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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

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That normal depth is the depth at which uniform flow occurs in an open channel [16].?

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Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
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Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
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Your search for california (Keyword) returned 28 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 16 to 28 of 28
Stable isotope variations in the Neoproterozoic Beck Spring Dolomite and Mesoproterozoic Mescal Limestone paleokarst: Implications for life on land in the Precambrian, 2001, Kenny Ray, Knauth L. Paul,
Proterozoic karst events lowered {delta}13C values by as much as 11{per thousand} for the 800 Ma Beck Spring Dolomite, California, and as much as 8.5{per thousand} for the 1.1 Ga Mescal Limestone, central Arizona, relative to the originally deposited carbonate. The 13C changes are attributed to input of 13C-depleted organic CO2 derived from photosynthetic organisms that colonized the ancient land surface. The large isotopic shift and its presence at two separate localities suggest that Proterozoic karst surfaces were colonized by significant photosynthetic communities with phytomasses possibly approaching those of today

Collapse of the California Current during glacial maxima linked to climate change on land., 2001, Hertbert T. D. , Schuffert J. D. , Andreasen D. Et Al.

Soil carbon dioxide in a summer-dry subalpine karst, Marble Mountains, California, USA, 2001, Davis J, Amato P, Kiefer R,
Studies of the seasonality, spatial variation and geomorphic effects of Soil CO2 concentrations in a summer-dry subalpine karst landscape in the Marble Mountains, Klamath National Forest, California, demonstrate the significance of soil moisture as a limiting factor. Modeled actual evapotranspiration (AET) in the four weeks prior to sampling explains 36% of the observed soil-CO2 concentrations, pointing to the importance of root respiration processes in these systems. Late snows are significant in controlling the timing of a snowmelt-initiated pulse of respiration and groundwater. CO2 concentrations were measured at multiple sites in two seasons - 1995 and 1997 - with contrasting patterns of snowmelt. Other than wet-meadow anomalies, where CO2 concentrations reached up to 3.8% in midsummer, alpine meadows on schist were the sites of the highest spring peak concentrations of approximately 1%. Forest sites and sites with thin soils on marble typically peaked at approximately 0.5%, also within a month of snowmelt exposure. Ongoing karstification in the upper bare karst is focused in soil-filled grikes where late-season snowmelt concentrates flow during high-respiration periods, but the lack of active speleothem development suggests that the carbonate solution system is greatly reduced from preglacial periods

Hurricane Crawl Cave: A GIS-Based Cave Management Plan Analysis and Review, 2002, Despain, J. , Fryer, S.
With the goal of minimizing impact to rare, fragile, and significant cave resources, this paper compares the location of such features in Hurricane Crawl Cave, Sequoia National Park, California, to the open and unrestricted areas of the cave as defined by the Hurricane Crawl Cave Management Plan. geographic information systems (GIS) analysis provided statistical data on the relationship of chosen key features and resources to caver travel corridors and open areas, and thus, allowed an unbiased assessment of the appropriateness of travel closures and management restrictions. Using buffer analysis around these features, we determined that the existing plan for the cave addresses the protection of cave speleothems and paleontological features, but is not adequate in the protection of areas of biological significance.

Stratigraphic investigations of carbon isotope anomalies and Neoproterozoic ice ages in Death Valley, California, 2003, Corsetti Fa, Kaufman Aj,
An unusual richness of biogeochemical events is recorded in Neoproterozoic-Cambrian strata of the Death Valley region, California, United States. Eight negative carbon isotope ({delta}13C) excursions are found in carbonate units between 1.08 Ga and the Precambrian/Cambrian boundary; four of these excursions occur in carbonates that contain textural features similar to those found globally in postglacial 'cap carbonates' (including one or more of the following: laminite with rollup structures, apparent 'tube rocks,' seafloor precipitates, and sheet-crack cements). However, only two of these units, the Sourdough limestone member of the Kingston Peak Formation and the Noonday Dolomite, rest directly upon glacial strata. The basal Beck Spring Dolomite and the Rainstorm Member of the Johnnie Formation each contain negative excursions and cap-carbonate-like lithofacies, but do not rest on known glacial deposits. If the negative {delta}13C excursions are assumed to record depositional processes, two equally interesting hypotheses are possible: (1) The Death Valley succession records four glacial pulses in Neoproterozoic time, but glacial units are not preserved at two stratigraphic levels. (2) Alternatively, other global oceanographic processes can cause negative excursions and cap-carbonate-like facies in addition to, or independent of, glaciation

