Geographic Information System to Identify Cave Levels and Discern the Speleogenesis of the Carter Caves Karst Area, Kentucky, 2011,
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Peterson E. , Dogwiler T. , Harlan L.

Cave level delineation often yields important insight into the speleogenetic history of a karst system. Various workers in the Mammoth Cave System (MCS) and in the caves of the Cumberland Plateau Karst (CPK) have linked cave level development in those karst systems with the Pleistocene evolution of the Ohio River. This research has shown that speleogenesis was closely related to the base level changes driven by changes in global climate. The Carter Caves Karst (CCK) in northeastern Kentucky has been poorly studied relative to the MCS to the west and the CPK karst to the east. Previously, no attempt had been made to delineate speleogenetic levels in the CCK and relate them to the evolution of the Ohio River. In an attempt to understand cave level development in CCK we compiled cave entrance elevations and locations. The CCK system is a fluviokarst typical of many karst systems formed in the Paleozoic carbonates of the temperate mid-continent of North America. The CCK discharges into Tygarts Creek, which ultimately flows north to join the Ohio River. The lithostratigraphic context of the karst is the Mississippian Age carbonates of the Slade Formation. Karst development is influenced by both bedding and structural controls. We hypothesize that cave level development is controlled by base level changes in the Ohio River, similar to the relationships documented in MCS and the karst of the Cumberland Plateau The location and elevation of cave entrances in the CCK was analyzed using a GIS and digital elevation models (DEMs). Our analysis segregated the cave entrances into four distinct elevation bands that we are interpreting as distinct cave levels. The four cave levels have mean elevations (relative to sea level) of 228 m (L1), 242 m (L2), 261 m (L3), and 276 m (L4). The highest level—L4—has an average elevation 72 m above the modern surface stream channel. The lowest level—L1—is an average of 24 m above the modern base level stream, Tygarts Creek. The simplest model for interpreting the cave levels is as a response to an incremental incision of the surface streams in the area and concomitant adjustment of the water table elevation. The number of levels we have identified in the CCK area is consistent with the number delineated in the MCS and CPK. We suggest that this points toward the climatically-driven evolution of the Ohio River drainage as controlling the speleogenesis of the CCK area 


Karst, 2012,
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Jones William K. , White William B.

The word karst is a Germanized form of the name of a carbonate plateau that is situated above the Adriatic Sea immediately to the east of Trieste, Italy. The term has been generalized as a label for any similar region. The distribution of karst landscapes over the Earth’s surface to a large extent follows the distribution of carbonate (limestone and dolomite) and gypsum rocks, and together these make up about 15% of the Earth’s land area. Karst regions are characterized by a unique set of landforms including closed depressions, deranged drainage, sculptured bedrock surface, and residual hills. Karst regions also differ from other geomorphic regions by the presence of cave systems in the subsurface. In general, surface karst features are more pronounced in regions where the caves have direct hydrologic connections to the land immediately overlying the caves and the surface and subsurface features develop more or less simultaneously.


Paleoflood events recorded by speleothems in caves, 2014,
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Gazquez F. , Calaforra J. M. , Forti P. , Stoll H. , Ghaleb B. , Delgadohuertas A.

Speleothems are usually composed of thin layers of calcite (or aragonite). However,
cemented detrital materials interlayered between laminae of speleothemic carbonate have been also observed in many caves. Flowstones comprising discontinuous carbonate layers form due to flowing water films,while flood events introduce fluviokarstic sediments in caves that, on occasion,are recorded as clayey layers inside flowstones and stalagmites. This record provides a potential means of understand­ing the frequency of palaeofloods using cave records.In this work,we investigate the origin of this type of detritaldeposit in El Soplao Cave (Northern Spain). The age of the lowest aragonite layer
of a flowstone reveals that the earliest flood period occurred before 500 ka, though most of the flowstone formed between 422 +69/-43 ka and 400 +66/-42 ka. This suggests that the cave was periodically affected by palaeoflood events that introduced detrital sediments from the surface as a result of occasional extreme rainfall events,especially at around 400 ka.The mineralogical data enable an evolutionary modelfor this flowstone to be generated based on the alternation offload events with laminar flows and carbonate layers precipitation that can be extrapolated to other caves in which detrital sediments inside speleothems have been found. 


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