Use of stable isotopes to quantify flows between the Everglades and urban areas in Miami-Dade County Florida, 2004, Wilcox W. M. , Sologabriele H. M. , Sternberg L. O. R. ,
An isotopic study was performed to assess the movement of groundwater for a site located in Miami-Dade County, Florida. The site encompasses portions of a protected wetland environment (northeast Everglades National Park) and suburban residential Miami, incorporating municipal pumping wells and lakes formed by rock mining. Samples of ground, surface, and rainwater were analyzed for their isotopic composition (oxygen-18 and deuterium). Various analytical and graphical techniques were used to analyze this data and two conceptual box models were developed to quantify flows between different regions within the site. Results from this study indicate that the aquifer underlying the study site (the Biscayne aquifer) is highly transmissive with the exception of two semi-confining layers of reduced hydraulic conductivity. Everglades surface water infiltrates into the aquifer and migrates east toward residential areas. In these urban areas, 'shallow' groundwater (above the deeper semi-confining layer) is substantially affected by urban rainfall while 'deep' groundwater (below the deeper semi-confining layer) maintains a composition similar to that of Everglades water. Rock mining lakes in the area provide 'breaks' in the semi-confining layers that allow for mixing of shallow and deep groundwater. As water travels eastward, municipal well intakes, screened to a depth below the deeper semi-confining layer, draw upon not only shallow urban water (predominantly comprised of urban rainfall) and lake water (having influences from both urban rainfall and Everglades water) but also deep water that originated in the Everglades. Results from one of the box models estimate that over 60% of the water being removed by municipal pumping originated in the Everglades. These conclusions suggest that Everglades water, both directly through deep groundwater flow and indirectly through mixing with rock-mining lakes, is being drawn into the operating municipal wellfield.

Geomorphic history of Crystal Cave, Southern Sierra Nevada, California., 2005, Despain J. D. , Stock G. M.
Cave development in mountainous regions is influenced by a number of factors, including steep catchments, highly variable allogenic recharge, large sediment fluxes, and rapid rates of canyon downcutting. Caves can help to quantify this latter process, provided their ages are determined. Here we investigate the history of 4.8 km long Crystal Cave, a complex, multiple level cave in the Sierra Nevada, through detailed geomorphic and geochronologic investigations. Crystal Cave is composed of six major levels spanning 64 m in elevation. The levels are comprised of large, low gradient conduit tubes, and are connected by numerous narrow, steeply descending canyon passages. Passages in the upstream end of the cave are significantly modified by collapse, while in the downstream section they are intact with an anastomotic maze overprinting. Dye tracing confirms that the cave stream originates from partial sinking of Yucca Creek to the north. Passage gradients, wall scallops, and sediment imbrication indicate that groundwater flowed consistently southeast through time, forming cave levels as bedrock incision of Cascade Creek lowered local base level. Although modern cave stream discharges are restricted to ~0.03 m3 s?1, likely due to passage collapse near the sink point ca. 0.5 million years ago (Ma), bedrock scallops and coarse clastic sediment in upper levels indicate paleodischarges as much as three orders of magnitude greater prior to that time. Infrequent high discharge flood events played an important role in passage development and sediment transport. Cosmogenic 26Al/10Be burial dating of sediment suggest that the majority of Crystal Cave formed rapidly between ca. 1.2 and 0.5 Ma; rates of cave development approach theoretical maximums, presumably due to a combination of allogenic recharge highly under-saturated with respect to calcite, and physical erosion by transported sediment.

Rates of erosion and topographic evolution of the Sierra Nevada, California, inferred from cosmogenic Al-26 and Be-10 concentrations, 2005, Stock G. M. , Anderson R. S. , Finkel R. C. ,
Concentrations of cosmogenic Al-26 and Be-10 in cave sediments and bedrock surfaces, combined with studies of landscape morphology, elucidate the topographic history of the southern Sierra Nevada over the past 5 Ma. Caves dated by Al-26/Be-10 in buried sediments reveal that river incision rates were moderate to slow between c. 5 and 3 Ma (<= 0.07 mm a(-1)), accelerated between 3 and 1.5 Ma (c. 0.3 ram a(-1)), and then have subsequently become much slower (c. 0.02 mm a(-1)). Although the onset of accelerated incision coincides in time with both,postulated Pliocene tectonism and pronounced global climate change, we argue that it primarily represents the response to a discrete tectonic event between 3 and 5 Ma. Dated cave positions reveal that, prior to 3 Ma, river canyons displayed up to 1.6 km of local relief, suggesting that Pliocene rock uplift elevated pre-existing topography. Renewed incision beginning c. 3 Ma deepened canyons by up to 400 m, creating narrow inner gorges. Tributary streams exhibit strong convexities, indicating that the transient erosional response to Pliocene uplift has not yet propagated into upland surfaces. Concentrations of Al-26 and Be-10 in bare bedrock show that upland surfaces are eroding at slow rates of c. 0.01 mm a(-1). Over the past c. 3 Ma, upland surfaces eroded slowly while adjacent rivers incised rapidly, increasing local relief. Although relief production probably drove at least modest crestal uplift, considerable pre-Pliocene relief and low spatially averaged erosion rates suggest that climatically driven rock uplift is not sufficient to explain ail uplift implied by tilted markers at the western edge of the range. Despite the recent pulse of erosion, spatially averaged erosion rates are low, and have probably acted to preserve the broad topographic form of the Sierra Nevada throughout much of the late Cenozoic. Copyright (c) 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd

Coastal cave in Bahamain eolian calcarenites: Differentiating between sea caves and flank margin caves using quantitative morphology, 2010, Waterstrat, Willapa J. , Mylroie, John E. , Owen, Athena M. And Mylroie, Joan R.

Coastal areas on carbonate islands commonly contain two types of caves: sea caves developed by wave erosion processes, and flank margin caves developed by dissolution at the edge of the fresh-water lens. Differentiating sea caves and flank margin caves in coastal settings is important, but can it be done reliably and quantitatively? Current methods use the degree of intricate wall-rock dissolution and the presence or absence of dense calcite speleothems to separate the two cave types. This study reports how analysis of cave maps creates three separate tools to differentiate coastal caves: area to perimeter ratio, entrance width to maximum width ratio, and rectangle short axis to long axis ratio. The study also presents some of the first sea cave data from eogenetic carbonate islands, specifically eolian calcarenites. The morphological and geometrical comparisons between Bahamian flank margin cave and sea cave maps using the three tools allows the two cave types to be statistically differentiated. The Bahamian sea cave data were also compared to sea cave data from California and Maine to demonstrate that Bahamian sea caves have a unique quantitative signature based on the youth and homogeneity of the host eolian calcarenite rock. The Bahamian sea cave data also indicate that sea cave formation may not be solely determined by differential rock weaknesses, as reported in the literature, but may also be a result of wave dynamics such as constructive interference.


A New Genus of the Subfamily Cubacubaninae (Insecta: Zygentoma: Nicoletiidae) from Caves in South-Central and Southwestern USA, 2010, Espinasa Luis, Furst Stephen, Allen Thomas, Slay Michael E.

The genus Speleonycta is erected, and S. ozarkensis, n. sp., is described and separated from other species of the subfamily Cubacubaninae. The type species was collected from several caves in the Ozark Plateau, while two more species, collected from a cave in Arizona and from a cave in California, remain under study. Morphology and preliminary analyses using histone DNA indicate that the new genus may be related to Texoreddellia, another nicoletiid from caves of Texas and northern Mexico.


Cave Millipeds of the United States. IX. A New Species of the Genus Taiyutyla (Diplopoda, Chordeumatida, Conotylidae) from Caves in Sequoia and Yosemite National Parks, California, USA, 2011, Shear William A. , Krejca Jean K.

During surveys of cave life in Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Parks and
Yosemite National Park, Taiyutyla loftinae, a new species of conotylid milliped, was collected and is described below. The new species occurs in eleven marble caves distributed throughout Sequoia National Park (Tulare County, California), two granite talus caves, and a single surface locality in Yosemite National Park (Mariposa County, California) and is best considered troglophilic, not troglobitic.


Quantifying Concentrated and Diffuse Recharge in Two Marble Karst Aquifers: Big Spring and Tufa Spring, Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Parks, California, USA, 2012, Tobin B. , Schwartz B. ,

To improve water management in mountain systems, it is essential that we understand how water moves through them. Researchers have documented the importance of porous-media aquifers in mountain river systems, but no previous research has explicitly included mountain karst as part of conceptual models. To do so, we used discharge and geochemical parameters measured along upstreamto- downstream transects under high- and low-flow conditions in 2010 to assess storage characteristics and geochemical properties of two mountain marble-karst systems, the Big Spring and Tufa Spring systems in Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Parks, California. During both high- and low-flow conditions, we quantified the relative contributions of concentrated and diffuse recharge in both karst systems, and we used a simple linear mixing model to calculate specific conductance in unsampled diffuse sources that ranged from 34 mS cm21 to 257 mS cm21. Data show that the Big Spring system has a much higher seasonal storage capacity than the Tufa Spring system, and that diffuse sources dominate discharge and geochemistry under baseflow conditions in both aquifer systems. Baseflow in Big Spring was 0.114 m3 s21 and in Tufa Spring it was 0.022 m3 s21. Snowmelt-derived allogenic recharge dominates both systems during high discharge periods, measured at Big Spring as 0.182 m3 s21 and Tufa Spring as 0.220 m3 s21. A conceptual model is proposed that explicitly includes the effects of karst aquifers on mountain hydrology when karst is present in the basin.


Spatial and temporal changes in invertebrate assemblage structure from the entrance to deep-cave zone of a temperate marble cave, 2013, Tobin Benjamin W. , Hutchins Benjamin T. , Schwartz Benjamin F.

Seasonality in surface weather results in seasonal temperature and humidity changes in caves. Ecological and physiological differences among trogloxenes, troglophiles, and troglobionts result in species-dependent responses to this variability. To investigate these responses, we conducted five biological inventories in a marble cave in the Sierra Nevada Range, California, USA between May and December 2010. The cave was divided into six quadrats and temperature was continuously logged in each (humidity was logged at the entrance and in the deep cave). With increasing distance from the entrance, temperature changes were increasingly attenuated and lagged relative to surface temperature. Linear regressions were created to determine the relationship between measured environmental variables and diversity for cavernicoles (troglobionts and troglophiles) and trogloxenes cave– wide and in the transition zone. Diversity for cavernicoles and trogloxenes peaked in the entrance and deep cave zones, respectively. Quadrat, date, 2-week antecedent temperature average, 2-week antecedent temperature range, and trogloxene abundance explained 76% of cavernicole diversity variability. Quadrat explained 55% of trogloxene diversity variability. In the transition zone, trogloxene abundance explained 26% of cavernicole variability and 2-week antecedent temperature and 2-week antecedent temperature range explained 40% of trogloxene variability. In the transition zone, trogloxene diversity was inversely related to 2-week antecedent temperature average and 2-week antecedent temperature range, suggesting that species were moving into the transition zone when temperature was most stable. In a CCA of cavernicoles distribution data and environmental variables, 35% of variation in species-specific distributions was attributable to quadrat, and non-significant percentages were explained by date and environmental variables. Differences in assemblage structure among quadrats were largely due to differences between distributions of trogloxenes and cavernicoles, but responses varied among species. Differences are likely due to ecological niche width, physiological constraints, and competition.


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